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Reconstruction, Part 2

  • Republicans ruled in the South and between 1868-1871 all the s. states met the congressional stipulations & rejoined the Union
  • Southern white Republicans were called “scalawags,” (an ancient Scots-Irish term for runty, worthless animals) by Dem. ex-Confederates; white Northerners who moved to the South were called “carpetbaggers,” (self-seeking interlopers who carried all their property in cheap suitcases called carpetbags
  • Some problems with Reconstruction: Reconstruction gov’s debts mounted rapidly, and public credit collapsed; much of the spending was wasted or ended up in the pockets of state officials
  • Promises of “40 acres & a mule” were mostly broken although about 14,000 black families acquired farms. Many, however, were landless
  • Sharecropping was a distinctive labor system for cotton agriculture in which the freedmen worked as tenant farmers, exchanging
  • The undoing of Reconstruction was as much about northern acquiescence as it was about southern resistance; Dems worked hard to get the vote restored to ex-Confederates, appealing to racial solidarity & southern patriotism & attacking black suffrage as a threat to white supremacy
  • Violence and backlash against African Americans and Republicans spread throughout the South due to activities by the KKK and other white terrorist groups
  • Grant became president in 1872, but his administration was riddled with corruption and scandal, such as the Credit Mobilier Scandal
  • Reconstruction officially ends once Rutherford B. Hayes won the election and a deal was made, allowing him to be president in exchange for a promise for home rule in the South.

Reconstruction, Part 2

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Women's Suffrage Denied
      • Out in the Cold
        • Republican Rule in the South
        • Martial Law in the South
          • The Republican Program
          • Republican Reconstruction
          • African Americans Take a Greater Role in Politics
          • African Americans in Government
          • The Quest of Land
          • Sharecropping
          • Violence in the South: Backlash
          • Worse Than Slavery
            • One Vote Less
              • Democratic Backlash
                • Prosecuting the KKK
                • The Undoing of Reconstruction
                • The End of Reconstruction
                • Grant Wins and Scandals Ensue
                • Depression
                • Grantism
                • The Political Crisis of 1877
                • The End of Reconstruction
                • Example 1
                  • Example 2
                    • Example 3
                      • Intro 0:00
                      • Overview 0:06
                      • Women's Suffrage Denied 1:24
                        • Women's Suffrage
                        • National Women's Suffrage Association
                        • Modern Feminist Movement
                      • Out in the Cold 3:57
                      • Republican Rule in the South 5:38
                        • Congressional Stipulations
                        • Scalawags
                        • Carpetbaggers
                      • Martial Law in the South 8:36
                      • The Republican Program 9:39
                        • Black Officeholders
                        • Modernized State Constitutions
                        • Tax Assessors and Collectors
                      • Republican Reconstruction 11:20
                        • Public Credit Collapsed
                        • Education as the Foundation
                        • New African American Churches
                      • African Americans Take a Greater Role in Politics 14:16
                        • Greater Role in Politics
                        • The Assemble will Demand Revenge
                        • Robert Brown Elliot
                      • African Americans in Government 16:15
                        • Hiram Revels
                        • Robert Smalls
                        • Blanche K. Bruce
                        • African American Majority
                      • The Quest of Land 18:00
                        • Overcome Poverty
                        • Southern Homestead Act of 1866
                        • Ex-Confederates
                      • Sharecropping 20:04
                        • Sharecropping
                        • A Lien on the Crop
                        • A Pretext for Peonage
                        • Barrow Plantation
                        • Ownership of Land after Reconstruction
                        • Devastating to Southern Agriculture
                      • Violence in the South: Backlash 25:02
                        • Counterrevolution
                        • A Threat to White Supremacy
                        • Nathan Bedford Forrest
                        • The KKK Act of 1871
                      • Worse Than Slavery 28:36
                      • One Vote Less 29:51
                      • Democratic Backlash 30:21
                      • Prosecuting the KKK 30:56
                        • The Klan
                        • Prosecuting Klansmen
                        • Democrats Overthrew Republicans Government
                      • The Undoing of Reconstruction 33:04
                        • Redeemers
                        • Massive Black Barbarism
                        • The Civil Rights Bill
                      • The End of Reconstruction 35:08
                        • Selling Their Votes for Money
                        • Refashioned Themselves as Liberals
                        • Grant Turned a Blind Eye
                      • Grant Wins and Scandals Ensue 37:11
                        • Whiskey Ring
                        • White House
                        • Credit Mobiler
                      • Depression 39:20
                        • The Bankruptcy of the Northern Pacific Railway
                        • Freedman's Savings and Trust Company
                        • Lost its Moral Claim on the Country
                      • Grantism 41:13
                        • Scandal-Ridden Administration
                        • Triumphant Foreign Tour
                      • The Political Crisis of 1877 41:46
                        • Home Rule
                        • Disputed Votes to Hayes
                        • Hayes was Inaugurated
                      • The End of Reconstruction 43:23
                        • Compromise of 1877
                        • 3 Rights-Defining Amendments
                      • Example 1 45:01
                      • Example 2 46:12
                      • Example 3 47:52

                      Transcription: Reconstruction, Part 2

                      Welcome back to

                      This lesson is on the second part of Reconstruction.0003

                      In this lesson, we are going to talk about the significance of the passing of the 15th Amendment,0009

                      and how women's suffragettes will be very disappointed that women's suffrage rights were not included in the 15th Amendment.0014

                      That is going to be an important issue to touch upon in this lesson.0025

                      We are also going to talk about the role of African-Americans during what was known as Black Reconstruction.0032

                      We are going to talk about Republican rule in the south and how southern democrats, in particular, southerners respond to Republican rule.0039

                      Then, we are going to talk about how African-Americans former slaves were seeking land,0048

                      and were on a quest for land and talk about the successes and failures in that quest.0054

                      Then, we are going to continue to talk about the backlash against Reconstruction and highlight the violence that spread throughout the south.0061

                      We are going to talk about the importance of Ulysses S. Grant, and what became known as Grantism.0071

                      And conclude our lesson with the end of Reconstruction, what brings the reconstruction era to an end.0076

                      The first topic that I want to cover is to talk about the 15th Amendment.0085

                      Do keep in mind that the 15th Amendment was actually passed in 1869, I did not include the separate slide on this, and then ratified in 1870.0094

                      And ultimately, this involved suffrage rights for all male citizens.0112

                      They could have added gender in there, or sex, to change the meaning of that law or that Amendment.0121

                      We are going to see that African-American men are afforded the right to vote0135

                      and that will be viewed as an important accomplishment during the reconstruction era.0141

                      However, we are going to see a lot of limits and we will get into that a little bit later.0147

                      But we are going to see after the 15th Amendment was ratified,0151

                      that women's rights activists were outraged that the 15th Amendment did not include and not address women's suffrage.0157

                      At the 1869 annual meeting at the Equal Rights Association was with Kady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony spoke out against the Amendment.0167

                      Not that they were not supportive of African-American rights and suffrage, it is just that they wanted to also be included.0176

                      The majority led by Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howell of the American Woman Suffrage Association,0184

                      accepted the priority of black suffrage over woman suffrage.0190

                      There is going to be a bit of a divide in the women's movement.0195

                      Stanton's new organization, the National Women's Suffrage Association accepted only women0198

                      and focused exclusively on women's rights, and took up the battle for Federal women's suffrage amendment.0204

                      With the fracture of the women's movement, we are going to see that this will obscure the common ground onto two sides.0211

                      But the issues raised during radical Reconstruction planted the seeds of the modern feminist movement.0218

                      We will see that suffragettes and women's rights activists will continue their work, but this is going to hold them back for the time being.0226

                      And certainly be a source of frustration for feminists.0237

                      Here is a cartoon that is depicting that frustration, it is called, Out in the Cold.0244

                      In most states, women did not have the right to vote, there are a couple of exceptions.0254

                      Wyoming and Utah actually fully enfranchised women.0258

                      This cartoon also brings up another theme obviously, there are certain immigrant groups,0263

                      certain racial groups that were afforded the right to vote.0270

                      Around the same time, immigration laws, naturalization laws were being revised.0275

                      And men of African descent, believe it or not, were allowed to become citizens, but not Asians.0281

                      You can see here, kind of the xenophobia that was also present, as well as sexism.0289

                      She also, if you notice the woman here who was out in the cold, she is unable to participate in the polls.0297

                      She looks kind of manly, kind of the stereotypical manly caricature.0304

                      This is supposed be an Asian, more than likely Chinese person who was trying to also vote but is being left out in the cold.0312

                      The sign here, women and China men not admitted, they cannot vote.0322

                      Here, it is... could be an Irish immigrant and an African man.0327

                      To show how inconsistent U.S. law was regarding suffrage.0334

                      I’m going to continue talking about Republican rule in the south.0342

                      As you know, the Reconstruction Act that put into place, these different military districts.0345

                      On the next page, I’m going to show you the map of how that looked.0351

                      Between 1868 and 1871, all the southern states eventually met the Congressional stipulations and rejoined the Union.0358

                      This is all the process of reconstruction.0367

                      In that regard, we can say that was accomplished.0369

                      However, we are going see that as far as the restructuring of southern society, that is not going to be so successful.0373

                      We are going to see that there will be continued backlash and tensions between white supremacist, Democrats in particular,0382

                      and Republicans from the north, and so forth, or Republican minded activists in the south.0392

                      Anyway, there were some different groups that were targeted and that were highlighted at this time.0400

                      Southern white Republicans were called scalawags.0408

                      There are some interesting terms at this time.0411

                      Scalawags which is an ancient Scots-Irish term for runty, worthless animals, ultimately, a derogatory term.0414

                      This term that was coined by Democratic ex-confederates.0422

                      White northerners who moved to the south were called carpetbaggers.0430

                      These were the self seeking interlopers who carried all their property in cheap suitcases called carpetbags.0438

                      Their suitcases were actually made out of these bags that had a carpeting type of material.0444

                      Scalawags and carpetbaggers, these were two negative terms used0453

                      for those who were helping the Republican cause and helping the African-American cause in the south.0458

                      Some scalawags were former slave owners who wanted to attract northern capital,0465

                      but most were yeomen farmers who wanted to rid the south of its slaveholding aristocracy.0470

                      Some carpetbaggers were motivated by personal profit and brought capital and skills with them.0475

                      While others were attracted to the south’s climate, people, and economic opportunities.0481

                      These terms were conjured up because many southern, specially these Democrats,0487

                      were very wary of outsiders coming in and changing their society.0495

                      There was this view that they were very corrupt.0501

                      These outsiders who are taking advantage of the south and overly opportunistic at the expense of the southerners.0504

                      That is going to feed into tensions between Republicans, especially, and Democrats.0516

                      Here is a map that highlights the different military districts during Republican Reconstruction.0523

                      And as you can see here that the Federal government organized the former confederate states into these 5 different districts.0531

                      And the first date indicates, you can see here at the key, the first date indicates when the state was readmitted to the Union.0539

                      And the second date shows when Radical Republicans lost control of the state government.0548

                      As you noticed, by comparing and contrasting the different districts that the length of radical government varied widely.0554

                      The radical Republican government was into place.0563

                      Although you can see it did not really last for a very long period of time.0568

                      In Florida, a bit longer than, for instance, in Texas.0573

                      That is going to have an effect on the progression of Reconstruction throughout the south.0579

                      Although, it is never proportionate to their size and population, we are going to see more and more African-Americans participating in government.0587

                      Black officeholders end up becoming prominent throughout the south.0595

                      That is important, I should highlight that.0601

                      Republicans modernize state constitutions, they eliminated property qualifications for voting.0604

                      They got rid of the black codes and expanded the rights of married women to own property and make earnings independent of their husband's.0610

                      Some gains for women, despite the fact that they did not get the right to vote with the 15th Amendment.0618

                      These are some pretty good gains with the Republican influence.0626

                      Reconstruction social programs were also established.0633

                      Hospitals, more penitentiaries and asylums were put in place.0636

                      Reconstruction governments built roads and revived the railroad network, that is supposed to be.0640

                      To pay for programs, Republicans introduced property taxes that applied to personal wealth, as well as to real estate.0648

                      Similar to the taxes the Jacksonian’s had used in the north.0655

                      We will see some job opportunities opening up for former slaves,0659

                      who served as tax assessors and collectors, administrate the taxation of their onetime owners.0663

                      To a certain extent, we will see for the time, especially for the beginning of Reconstruction,0670

                      some gains and some changes being put into place.0677

                      But that would not go without backlash as well.0680

                      We are going to get into that.0685

                      Reconstruction government debts mounted rapidly, this was the downside.0687

                      And public credit eventually collapsed.0693

                      This is where we are going to start to see some of the programs eventually undermined.0697

                      Much of the spending was wasted or ended up in the pockets of state officials.0702

                      During the time of Reconstruction and throughout the later 19th century, we are going to see that not only in the south,0708

                      but politics, in general, are very much going to be influenced in a very corrupt way.0715

                      There is just widespread corruption.0721

                      A lot of this grows out of Reconstruction.0724

                      Although, in some ways, this was something that was overstated and spins out of control,0727

                      and the whole perception of Reconstruction is going to have a negative effect on the Republican Party.0735

                      And the Radical Republican vision of the Republican Party is going to be tarnished.0745

                      I will build off of that point in a little bit later.0755

                      The direction of the Republican Party will shift toward a classical liberal approach and move away from protecting African-Americans.0760

                      Back to the physical issues.0775

                      Much of the spending during the Reconstruction was wasted or ended up in the pockets of state officials.0777

                      Because of the various political machines, things started to become very corrupt.0784

                      Republican state governments viewed education, however, as the foundation of a democratic order.0793

                      They had to make up for lost time, since the south had virtually no public education.0799

                      That was a major priority.0805

                      The schools in the south were lagging behind.0807

                      New African-American churches will be extremely important.0811

                      They will serve as schools, social centers, and political meeting halls, as well as places of worship.0815

                      This came up in the previous lesson, in one of the questions as well,0821

                      that the role of the African-American church will be to empower African-Americans to become independent0826

                      and to have the skills to be able to live autonomously, to be successful.0834

                      Black ministers were community leaders and often political officeholders.0843

                      They provided a powerful religious underpinning for the Republican politics of their congregations.0848

                      As I was saying previously, African-Americans are increasingly going to participate in government and0859

                      that is going to be crucial in the rewriting of constitutions and in leading the governments in the south, and restructuring.0864

                      Again, we are going to see a huge backlash against that involvement as well.0872

                      They disprove Democrat stereotypes.0879

                      We will start to see that most of the black leaders who were in power were mostly elite free blacks, some even have migrated from the north.0882

                      In South Carolina, we are going to see a major change.0894

                      Few years ago, people would never believe this could have happened.0899

                      In January 1868, just to give you an example.0903

                      76 black men and only 48 white men were gathered in the ballroom where many former slaves were outside, full of hope,0906

                      and aristocrats feared that the assembly would demand revenge for the years of slavery.0914

                      But ultimately, we will see that all these men come to the table, they have to work together.0919

                      And even though, there will be racist feelings by many, that this is we are seeing a sea change.0925

                      For a time period, we will see African-Americans having an impact and having a voice in government.0937

                      A few examples of some African-Americans who did participate.0944

                      Robert Brown Elliott was a well educated man and order, and black carpetbagger,0948

                      who studied at Eaton in England, was trained in law, fluent in French and English.0953

                      He is going to be very instrumental in getting civil rights laws passed.0959

                      He became the speaker of South Carolina's assembly and served in the House of Representatives from 1871 to 1874.0964

                      That is going to be a major gain for African-Americans.0974

                      This is where you can say that this is a positive aspect of Reconstruction.0977

                      A few other notable African-Americans.0984

                      Hiram Revels who was the first African-American to serve in the U.S. Senate from Mississippi.0987

                      Robert Smalls who served in the House of Representatives for South Carolina.0993

                      They had prolific careers.0998

                      Blanche K. Bruce who escaped from slavery and established a school for ex-slaves in Missouri.1001

                      Then by 1869, he moved to Mississippi and became active in politics, eventually becoming Mississippi’s second black U.S. senator.1007

                      Talk about rags to riches type of story and have a major social political upward mobility.1017

                      A major success story here.1029

                      In South Carolina, there was an African-American majority in the legislature in 1868.1032

                      This was pretty revolutionary, as you remember South Carolina was the first state to secede during the Civil War.1039

                      Three were elected to Congress and another joined the state to Supreme Court.1053

                      Over the course of Reconstruction, 20 African-Americans served in state administrations as governors, lieutenant governors,1057

                      secretary of states, treasurers, or superintendents of education, and 16 served as U.S. Congressman.1064

                      Even though disproportionate, number wise, in comparison to whites, there were some gains and things were changing.1072

                      The sad part of this is that we are going to see a huge backlash against this.1081

                      Eventually, we will see governments being dominated by white Democrats.1085

                      But for the first few years of Reconstruction, we are going to see some gains.1090

                      Now moving into issues regarding land.1097

                      One of the greatest economic struggles for blacks in the south was how to overcome poverty, and the goal was to acquire land.1100

                      Promises of 40 acres and a mule, that were promised by going back to when Sherman ended up attacking Atlanta,1110

                      and promising many African-Americans who fought on behalf of the Union that he would guarantee them land,1122

                      we are going to see that does not happen in most cases.1130

                      Although, there were some who did in fact acquire some land.1133

                      To a certain extent, some people did get some land.1138

                      But you can say about 14,000 black families acquired farms but many were landless.1141

                      The government had to show some leadership and try to provide some opportunities for African-Americans.1148

                      The Southern Homestead Act of 1866, offered 80 acre grants to settlers.1156

                      It was limited for the first year to freedmen and southern Unionists.1161

                      This was mostly symbolic, since it was public land, it was made available to former slaves.1166

                      It was oftentimes in swampy unfertile parts of the lower south.1170

                      Not wonderful opportunities but something.1177

                      After Johnson's order of restoring confiscated lands to the ex-confederates,1180

                      a freedmen's bureau devoted itself to teaching blacks how to be good agricultural laborers.1185

                      This is going to be somewhat limited.1191

                      It is because again, Johnson was fighting against some of the gains that were being made.1196

                      And a lot of African-Americans did not have land opportunities.1202

                      This is going to lead to the labor system that will be predominant in the south.1208

                      And most former slaves will end up participating in sharecropping.1219

                      This distinctive labor system for cotton agriculture in which the freedmen worked as tenant farmers,1224

                      exchanging their labor for the use of land.1229

                      Sharecropping will supplant slavery.1233

                      Sharecropping in this type of system, it was an unequal relationship because sharecroppers had to borrow for supplies and food.1238

                      About 1/2 to 2/3 of their crops ultimately were turned over to the landlord.1249

                      The idea here is that African-Americans will, in many ways, go back to plantations and work on the land.1254

                      Many former slaves did have other skills, they needed a job, they needed to do something to survive.1266

                      The idea is that they work the land, they harvest the crop, and they have to give the landlord a share of their profits.1274

                      A share of that crop that they are able to harvest.1283

                      They also have to rent the land, they had to rent the equipment.1286

                      At the end of the day, this did not end up being very profitable.1293

                      Store keepers furnish the sharecropper and took as collateral a lien on the crop, so they would get a percentage as well, they get a cut.1298

                      But as cotton prices decline during the 1870’s, many sharecroppers fell into permanent debt.1307

                      If a merchant was also the landowner, the debt became a pretext for peonage or forced labor.1315

                      Where they are completely indebted to the merchant landowner and they have to work off that debt.1321

                      It is just another form of slavery for many.1331

                      This was a very difficult situation that kept African-Americans very poor, for the most part in the south.1334

                      There were some who are able to be very careful with their money and find other side opportunities,1343

                      or could have lucked out with a nicer landowner, for instance.1348

                      But for the most part, this is going to keep African-Americans who were former slaves subjugated1354

                      and not having economic opportunities in the south.1361

                      It did mobilize black husbands and wives in common enterprise however,1366

                      and shielded both from personal subordination to whites, to a certain extent.1370

                      This slide is to illustrate how things did not change from 1860 to 1881.1377

                      Even though technically, slavery had ceased to exist under the sharecropping system,1385

                      some of the houses moved, they scattered out a bit.1395

                      But for the most part, everything else was intact.1399

                      By 1881, sharecropping families which means most certainly that they had been slaves on the plantation,1403

                      years after emancipation, still it had not moved on.1410

                      Status quo maintained.1415

                      For all their croppers freedom surely meant not only their individual lots and cabins, but also the school and church.1417

                      That would be a major contribution for African-Americans, that they had to start to build their own community.1425

                      But economically speaking, not much of a change.1432

                      By the end of Reconstruction, about ¼ family saved enough rent with cash and owned about 1/3 of the land.1439

                      But again, this was pretty limiting.1446

                      The battle over the South land was exceptional because of the politics involved.1454

                      Elsewhere, emancipation rarely meant similar political equality for freed slaves.1458

                      But in the U.S., the civil rights suffrage and measures of political power for freedmen allowed the development of sharecropping.1463

                      And for many, sharecropping was preferable to laboring for their former owners.1470

                      But it was devastating to southern agriculture, and it committed the south inflexibly to cotton because it was a cash crop and had limited incentive for agricultural improvements.1475

                      This is going to hold the south back economically, it is going to prevent African-Americans1489

                      who were former slaves from moving up the social economic ladder in any major way.1495

                      Violence in the south, there were several examples where we see huge backlash against African-Americans in political positions1504

                      and race riots erupting throughout the United States.1515

                      A few examples that were very well known.1518

                      In 1866, there was a Memphis race riot where many African-Americans were targeted, in particular.1522

                      And in New Orleans, there is a race riot and massacre, as well in the same year.1530

                      Ultimately, we are going see this counterrevolution started to unfold, which led to the undoing of Reconstruction.1536

                      Although, this is very much about the Democratic resistance to Republican programs,1545

                      we are also going to see that northerners start to also aquiesce and kind of go along, and they kind of get tired of Reconstruction.1553

                      Racist ideas were also prominent in the north, they were not immune.1567

                      Democrats, meanwhile, in the south, will work hard to get the vote restored to ex-confederates.1574

                      They want to re-empower, redeem their southern ex-confederates and bring the south back to its glory.1579

                      They will appeal to racial solidarity and southern patriotism will attack blacks suffrage as a threat to white supremacy.1590

                      Here is the reaction in the south.1598

                      But again, the backlash would not be as successful without northern acquiescence.1602

                      Just kind of looking the other way and they got bored, in many ways, which sounds pathetic.1608

                      But many of the Republicans lose their focus and dedication to helping African-Americans.1614

                      They kind of looked the other way.1622

                      We are also going to see some white supremacist, terrorist groups emerging, such as the Ku Klux Klan.1626

                      The Ku Klux Klan first appeared in Tennessee in 1866 under Nathan Bedford Forrest, who was known as the Grand Wizard.1635

                      By 1870, the Klan was operating almost everywhere in the south, as an armed force who was terrorist tactics served to the Democratic party.1645

                      Their goal was to intimidate African-Americans, they wanted to keep them out of the voting booths.1656

                      They wanted to keep African-Americans out of political office.1661

                      They also wanted to keep Republicans out of the south.1666

                      They did not want those carpetbaggers.1669

                      They did not want those scalawags to have an influence over the outcome of the south.1670

                      This is going to become a problem as they are going to use violence, they will murder.1679

                      They will intimidate African-Americans and those who are supporting African-Americans.1685

                      Eventually, a law was passed to crackdown on this particular group because they gained momentum.1692

                      The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 authorized Federal prosecutions, military force,1699

                      and martial law to suppress conspiracies that deprive citizens of the right to vote, hold office, serve on juries,1705

                      and enjoy equal protection of the law.1712

                      Here is a cartoon that is highlighting that during this time, in many ways, in Reconstruction, it was worse than slavery.1718

                      As paramilitary groups like the KKK, this creeps me out because it looks like Casper the friendly ghost, and he was anything but friendly.1730

                      The other paramilitary group that perhaps is not quite as well known as the KKK,1739

                      the White League is another group.1744

                      Here the lost cause trying to reach out to that patriotic sentiment throughout the south.1747

                      Here you know, an African-American family feeling the pressure.1756

                      You may see someone being lynched here.1761

                      This one I cannot quite read.1766

                      I think this was a schoolhouse.1769

                      But you know, really feeling the pressure of these groups and feeling like they are victims of violence.1773

                      The Union as it was, this is a white man's government.1779

                      Obviously, you could see the weaponry here that is involved.1785

                      These troops intimidating African-American people, worse than slavery.1788

                      Here, it is called one last vote.1793

                      A negro killed, here you could see the use of violence.1797

                      Groups like this would literally intimidate African-Americans from voting.1802

                      This was very scary, it was dangerous.1808

                      You would have to take your life into your hands, in some cases, if you dare to vote.1812

                      In the next slide, actually, you could see how scary this would be.1820

                      They did not have privacy, even when one voted.1825

                      How free would you really be, even though you have the right to vote?1830

                      This is indicative of the way that things were, that African-Americans were not welcome by these racist whites.1834

                      This became increasingly problematic, as the Democrats and ex-confederates are on the up and up,1846

                      and kind of coming back with a vengeance.1853

                      Despite efforts to prosecute the KKK, Grant's assault on the Klan gave support to southern Republicans and African-Americans.1859

                      Yet, we are also going to see that this will illustrate how dependent African-Americans were1870

                      on Republicans in the Federal government to protect them every step of the way.1878

                      It was almost impossible to enforce this law day after day after day.1883

                      They lost the political will, to be quite honest, to see this through.1889

                      Northern Republicans were growing weary of Reconstruction and the bloodshed that it seemed to produce.1894

                      This was an uphill battle, prosecuting Klansmen with the U.S. attorneys,1901

                      Who usually faced all white juries, who were oftentimes racist, and were very much influenced by their discrimination.1907

                      They oftentimes did not care if these Klansmen were harassing and terrorizing African-Americans.1918

                      This became a huge mess and allowed these groups to, like terrorist groups to flourish and gain more support.1927

                      They also start to lose resources to handle all of the cases.1942

                      After 1872, prosecutions began to drop off and many Klansmen received hasty pardons,1947

                      as they just want to get them through the system and have a quick end to it.1953

                      Republican governments that were denied Federal help, found themselves overwhelmed by massive resistance of ex-confederate enemies.1959

                      Eventually, as you could see, the tide is going to turn.1968

                      Between 1873 and 1875, Democrats overthrew Republican governments in Texas, Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi.1972

                      They are coming back and trying to reassert their power.1981

                      The undoing of Reconstruction continues.1987

                      In Mississippi, as elections neared 1875, paramilitary groups like the rifle club, the red shirts, operated openly.1990

                      Eventually resulting in the stuffing of ballot boxes by the so called redeemers.1998

                      And even the Republican governor eventually resigned and returned to the north.2003

                      People are giving up and itself became a lost cause.2008

                      By 1876, Republican governments only remained in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida.2013

                      Elsewhere, the former confederates were back in control.2019

                      Sympathy for the freedman began to wane, as the north was flooded with one sided,2024

                      often racist reports describing extravagant corrupt Republican rule in the south and the group of massive black barbarism.2028

                      You can see that racism even fed into attitudes in the north.2039

                      In the north, at the same time, we are seeing they are entering into a gilded age, where a lot of the financial opportunities are the priority.2045

                      The Republican Party is more about making money and building the economy, than continuing to fight for African-American rights.2056

                      It is a little bit sad, it is very sad in fact, to think about how they lost the moral vision of the Republican Party before the Civil War.2067

                      That is what will eventually lead to the demise of Reconstruction.2083

                      The Civil Rights Bill or the Enforcement Act that was introduced by Sumner in 1870,2088

                      was a remarkable application of Federal power against discrimination.2094

                      But by its passage in 1875, it had been stripped of its key provisions.2099

                      This was just a fight every step of the way.2104

                      Many were just growing weary of Reconstruction.2110

                      And to a certain extent, there was corruption.2116

                      Yes, they were Republicans who are increasingly not leading by a good moral example and were corrupt, selling votes for money and favors.2119

                      This also turned a lot of people against the Republican Party.2131

                      Republicans also abandoned any interest in the battle for black rights and repudiated the wartime expansion of Federal power.2135

                      That is important.2144

                      We are going to see a shift in the Republican Party.2145

                      They refashion themselves as liberals, believers in free trade, market competition, and limited government.2148

                      The Radical Republicans who are expanding the direction of, the scope of government and enforcing Federal laws throughout the south.2157

                      You could say in a very heavy handed way.2170

                      The newly refashioned Republican Party starts to refocus their priorities, you could say.2172

                      Men like Roscoe Conkling of New York retreated to Manhattan customs house2181

                      with its regimen political appointees as an auxiliary of his organization.2186

                      He is going to become very influential in the Republican Party.2193

                      That is also going to have a corrupting effect on the image for the Republicans.2198

                      Grant also turned a blind eye to this transformation, did not show leadership,2206

                      try to move the Republican Party back on track, and did not support Republican governments in the south.2211

                      That presidential support, we are going to see that eventually the Republican governments are going to collapse.2221

                      Yes, Grant ends up winning a second term overwhelmingly in 1872 against Horace Greeley.2233

                      Horace Greeley, who was editor of the New York Tribune, and actually founder of the Republican Party.2242

                      His tribune was America's most influential newspaper, between 1840 and 1870.2249

                      Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and other reform issues.2255

                      He did oftentimes highlight a lot of the problems throughout the south,2265

                      but he did not end up getting the support enough to win this election.2270

                      Republican corruption came to a head, so corruption is going to plague the Republican Party throughout the 1870’s.2275

                      It comes to a head in 1875 with a scandal known as the Whisky Ring.2283

                      This scandal implicated Grant's cronies and even his private secretary, and this engulfed the White House in scandal.2288

                      What happens is that a group of distillers bribed Federal officials and tax collectors2298

                      to avoid paying millions of money in taxes on their product, the Whisky Ring scandal.2304

                      This is going to have a negative effect on the support of the Republican Party, and kind of smear their reputation.2310

                      Then there was another scandal, the Credit Mobiler scandal.2320

                      The Credit Mobiler was a freight and private construction company that fleeced the U.S. government2324

                      by padding Federal contracts and skimming off the profits of the Union Pacific railroad.2331

                      These monies that were supposed to go into this project, but in fact, Federal subsidies were supposed to help the building of this railroad.2339

                      We are seeing this company is taking some of the profits for themselves.2351

                      This became extremely scandalous.2359

                      On top of the scandals, we are also going to see a major economic crisis unfolding.2362

                      A severe depression which was triggered in 1873 by the bankruptcy of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and its main investor Jay Cooke.2368

                      This is going to have major implications for the economy, as many economically depressed Americans2379

                      believed the Republicans were financially manipulating the economy, and that this had ultimately caused the depression.2386

                      When economic times are tough, oftentimes the political party that is in power will be blamed for these problems.2396

                      Furthermore, among the casualties of the poor economy was the Freedmen's Savings and Trust Company, which held the small deposits of ex-slaves.2406

                      And when the bank failed in 1874, Congress refused to recompensate the depositors and many lost their life savings.2417

                      This is going to further the suffering for African-Americans who had deposited their money in this bank.2427

                      And in denying the blacks plea for help with their banking disaster, Congress signaled that Reconstruction had lost its moral claim on the country.2436

                      We are seeing corruption is starting to plague the Republican Party2449

                      and a move away from the moral direction that the Radical Republicans intended their party to participate in.2452

                      Concerns about the economy, political fraud, and not Reconstruction absorbed northern voters as another presidential election approached in 1876.2463

                      Grant, we are going to see was lampooned on both sides of the Atlantic for the behavior of his scandal within administration.2476

                      The British magazine Puck, shows Grant only barely defying gravity to keep his corrupt subordinates aloft and out of jail.2485

                      despite the scandals, however, the British public welcomed Grant with his administration on his triumphant world tour in 1877.2495

                      Ultimately, we are going to see this is going to have a very negative effect on the original vision of Reconstruction.2505

                      We are going to see another political crisis in 1877, during this election.2517

                      Rutherford B. Hayes who was a Republican and Samuel Tilden who was a Democrat, both favored home rule.2522

                      In other words, the Federal government pulling out of the south.2530

                      This is going to be the new direction for both political parties, moving toward the end of Reconstruction.2536

                      When Congress met in early 1877, it was faced with both Republican and Democratic electoral votes from Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana.2543

                      Ultimately, we are in a tie situation.2553

                      The constitution declared that Congress regulates zonal actions, so Congress appointed an electoral commission.2556

                      And ultimately, a deal was struck and the commission ends up awarding the disputed votes to Hayes by a vote of 8 to 7.2563

                      Democrats ended up controlling the house and set about stalling the final count of the electoral votes.2573

                      But on March 1, they suddenly ended because of this pact or deal that was made, and they used these delaying tactics,2578

                      and eventually they decide that Hayes would be inaugurated.2586

                      This is going to have a significant impact, as Hayes part of the deal is that he will put an end to Reconstruction.2592

                      And that is what will allow him to become president.2600

                      Reconstruction ends, Hayes promised to end military reconstruction.2606

                      And ultimately, this crisis will be averted through what is known as the Compromise of 1877.2612

                      The Republicans elected, he promises the end of military occupation in the south and Reconstruction ends.2618

                      You should think about all and all, what was gained during Reconstruction, what where the limits of Reconstruction.2631

                      By 1877, we did see three rights defining Amendments had been added to the Constitution, with the 13, 14, 15th Amendment.2638

                      There is also move for blacks to advance economically.2648

                      You can argue to a certain extent, obviously, there were limits to as backlash.2652

                      They had confidence that they could lift themselves up.2657

                      But we also know that there will be several ways that racist,2660

                      with its premises in the south will continue to block and prohibit African-Americans from gaining equality.2666

                      With the new Jim Crow laws in place, that is going to inhibit those many opportunities for African-Americans for many years to come.2676

                      Many historians would say that Reconstruction was a failure.2686

                      But there were definitely some important laws put in place that provide a foundation for the opportunities in the future.2689

                      With that, we are going to move into the assessment section.2700

                      The first one here, 1876 presidential election, Federal troops remained in which of the following southern states?2705

                      This one is B, Florida was one of the last states that had troops.2722

                      Moving on, the victor in the 1876 presidential election was decided by,2732

                      A special electoral commission, the House of Representatives, the Senate, the Supreme Court.2737

                      And the answer.2745

                      Three, the Democrats agreed to accept Hayes as President in 1876, in part if he agreed to which of the following?2749

                      To support a nationwide black code, to remove Federal troops from the south,2756

                      to promote southern industrial growth, to support civil service reform.2760

                      The answer.2768

                      Short answer, briefly explain the significance of one of the following during Reconstruction in the south during this period.2774

                      Scalawags, carpetbaggers, or African-American legislators.2780

                      I’m going to choose African-American legislators.2786

                      African-American legislators began to have a substantial influence on southern politics.2791

                      And this had an empowering effect on the African-American population in the south.2797

                      However, there was a huge backlash against the legislators from the ex-confederates who wanted to return to white supremacy.2801

                      B, Briefly explain the effects of one of the following on African-Americans in the south during this period.2813

                      Black codes, sharecropping, or the Ku Klux Klan.2821

                      I’m going to choose sharecropping.2825

                      Sharecropping was a labor system that allowed freedmen an opportunity to work and earn wage.2828

                      But they had to give the landlord a share of the crops and rent the land and equipment.2834

                      They oftentimes became indebted to the landowners.2840

                      C, briefly explain the impact of impeachment of Andrew Jackson on Reconstruction.2847

                      The impeachment of Johnson did not have a huge impact on Reconstruction,2854

                      as the Democrats found another candidate, Horatio Seymour, to run on the Democratic ticket.2858

                      The Republicans continue to pursue their agenda despite the impeachment.2864

                      Moving on, short answer, briefly explain the role of one of the following Republican Party during this period.2874

                      Spoils men, waving the bloody shirt, or tariffs.2885

                      This must be on the Republican Party.2892

                      I’m going to do waving the bloody shirt.2895

                      Waving the bloody shirt was a Republican slogan and campaign tactic that was meant to inflame northern voters2898

                      by appealing to their anti southern sentiments, and connecting them to the Democratic party.2905

                      You can also add, and blaming them for the Civil War and all the problems that the country was facing during Reconstruction.2914

                      B, briefly explain the effects of one of the following on business and government during this period.2926

                      I’m going to choose the Credit Mobiler.2932

                      The Credit Mobiler scandal involved a private construction company2936

                      that made huge profits from government subsidies for building the transcontinental railroad.2939

                      They gave members of Congress stocks so that they would not be investigated.2946

                      And lastly, briefly explain the impact of one of the following in terms of Grants administration.2953

                      I’m going to choose Hayes.2962

                      Rutherford B. Hayes was a Republican nominee for the election of 1876 who ended up becoming President.2964

                      He was chosen because he was not associated with the scandal surrounding the Grant administration.2972

                      His election ended Reconstruction with the compromise of 1877,2978

                      where he agreed to institute home rule and to end military reconstruction in the south.2985

                      With that, we are done with Reconstruction.2994

                      Thank you for watching