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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP U.S. History
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Post by Rita Semaan on December 29, 2015

Period 6 is one of the periods I struggle with the most and your slides are extremely helpful. I'm unable to download them. Is there another way that I can obtain your slides?

The New South and The Farmers Mobilize

  • Frontier Thesis: written by Frederick Jackson Turner, U.S. Historian
  • After the results came out from the 1890 census that ND, SD, MT & WA were populated enough to achieve statehood, he addressed his concerns about the closing of the frontier and its significance: shaping the U.S. character and spirit, fostering a social and political democracy, and providing a safety valve for economic distress
  • Some businesspeople pushed for economic diversification in the “New South” by investing in industrial growth, railroads, steel, tobacco, and textiles yet the South remained mostly agricultural.
  • Tenants farmers struggled and poverty was common in the South, so they forged alliances, eventually forming the Populist Party & a movement against the Dems & interracial solidarity became crucial
  • “Redeemers” in the South instituted Jim Crow Laws that legalized segregation in public facilities
  • Court cases upheld discriminatory laws, such as Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)—the Court upheld the constitutionality of “separate but equal” (segregation in public facilities) & that segregation did not violate the 14th Amendment--provided that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites
  • Civil rights activists fought back, such as: Ida Wells-Barnett in her anti-lynching campaign, Booker T. Washington’s advocacy of African American economic independence, and W.E.B. Du Bois’s civil rights demands
  • The Populist movement and Grange movement: farmers came together to address farm foreclosures, RR bankruptcies, stock market crash, & unemployment
  • Populists sought to lower shipping & storage rates, regulation of RRs, they called for the creation of “free silver” & the creation of subtreasury banks
  • They formed the People’s Party or Populist Party & William Jennings Bryan became a huge advocate for economic populism ran for President

The New South and The Farmers Mobilize

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Frontier Thesis
      • A “New South”
      • The “New South”
        • Poverty in the South
        • Class, Race and Politics in the New South
        • Discrimination and Jim Crow
        • Court Cases and Discrimination
        • Civil Rights Activists Fight Back
        • Farmers Face Problems
        • The Populist Movement
        • Women Populists
        • Election of 1862 Map
          • The Texas Alliance's Subtreasury System
          • Railroad Regulations
          • The Wabash Case
          • The Interstate Commerce Act of 1886
          • Example 1
            • Example 2
              • Example 3
                • Intro 0:00
                • Overview 0:07
                • Frontier Thesis 3:07
                  • Jackson Turner
                  • The Significance of the Frontier in American History
                  • The Decline of the Dominance of Rural America
                • A “New South” 7:19
                  • Economic Growth in the South
                  • Henry Grady
                  • Tax Exemptions
                • The “New South” 9:10
                • Poverty in the South 10:02
                  • Mostly Agricultural
                  • Lacked Technological Skills
                  • Cycle of Poverty
                  • George Washington Carver
                • Class, Race and Politics in the New South 11:50
                  • Inequality
                  • Redeemers
                  • Gerrymandering
                  • Readjusters
                  • The Colored Farmers' Alliance
                • Discrimination and Jim Crow 15:21
                  • White Man's Party and the Solid South
                  • Problems at the Polls
                • Court Cases and Discrimination 18:09
                  • Civil Rights Cases of 1883
                  • Plessy v. Ferguson
                  • Williams v. Mississippi
                • Civil Rights Activists Fight Back 22:22
                  • Boycotts of Streetcars
                  • Ida Wells-Barnett's Anti-Lynching Campaign
                  • Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois
                • Farmers Face Problems 25:11
                  • Grange Movement
                  • The Farmers' Alliances
                  • The National Alliance
                • The Populist Movement 27:44
                  • A Catalyst for Political Crisis
                  • A Class Ideology
                  • Omaha Convention
                  • The Texas Alliance's Subtreasury Plan
                • Women Populists 30:37
                  • Populist Movement
                  • Raise Less Corn and More Hell
                • Election of 1862 Map 31:18
                • The Texas Alliance's Subtreasury System 32:09
                  • Public Warehouse
                  • Subtreasury
                  • Rejected by the Democrats
                • Railroad Regulations 33:23
                  • Munn v. Illinois
                  • For the Common Good
                  • Richard B. Olney and Roscoe Conkling
                  • Replaced by Judges with Pro-Business Records
                • The Wabash Case 35:08
                  • Infringed on the Exclusive power of Congress
                  • Only the Federal Government Could Regulate Railroads
                  • The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
                • The Interstate Commerce Act of 1886 36:39
                  • ICC
                  • Harrison, Cleveland and McKinley
                  • Ineffective for the First 20 Years
                • Example 1 38:44
                • Example 2 40:51
                • Example 3 43:06

                Transcription: The New South and The Farmers Mobilize

                Welcome back to

                This lesson is on the new south and the farmers mobilized.0002

                In this lesson, we are going to talk about the importance of a very influential written work of a historian Frederick Jackson Turner called the Frontier Thesis.0009

                We will talk about in a bit, and its importance.0021

                We will talk about the south after Reconstruction, as many will try to reconfigure and revitalize the south and create a new south.0024

                The goal is to help the economy diversify and improve to combat poverty which continues to be a huge problem.0035

                Agriculture, however, still continues to have a huge impact on the economy and dominates the economy.0048

                We will also talk about racial discrimination and the legacy of the Civil War, slavery,0056

                and ultimately the failure of Reconstruction to address the racial divide.0061

                We will see that the Jim Crow system is going to be solidified during this era which will cause problems for many years.0068

                Many civil rights activists will start to speak out against this discrimination.0078

                We will talk about their role and some of the report contributions that they made.0083

                We are also going to talk about problems for farmers, as farmers will start to speak out against corruption in government.0089

                They also are going advocate for better policies, especially policies that they believe will help them financially.0097

                We will see that a populist movement is eventually going to emerge and become very widespread, and have a huge impact on mobilizing people,0108

                and ultimately will lead to demands by progressive minded people to institute major reforms.0118

                In many ways, many historians would actually link the populist movement to the progressive movement that comes up a bit later in U.S. history.0127

                But we will get to that eventually.0135

                We talked about the Grange before, and they are going to be important in setting the foundation for these different organizations0138

                that will help to empower and support farmers.0147

                Other groups like farmer’s alliances, and then we will start to see political activism that is epitomized in the Ocala platform.0150

                We will also talk about some of the other important platforms that were established by populists.0161

                And then, we will talk about important regulatory law that will finally be put into place.0170

                And especially, we will see the tie between the progressive populist efforts that will eventually affect U.S. policy and create a regulatory law.0175

                First, I want to talk about the Frontier Thesis.0190

                This is always an interesting one to try to fit in to all of these other different themes that are occurring throughout the Gilded Age,0193

                as we start to move our way into the 20th century.0201

                This is a very important contribution to U.S. history, and ultimately, this is going to be very critical0209

                and try to encapsulate what is happening demographically and socially in the United States.0219

                This important work was written by Frederick Jackson Turner, The Significance of the Frontier of the United States.0229

                This historian was trying to make conclusions of what was happening in the United States after the frontier had finally been closed.0238

                This is going to happen during the context, after the results came out from the 1890 census,0253

                that North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washington were populated enough to achieve statehood.0260

                He declared in his paper called The Significance of the Frontier in American History.0266

                Then, he read to the American Historical Association, that the frontier was very significant.0270

                And the closing of the frontier was even more significant and has huge implications for our future.0276

                But anyway, the frontier was important he believed, because it helped shaped the U.S. character.0284

                Perhaps, part of our pioneering spirit, this as in many ways part of who we are.0289

                The idea that we need space, the idea of being self sufficient of going out to the wild frontier and building a brand new life.0294

                And that this was part of the American ethos, part of that self reliance, that was important.0304

                That having the frontier, this is very much tied into westward expansion,0312

                having these constants aspiration toward more space was important in motivating people to settle the United States.0317

                This will ultimately help to foster social and political democracy.0332

                As people will not be crammed into one space, they are allowed to spread out across the country.0336

                This is allowing the country to evolve in a somewhat peaceful way.0343

                Just trying to tie in these ideas.0351

                Another important factor that he believed that the frontier served was that it provided a safety valve for economic distress.0353

                The idea of wide open spaces, in urban industrial centers by providing a place to which people could flee.0364

                It is like you go out to nature, out to the frontier, and be free ultimately.0372

                He worried that its closing would lead to divisiveness in U.S. society and that the dominance of rural America was declining.0379

                He was concerned that perhaps it is going to become too urbanized, crowded, and that this could ultimately lead to our decline.0388

                He is a bit skeptical, a bit concerned about the United States future.0395

                And in many ways, this is going to also inform our foreign policy that will come up a bit later.0401

                Stay tuned, I will make a connection back to this important theses.0408

                As he will actually also make another connection that what is the next frontier.0412

                This will in many ways, in form our imperialist foreign policy to look for new frontiers0418

                and establish naval bases and colonies around the world, that will help us feel more secure, or so the argument goes.0426

                A new south, obviously, after the Civil War and even after Reconstruction,0441

                the south was at a major disadvantage industrially and still relied on agriculture.0448

                There is some economic growth that will occur.0455

                More and more people start to advocate for a diverse economy not just an economy that relies on a cash crop.0458

                Obviously, during the Civil War era, even afterward, there was not a major change.0468

                There was still a huge reliance on cotton industry, in particular.0473

                There is a huge push for industrial growth and improved transportation, especially railroads, to provide the infrastructure to help the trade.0478

                Steel production, that will become very successful in Birmingham, Alabama.0488

                The lumber industry will also be established in Memphis, Tennessee.0494

                The tobacco industry will be established in Virginia, with Richmond at its center.0499

                The textile industry will also start to take root in places like Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.0504

                And Henry Grady, who was the editor of the Atlanta constitution called for, he was a huge supporter of this, economic diversity and laissez-faire capitalism.0512

                He and local governments called for tax exemptions for investors in low wage labor to attract business.0523

                In some other words, you can pay your workers not a lot because people are willing to work for lower wages.0533

                That is going to be a draw for many companies to set up shops, so to speak.0543

                We will see, and here is a visual to tie in, that in the south, in green, you can see with that cotton still has a huge influence on the economy.0551

                But we see coal is also important, coal and iron mining, textile manufacturing in these regions here.0564

                And the tobacco growing regions in part of the upper south, and you can see in Kentucky, Tennessee, and into Missouri as well.0575

                Railroad lines is another important factor to point out, are becoming more extensive and this is going to be extremely important.0587

                We are going to see increasingly more production of textiles, coal, iron, as well as wood products in the south.0597

                Nonetheless, there still is a lot of poverty because the economy is still mostly reliant on agriculture.0604

                The late start to industrialization is going to hold the south back in many ways, economically.0612

                The work force was poorly educated.0618

                They lack technological skills for industrial development.0621

                This was an area that they needed to deal with.0624

                The other issue was that cotton prices had decline by over 50% by the 1890’s, as it was being produced in other parts of the world.0629

                As a result, many tenant farmers were struggling and poor, and this is going to lead to the cycle of poverty as many were stuck into this,0638

                like peonage system where they are tied to the tenants who are renting out the land or renting out equipment and so forth.0652

                People were in debt and they just could not get out of it.0662

                Generation after generation, were just stuck in the cycle of poverty.0666

                George Washington Carver, however, who was an African-American scientist at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, promoted growing diverse crops.0670

                And he is going to also advocate, Tuskegee Institute would become very important for African-Americans.0680

                And Booker T. Washington, in fact, will be very much involved in this university to help train,0689

                encourage African-Americans to get trained in diverse skills, so that they can have jobs and contribute to the economy.0696

                But Carver is looking to diversify agriculture as well, and that this would ultimately benefit the economy,0704

                as well as to encourage sustainable farming practices.0711

                Turning now to class, race, and politics in the new south.0718

                There is no doubt about it that the politics of the south was a biracial politics,0724

                and it ultimately, the foundation of southern politics continue to be based on inequality.0731

                Remember that the Republicans pretty much gave up on Reconstruction and that left the south to Democratic leaderships.0739

                We will see that those in the south who were very much against Reconstruction.0749

                Post Civil War, Southern Democrats felt they had redeemed the South, try to bring it back the way to the glory that it once was.0758

                Finally, they had the Republicans out, they are not dominating.0768

                These people are called the redeemers.0772

                And they found all different kinds of ways to disempower African-Americans,0775

                whom they believe were inferior and did not deserve to have a voice in government.0780

                There are all types of tactics to keep African-Americans out of politics.0787

                Gerrymandering was one way, changing the boundaries of voting districts to give the dominant party an advantage.0791

                Redrawing the lines ultimately for their benefit.0799

                Class tensions were also exacerbated by the spread of farm tenancy and low wage factory jobs after the war.0804

                Re-adjusters in Virginia expressed agrarian discontent by opposing repayment of debts to speculators.0812

                In many ways, the economic problems are going to feed into tensions.0822

                And in many ways, people actually would argue that if the poor whites and the poor blacks had actually unified0827

                and seeing that they had a common interest, and that they were dealing with similar issues,0836

                they could have empowered one another and fought for a common cause.0843

                And perhaps, they would have been able to challenge the hierarchy, the socioeconomic hierarchy in the south.0851

                Anyway, that is something to keep in mind.0862

                These ties into it, tenant farmers did forge alliances eventually forming the Populist Party.0864

                The movement against Democrats and interracial solidarity became crucial.0871

                This, in many ways, historians would argue was it is a bit of a missed opportunity because racism was pervasive in the south.0877

                But there were some moments where populism was very appealing to both poor whites and poor blacks.0887

                But if they had come together and they were not divided by race, they could have had a strong movement.0896

                We will see that there are separate alliances based on race.0905

                The colored farmer’s alliance was formed.0911

                We will see other farmers alliances were established at the same time.0913

                And of course, this language we do not use anymore, it is just language that was used in history.0918

                Even though, we know that the 14th Amendment was passed that established that any person born in the United States was a citizen,0927

                and that all citizens have equal protection of the law, we are going to see different ways for racist southerners, Democrats,0937

                who are looking to circumvent that law and keep African-Americans from having any political power.0949

                We are going to see domination by the Democrats that became known as the white man's party.0957

                The south solidly votes Democratic.0964

                Sometimes this is known as the solid south.0968

                Discrimination continued to be a huge problem and just became part of the system in the south.0971

                There are problems at the polls, there was a lot of corruption.0978

                Miscounting of votes, disfranchisement of blacks through the literacy tests, poll taxes, in some cases, grandfather clauses,0981

                and a lot of these practices were in place until the 1960’s.0991

                It took the civil rights movement and a few important civil rights acts to reverse these practices once and for all.0996

                We will see the term Jim Crow comes from this caricature, kind of coming out of the minstrels, as well.1008

                The segregation disfranchisement that was known as Jim Crow, represented a formal codified system of racial apartheid.1022

                Separation of different laws for whites and blacks that dominated the American south for 3/4 of a century beginning in the 1890’s.1031

                There were separate facilities, in terms of parks, libraries, drinking fountains, buses, restrooms.1042

                In transportation, you would see trains, restaurants, you would see whites only and colored signs.1052

                It was very blatant, this was not something that was unspoken.1059

                Some of it was unspoken but it was very blatant and very clear, and very harsh and very ugly.1066

                Yes, this particular character is playing on stereotypes and has a legacy that is very hurtful and very unjust throughout U.S. history.1075

                To make matters worse, is that we actually see that the court continued to be plagued by racism and supported this discrimination.1093

                Here are a few examples, this one is probably the most famous, the second one Plessy vs. Ferguson, the most well known.1106

                But there were others as well that supported these discriminatory practices and allowed the south to do what they pleased.1112

                The civil rights cases of 1883, within these cases we will see that the court ruled that1124

                Congress could not legislate against racial discrimination, practiced by private citizens which included railroads, hotels, and other businesses.1131

                Just kind of stamping, allowing, giving a blank check to those who are discriminating against African-Americans.1141

                Plessy vs. Ferguson, this is a big one, you need to know this one.1151

                In 1896, the court upheld the constitutionality of separate but equal segregation in public facilities.1156

                This involved Homer Plessey, who actually was of mixed descent.1164

                He was being discriminated in public transportation and this ended up going all the way to the Supreme Court.1174

                Ultimately, the court decides that this policy did not violate the 14th Amendment,1181

                that provided blacks received accommodations equal to those as whites.1190

                This is the key aspect of it and eventually will see that this,1203

                I have a hard time being neutral on this, I’m going to say despicable court case.1209

                This is I would say one of the worst decisions in our history.1216

                I’m a little biased, sometimes I am a human being and I have biases.1221

                But I think most people would agree with me, this day and age.1225

                This court case will be overturned by Brown vs. Board of Education.1228

                And in fact, interestingly, they will use the 14th Amendment to overturn this court case, because in reality,1234

                this key point here that, facilities if they were the same accommodations for blacks and whites, that was not true.1245

                All the connotations were always inferior throughout the south.1254

                For instance, bathrooms would be dirtier and in inconvenient locations, same with water fountains, etc.1260

                In buses or trains, African-Americans would have to sit in the back of the bus.1267

                You did not have a choice where you could sit.1272

                It was unequal.1274

                In schools, they were not on par with white schools.1276

                This was a huge aspect of Jim Crow that will eventually be challenged in the Supreme Court.1280

                This will eventually be overturned.1288

                But it was in place for many years, in fact until 1950’s, 1954 we will see it overturned.1291

                Williams vs. Mississippi, along the same lines, this validated the disfranchising devices of southern states1303

                as long as race was not specified as criterion for disfranchisement.1309

                And the rights of blacks to vote under the 15th Amendment were not being violated.1314

                But again, this is a where we are going to see, it is a technicality, as long as the wording is not there, that they are being disfranchised.1319

                But again, it was something that was understood and we will see all these poll taxes,1329

                these other discriminatory tools that will keep African-Americans from voting and having a voice in government.1335

                Oftentimes, when we talk about civil rights, we immediately assume 1950’s, 1960’s.1346

                But there are civil rights activists who fought for a very long time1352

                and laid the foundation for those other civil rights activists who will continue the fight years later.1356

                Of course, there are still civil rights activists today.1364

                We will see resistance to a lot of discrimination.1369

                There were boycotts of streetcars in more than 25 cities from 1891 onwards.1372

                This helped to put pressure, economic pressure on a lot of these transportation companies.1379

                Ida Wells-Barnett's Anti-Lynching campaign grew after she was thrown from a train in Tennessee1384

                for refusing to vacate her seat in a section reserved for whites.1390

                She ended up publishing a pamphlet where she starts to speak out against policies like this,1395

                as well as speaking out against lynching which is another awful murderous,1401

                immoral practice that was widely practiced in the south, specially, by members of the KKK.1411

                That African-Americans would be oftentimes bludgeoned to death, beaten, and then hung to just die and rot on a tree.1421

                This was just a horrific practice that was taking place throughout the south, and people were literally getting away with murder.1436

                Even if someone was arrested for committing murder, oftentimes all white juries would acquit and people could get away with murder.1448

                She started to speak out and wrote prolifically about the racism and discrimination and murder that was taking place in the south.1460

                Booker T. Washington, who was affiliated with Tuskegee, will also start to speak out and1474

                encouraged African-Americans to get training and to educate, and also advocate for civil rights.1481

                I have talked about these two important civil rights activists a bit later on as well,1490

                but it is worth mentioning them at this point in history too.1494

                W.E.B Dubois also who was an important spokesman who advocated for African-American civil rights.1498

                He focused more on the talented 10th and advocated for African-Americans to have higher education.1506

                He was very highly educated himself.1515

                We will continue to pick up on civil rights later on in the course.1518

                Now I’m going to shift here a little bit and talk about issues that farmers faced.1525

                As we will see working class people having a variety of struggles throughout the United States.1532

                We have talked about the Grange before.1542

                The Grange movement starts to grow more and more.1543

                Farmers came together to address farm foreclosures, railroad bankruptcies, stock market crash,1546

                and the economy was oftentimes very much connected to whether railroads were successful or not, making many people vulnerable.1554

                Unemployment, people were struggling.1566

                This was all related and this could be a snowball effect.1569

                Many farmers start to establish the farmer’s alliances.1574

                They became more politically active than the Grangers who just help people out socially and help them on the community level.1577

                This is a more politicized group.1588

                First, they preferred self help and institution building, and they resisted creating the third party.1590

                But this will eventually change, where they said we need to organize and have our own political party that will advocate on behalf of our demands.1599

                The national alliance met in Ocala, Florida, in 1890 and they advocated for the direct election of U.S. senators, lower tariff rates,1609

                a graduated income tax, the more you make the more you get taxed, and a new banking system.1628

                These were specific points that they believed needed to be addressed.1637

                They also sought to lower shipping rates and ultimately they are going to ask the government to regulate railroads1642

                to lower their shipping storage rates.1653

                They will also start to call for, with this banking system, they are also going to advocate for free silver1656

                and the creation of sub-treasury banks, which I will talk about in a little bit.1663

                The populist movement is going to start to become very influential and we will see that more and more people are pulled into the movement.1669

                And whenever we talk about populism, popular, we are talking about the people.1679

                This is a very grassroots type of movement, a very bottom up type of movement.1685

                Many would actually argue that the Populist Party was one of the most successful third parties in our two party system,1690

                that has been successful in challenging the status quo and having a long term impact.1697

                And you will see why in a bit.1703

                A catalyst for political crisis occurred when the Populist Party was formed in 1892.1706

                James B. Weaver, who became the first Populist presidential candidate,1714

                made it clear that the agrarian protests would be a challenge to the two party system and the status quo.1717

                It had a positive attitude toward government, meaning that government can help change these unfair policies.1723

                It is kind of a very progressive idea, that government can do good instead of this hands off approach, allowing people to compete and have at it.1733

                An interesting alternative to other political parties at the time, especially in the Gilded Age.1748

                It developed a class ideology that acknowledges the conflict between capital and labor.1754

                You may say that it sounds very Marxist, but without the Marxist element.1763

                They were not looking to overthrow the capital system.1767

                They were not looking to eradicate the political system that was in place.1770

                They believed in it, to a great extent.1775

                They just wanted to improve upon it, they wanted reforms.1777

                At the Omaha convention in 1892, Populists called for nationalization of the railroads and communications,1781

                protection of the land including natural resources from monopoly and for an ownership, a graduated income tax,1793

                the Texas alliances sub treasury plan, and the free and unlimited coinage of silver.1804

                As they believed that the gold standard was also hurting the economy.1811

                They wanted what they call bimetallism, believe that also coin silver.1815

                Hoping that it would increase the money supply and thus raise farm prices, and thus help farmers make money and live in a better way,1823

                where they can subsist and they can make profits, and have a stable life and not struggle so much.1835

                The Populist movement was also appealing to many women.1844

                That is going to have an empowering effect on them.1849

                One woman who was very much involved was Mary Elizabeth Liz, who would call for farmers to raise less corn and more kelp.1853

                She also insisted on Populist grand and holy mission, to place the mothers of this nation on the equality with their fathers.1861

                She does advocate for, we see women's rights as well as rights for farmers.1870

                Kind of an interesting connection there for, an opportunity for her to advocate and become involved in politics.1877

                Here you can see where, especially in the west, where the Populists had a lot of success.1888

                Places like Kansas, Colorado, Nevada, and Texas too, and the Dakotas, Idaho, and even parts of the Pacific Northwest.1896

                This map shows the percentage of the popular vote won by James Weaver, the People's Party candidate in the election of 1892.1908

                In this election, that involved Cleveland and Harrison, and Cleveland actually won.1920

                One of the things that the Populist Party advocated for, supported with this type of system1932

                that was popularized and successful in Texas called the Texas Alliance Sub-Treasury System.1939

                This system would enable farmers to store their crops in public warehouses and1947

                borrow against the unsold crops from the public fund until the cotton could be profitably sold.1954

                They also proposed that the Federal government take over these functions on a national basis1961

                through a sub treasury that would have the added benefit of increasing the stock of money in the country, and then push up prices.1965

                They really want a hands on approach, not a laissez-faire approach,1975

                but a hands on approach by the Federal government to help strengthen this economy.1979

                But it was rejected by the Democrats as being too radical because they wanted the Federal government to underwrite, provide the credit for farmers.1985

                A lot of people were very much against this and believed that this was too much involvement and that they crossed the line.1996

                Railroad regulations, we will see a temporary stalemate.2004

                A huge theme throughout the Gilded Age, that the railroads were one of the worst abusers, one of the most well known of the robber barons.2009

                Eventually, we are going to see that the Federal government is going step in and2019

                we are to see some wins for ordinary people against these powerful railroads.2023

                But we will also see that is going to be a good fight, that the railroad companies will put up a good fight.2029

                There is a famous court case, Munn vs. Illinois in 1877, when the court ruled against the railroads and2038

                upheld an Illinois law that sought to regulate the railroads because the state of Illinois had the right to regulate business,2044

                this is the key part, transacted within the state, such as storage fees.2052

                Because when a corporation devoted its property to a use in which the public has an interest,2056

                the corporation granted the public the right to regulate its property for the common good.2063

                This is where we are starting to see a little shift away from a pro employer stance toward supporting the common good.2070

                But in response, there is a backlash, the railroads hired high powered creative business lawyers with political connections,2080

                like Richard B. Olney who was a prominent Democrat and Senator Roscoe Conklin,2087

                the boss of the New York Republican Party, who began to pick away at the court's reasoning at Munn.2092

                Five of the nine justices who ruled on Munn retired and were replaced by judges with pro business records.2099

                We see a temporary win but in 1886, the Supreme Court in Wabash St. Louis in Pacific Railway Company vs. Illinois,2108

                known as, the simple way to remember this, the Wabash case, ruled that one of the Granger laws in Illinois was unconstitutional.2117

                I do not mean to be confusing here.2125

                Saying that it was an attempt to control interstate commerce that infringed on the exclusive power of Congress.2130

                This was very significant and a dramatic reversal after just nine years of the Munn case, nine years after that case.2138

                Later, this is where we are kind of seeing a back and forth here.2147

                But we are seeing more and more efforts to regulate railroads, but again they are going to fight back.2151

                And more times than not, we will see, specially during the Gilded Age, that courts, government,2159

                will usually side on behalf of pro-business, and employers, and railroads, and corporations.2165

                To the progressive era, the courts will later on limit the powers of the states to regulate commerce even within their own boundaries.2174

                At this point, it was clear that only the Federal government could regulate the railroads.2183

                The Wabash case did not kill the regulatory movement, however.2189

                One year later Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act which for many, will be a step in the right direction.2193

                The ICC, The Interstate Commerce Act, that was established in 1886,2202

                created a commission to supervise railroad activities and regulate unfair and unethical practices.2209

                Railroads had to charge fair rates for shipping, publish their rates,2215

                and they forbade them to depart from their price lists or to pay under the table rebates such as John D. Rockefeller had collected.2220

                Be very clear about your rates, stick to the plan, do not fluctuate and charge somebody this rate, charge somebody else a different rate.2229

                Be very consistent.2237

                They are trying to call them out and make them be consistent and fair.2238

                The ICC is going to have limits.2245

                The wording was not as perhaps as clear, but we will see similar to the Sherman Antitrust Act, it is not going to have enough teeth in it.2249

                But ultimately, it was not disbanded until the 1980’s under Ronald Reagan, when in order to save money,2262

                the Federal government deregulated many forms of transportation.2268

                Coming back to the history, the ICC will calm anti-railroad protest but had little impact on railroad company practices, because it was relatively weak.2274

                And ultimately, the way it was enforced was pretty haphazard.2287

                Harrison, Cleveland, and McKinley were sympathetic to business and staffed the commission with railroaders and their lawyers.2293

                Yes, had limited effect.2304

                It was ineffective for the first 20 years because it was haphazardly enforced and narrowly interpreted by the courts.2305

                It will not be until the progressive era, when we start to see these regulatory laws having more of an impact.2314

                With that, we are going to actually move into the assessments.2322

                Henry Grady, I attended a funeral once in Pickens country in my state.2327

                They buried in the heart of a pine forest, and yet the pine coffin was imported from Cincinnati.2337

                The buried him within touch of an iron mine, and yet the nails in his coffin and the iron in the shovel that dug his grave were imported from Pittsburgh.2342

                The south did not furnish a thing on earth for that funeral but the corpse and the hole in the ground.2350

                There they put them away and the clods rattled down on his coffin, and they buried him in New York coat2360

                and a Boston pair of shoes and a pair of breeches from Chicago, and a shirt from Cincinnati,2366

                leaving him nothing to carry into the next world with him to remind him of the country which he lived,2372

                and for which he fought for four years, but the chill of blood in his veins and the marrow in his bones.2378

                The key idea in the excerpt is that Grady believes the Civil War damaged the southern economy.2387

                Former confederate soldiers deserve better treatment.2393

                The secession of the confederacy was justified.2396

                The south needed to industrialize.2398

                The answer.2403

                Which of the following best demonstrates Henry Grady’s vision of the south?2406

                Birmingham, Alabama became one of the nation's leading steel producers.2411

                Former slaves achieved semi-independent status as tenant farmers.2415

                Northern investors controlled 3/4 of southern railroads.2419

                The southern economy remained mainly tied to agriculture.2422

                A, Henry Grady’s comments best expressed the viewpoint of which group of people?2432

                Advocates of the new south, Progressives, Redeemers, Supporters of Congressional Reconstruction.2438

                The answer is advocates of the new south.2447

                Ocala platform, December of 1890.2455

                We demand the abolition of national banks, we demand that the government shall establish sub treasuries2459

                or depositories in the several states which shall loan money direct to the people at a low rate of interest,2466

                not to exceed 2% per annum or a non perishable farm products and also upon real estate.2471

                Three, we demand that the amount of the circulating medium be speedily increased to not less than $50.00 per capita.2477

                We condemn the Silver Bill, recently passed by Congress and demanded the free and unlimited coinage of silver.2489

                We further demand a removal of the existing heavy tariff for the necessities of life that the poor in our land must have.2498

                We further demand a just and equitable system of graduated income taxes on incomes.2506

                We demand that the Congress of the United States admit an amendment to the constitution2511

                providing for the election of the United States senators by direct vote of the people of each state.2515

                The Ocala platform resulted from a protest movement that primarily involved,2525

                Labor unions, liberal reformers, northeastern conservatives, small farmers.2530

                The answer.2537

                The economic reasoning behind the Ocala platform assumes that:2541

                Federal income taxes fall mainly on average working Americans.2545

                Large banks had formed monopoly to lower interest rates.2549

                High tariffs had caused the rise in land prices.2552

                Increasing the money supply would increase prices and incomes.2555

                The answer.2562

                The Ocala platform proved an important link between which of the following groups?2566

                Radical republicans and Reconstruction, Farmer’s organizations and the Populist movement,2570

                Harrison Republicans and Cleveland Democrats, Rural and urban progressive reformers.2575

                The answer.2581

                Here we go, this is actually two more multiple choice.2587

                The white race deems itself, dissenting opinion in Plessy vs. Ferguson, the white race deems that is said to be the dominant race in this country.2592

                And so it is, in prestige, in achievements, in education, in wealth and power.2605

                But in the view of the Constitution, in the eye of the law, there is in the country no superior, no dominant ruling class of citizens.2609

                Our Constitution is color blind and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.2617

                In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law.2623

                The humblest is the peer of the most powerful.2628

                The laws regard man is man, and take by the supreme law of the land are involved.2631

                It is therefore to be regretted that this high tribunal the final expositor of the fundamental law of the land2636

                has reached the conclusion that it is competent for a state to regulate the enjoyment by citizens and their civil rights solely upon the basis of race.2642

                Harlan's opinion goes against the majority opinion on the Supreme Court that,2660

                The First Amendment did not protect racist propaganda by the KKK and similar groups.2665

                African-Americans were not citizens and could not vote or hold office.2670

                Jim Crow laws were violation of the Constitution.2675

                Facilities could be segregated by white race if they were separate but equal.2678

                The answer.2686

                Harlan's opinion was consistent with the beliefs expressed by,2688

                Supreme Court in the civil rights cases of 1883.2692

                Writer W.E.B. Dubois, Supporters of Jim Crow laws, Supporters of poll taxes.2695

                The answer is Dubois, one of the civil rights activists.2706

                We are done with the lesson on the new south and the farmers mobilize.2713

                Thank you for watching