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Progressive Era, Part 1

  • The Progressive Era began at the end of the 19th century until about the late1920s in response to laissez-faire Gilded Age.
  • Progressives came from various sectors of society & there was no single progressive constituency, agenda, or unifying org., (mostly but they had a common belief that industrialization/urbanization caused social & political problems that needed to be addressed)
  • A goal for many: to get rid of corrupt govt officials & reform govt/society & to achieve justice
  • The Progressive reform movement included: the settlement house movement, muckraking journalism, the Social Gospel, birth control movement, labor movement, women’s rights, civil rights, educational reform, child care, eradicating child labor, suffrage movement,
  • The Triangle Factory Fire of 1911 was a turning point in the history of progressive reforms after 146 died in the fire because they were trapped in the unsafe building; the incident triggered the NY State Factory Commission to develop labor reform: 56 laws dealing w/fire hazards, unsafe machines, industrial homework, & wages/hours for women & children
  • Some nativist groups spoke out to restrict immigration and in support of prohibition
  • Improvements in democracy: the direct primary, initiative, referendum, and recall were all new populist/progressive tools for the people
  • Progressive governors like La Follete, Johnson, Wilson, and Roosevelt paved the wave for Progressive presidents

Progressive Era, Part 1

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • Progressivism
      • Jane Addams and Hull House
      • Settlement Movement
        • Progressive Ideas
        • Muckrakers
        • Progress and Poverty
        • Looking Backward
        • How the Other Half Lives
        • Women Progressives
        • Louis D. Brandeis
        • Other Female Reformers
        • Suffrage Movement
        • Urban Liberalism
        • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
        • Cultural Pluralism Embattled
        • Populist Ideas Implemented Into Politics
        • Progressive Governors
        • Progressivism and National Politics
        • Teddy Roosevelt
        • Example 1
          • Example 2
            • Example 3
              • Intro 0:00
              • Overview 0:05
              • Progressivism 1:23
                • Social Justice
                • Industrialization or Urbanization
                • Corrupt Government Officials
                • Urban Middle Class
              • Jane Addams and Hull House 4:48
                • Jane Addams
                • Hull House
                • A New Sense of Urgency
                • Alleviate Social Problems
              • Settlement Movement 5:51
              • Progressive Ideas 6:33
                • William James
                • Walter Rauschenbusch
                • Muckrakers
              • Muckrakers 9:53
                • McClure's and Collier's
                • New Kind of Reform
              • Progress and Poverty 10:48
                • Effects of Laissez-Faire Economics
                • Inequalities Wealth
              • Looking Backward 11:28
                • A Cooperative Society
                • Greater Government Regulation
              • How the Other Half Lives 12:01
                • Jacob A. Riis
                • A Danish Immigrant
                • Immigrant Ghettoes
              • Women Progressives 13:17
                • Humanitarian Work
                • Josephine Shaw Lowell
                • National Consumers' League
                • A Wave for Protective Laws
              • Louis D. Brandeis 15:30
                • The People's Attorney
                • Brandeis Brief
                • Supreme Court Justice
              • Other Female Reformers 17:47
                • Margaret Sanger
                • American Birth Control League
                • National Association of Colored Women
                • National Women's Trade Union League
              • Suffrage Movement 19:22
                • The National Woman's Party
                • Woman Suffrage Association
                • The 19th Amendment
                • Images of Suffrage Movement
              • Urban Liberalism 22:02
                • The Needs of the Poor
                • Voluntarism
                • The Industrial Hazards and Accidents
              • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire 23:49
                • New York State Factory Commission
                • Tammany
              • Cultural Pluralism Embattled 27:32
                • Progressive Goal
                • The Anti-Saloon League
              • Populist Ideas Implemented Into Politics 30:05
                • The Direct Primary
                • Initiative
                • Referendum
                • Recall
                • From the State to the Federal Level
              • Progressive Governors 32:43
                • Robert La Follette
                • Hiram Johnson
                • Theodore Roosevelt
                • Woodrow Wilson
              • Progressivism and National Politics 33:54
                • Teddy Roosevelt
                • Dakota Territory
              • Teddy Roosevelt 35:38
                • Civil Service Commission
                • Secretary of the Navy
                • Rough Riders
                • Trust Buster
                • Square Deal
              • Example 1 36:53
              • Example 2 40:20
              • Example 3 43:07

              Transcription: Progressive Era, Part 1

              Welcome back to

              This lesson is on the progressive era, part one.0002

              In this lesson, we are going to talk about the progressive era, in general, and what progressivism encapsulates.0007

              And we are going to talk about some of the specific branches of progressivism and how people actively tried to help society at large,0017

              how they tried to reform government and make the American public more aware of the problems0027

              and issues that needed to be addressed by government.0033

              Muckrakers were very much involved, we will be talking about them.0037

              Urban progressivism, we will talk about how progressives were very active in cities.0040

              We will talk about how progressives are active in all different levels of government and in society.0047

              This lesson is going to focus more on the local level, state level.0055

              And in the part two, we will actually get into presidential progressives.0059

              In this lesson, we will start to talk about the Federal initiatives that are put into place that will certainly be representative of progressive ideas.0065

              And we will also talk about women progressives and the suffrage movement.0078

              One thing that I would like to bring up before we delve into the history is to think about how we use the word progressivism today.0085

              You may actually see the root word in here, progress, is at the root.0094

              If you think about that progressing forward, change, that things are improving, involving in a positive way.0104

              That is the goal behind progressivism.0113

              It could also oftentimes be equated with liberalism.0117

              That liberalism is, it needs to be qualified but the idea that there is an assumption that government needs to address a lot of problems.0122

              And that is an important role that government should take on.0136

              Here is some of the other ideas that I would like to highlight.0144

              We do start to see that, this, in many ways, response to the Gilded Age, the laissez-faire approach of governments during that era.0148

              Yes, we saw a lot of problems arise as a result.0158

              New ideas started to become very prevalent about trying to create a better world0162

              and having an honest efficient government that could bring about social justice.0168

              This was a new way of thinking.0174

              Instead of a very hands off approach and that is not really government's job.0178

              This is flipping that on its head and say no, government does have a job to try to create laws that will improve the lives of its people.0183

              Progressives came from various sectors of society and there was no single progressive constituency.0194

              Progressives, progressive umbrella really encapsulates many different groups.0201

              The common string with all these different groups is that industrialization, urbanization,0210

              cause social and political problems that needed to be addressed.0219

              You could also add to this that it was government that needed to get involved0223

              and help to regulate some of these problems and help to address some of these problems.0229

              We will see that there will be environmental efforts, there will be social efforts, there will be political efforts.0235

              Speaking of politics, many wanted to get rid of corrupt government officials and reform government,0243

              as will as society to achieve justice.0249

              Have a fair government, honest government, to help give people a better sense of their government0252

              and to empower them to voice their concerns.0260

              And that they really wanted to have faith in their government that they would address the problems.0265

              And again, although, progressives came from various sectors of society,0270

              we will see that the urban middle class was at the center of action during the progressive period.0274

              And that makes sense as they perhaps had a little more time than the working class to get involved in these efforts.0280

              We will see a lot of religious minded people as well, will be very much involved in the progressive movement.0288

              One of the major participants in the settlement house movement was a woman known as Jane Addams, and she founded Hull House.0295

              And Hull House actually was established in Chicago, Illinois.0308

              It served as a community center to better the neighborhood ghettos.0313

              This new generation, the progressive era, sought to reform society and to meet their Christian mission.0318

              They had a sense of urgency to go out in the community and try to help people to the best of their ability.0327

              Settlement houses like Hull House helped alleviate social problems in the slums.0333

              And also helped to satisfy the middle class residents need for meaningful lives.0338

              It is kind of a win-win situation that they are helping people who are poor.0344

              What they would do actually at these Hull houses like this, is they would help to provide child care.0348

              They would help with some educational support, in some cases, helping to facilitate job opportunities.0357

              Just also building community in the area and provide support in various ways.0366

              This became a really important staple in society.0374

              Here is Jane Addams.0378

              And of course, people who were involved in it also benefited from helping and they felt satisfied by giving back and sharing,0379

              that they were fortunate to have their education and their skills, and so forth.0388

              Other ideas that progressives, progressives are people who believe in progressive ideas.0395

              Progressives supported scientific management and academic expertise.0403

              When we talk about scientific management, we are talking about how to make organizations more efficient in the private sector,0411

              as well as in the government, in terms of government reforms.0418

              They believe in that idea that was embraced by businesses in the private sector to focus on efficiency.0424

              But they disagreed with social Darwinists, this survival of the fittest mentality.0432

              And instead, they embraced pragmatic ideas that were advocated by William James,0440

              who denied the existence of absolute truths, and instead judge ideas by their consequences.0445

              This is something I would like to emphasize, pragmatic ideas.0452

              Philosophy they believed should be concerned with solving problems not with contemplating ends.0459

              This is going to help to inform and justify a lot of the progressive goals in a lot of their activities.0466

              Protestants were also very much involved in the progressive movement.0478

              They practice the social gospel.0483

              Under its leadership, Walter Rauschenbusch, in Hell's Kitchen in New York City, he is going to be a huge advocate of people.0485

              He is going to encourage the idea to embrace the social aims of Jesus for the cause of social justice.0498

              Again, kind of taking it to the streets, trying to help people and help lift them up and be true to his religious beliefs.0506

              We also see a new kind of journalism emerging.0516

              The journalists were nicknamed muckrakers.0521

              This actually was a bit of a derogatory term that Theodore Roosevelt came up with.0525

              The idea is that, a raker of muck, you are kind of digging up the dirt, you are digging up what is ugly0532

              and what people oftentimes do not want to deal with.0541

              Sometimes that can be quite painful, it can be quite shocking.0546

              It can get people's attention and get a huge reaction.0550

              That is what they were looking to achieve.0555

              Today, we use the term like investigative journalist.0560

              In many ways, they followed in the same tradition as the muckrakers.0563

              Journalists who expose the underside of American Life.0569

              Instead of focusing on the shiny, nice, positive aspects, they are actually seeing what is beneath the surface.0572

              Making the public aware of social ills and ultimately they are looking to empower people0581

              to get them enraged, for them to take action and put pressure on their governments to forge change.0590

              Here is some more examples of some works by muckrakers.0599

              We see muckrakers writing articles and magazines like McClure’s and Collier's.0604

              We also see muckrakers who are idealistic, tough minded progressives, who are trying to put pressure on people to make change.0611

              People like Ida Tarbell who focused on the history of the Standard Oil Company,0623

              that was very well known for practicing vertical and horizontal integration, for dominating the oil market as a trust.0630

              These are some examples of muckrakers, there will be others as well.0643

              There are several books that were created at this time.0650

              Progress and Poverty by Henry George, this was a provocative book in 1817 that became an instant best seller,0653

              and jolted readers to look more critically at the effects of laissez-faire economics.0663

              He proposed placing a single tax on land, as a solution to poverty.0669

              He also called attention to the alarming inequalities in wealth caused by industrialization.0673

              Very critical of the industrial capitalism, inequality, and he even had solutions to these problems.0681

              Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy, was another influential book.0690

              It envisioned a future era in which a cooperative society had eliminated poverty, greed, and crime.0696

              Very kind of idealistic vision in his book that encouraged a shift in U.S. public opinion away from pure laissez-faire0704

              and toward greater government regulation.0712

              You probably see a similar thread here amongst all of these works.0716

              How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis, he was a Danish immigrant who arrived in the United States in 1870.0723

              And of course we know that for many immigrants, the idea of improving their lives was something that was very appealing0732

              but many had two of these many hardships.0740

              He described the conditions in immigrant ghettos in New York City.0744

              The tenements that were overcrowded, poor sanitation, and just general poverty.0749

              And I included this picture as well, the other muckrakers also took photos to show child labor.0756

              This is going to call attention to this huge issue that children should be in school.0763

              Children should not be exploited and this was immoral that children are being forced to work for companies in horrific conditions for low wages0770

              and miss out on their education and in improving their lives over all, that this would create a cycle of poverty.0786

              This is also going to be an important book.0796

              Women also were very much involved.0799

              Mostly middle class women who participated in humanitarian work.0803

              Josephine Shaw Lowell founded the New York Consumer’s League in 1890,0809

              to improve wages and working conditions for female clerks in city stores by whitelisting progressive businesses.0814

              In other words, trying to put progressivism on the good list, that encouraged consumers to go to these businesses,0823

              support those businesses, and do business with them because they treat their workers much better.0832

              They have better conditions and they pay them more, instead of the blacklist, do not go there.0839

              This league also spread to other cities had became eventually the National Consumers League in 1899.0848

              And under the leadership of Florence Kelley, became a very powerful lobby for protective legislation for children.0856

              There was a famous court case that they were instrumental in helping to see through and that was called Muller vs. Oregon,0864

              that ends up having a very success story.0873

              And in this case, the court does in fact decide to limit women's work days to 10 hours.0879

              This case helped to usher in at least a maternalist welfare system in the United States.0888

              In other words, that certain protection needs to be in place for women specifically.0894

              The Muller case was argued by Louis D. Brandeis and declares the way for a wave of protective laws for women and children,0903

              and helped to usher a welfare system.0913

              In other words, kind of a safety net especially for those who are oftentimes viewed in societies the most vulnerable,0917

              and those who need to be helped the most.0926

              Speaking of Brandeis, he is considered an important progressive attorney, the people's attorney.0932

              He is known as an important progressive lawyer for his effort to take on a number of pro bono cases0940

              or cases that were intended to help the public good.0949

              He defended the Oregon maximum hour law for working women in Muller vs. Oregon.0954

              And he produced the Brandeis brief in which two pages stated how the law's constitutionality should be tested.0960

              In addition, the brief included sociological and economic data drawn from hundreds of sources,0968

              supporting the need for the Oregon law.0974

              This kind of brings up another point that more and more we are seeing progressives are looking to social scientists, for data, for proof,0978

              and to back up their claims and to help to justify a lot of their policies so that they can actually quantify0992

              and qualify what people are experiencing, so that they can show that these poor conditions or lack of education or whatever the problem may be,1004

              has an effect on people’s development or whatever the case may be.1017

              That is an important shift as well, as we are going to start to see universities,1022

              especially sociology departments starting to make a lot of studies and working with attorneys, in cases like this.1028

              And will help to also inform governments, in many cases.1042

              Brandeis, during the Wilson administration became a full big business and supported regulation of market competition.1049

              He was appointed to and confirmed as Supreme Court justice in 1916.1058

              He had a very long career, successful career.1065

              There are other female reformers, back to women progressives.1069

              Margaret Sanger who advocated for birth control, arguing that it was women's health would improve if they had fewer children.1073

              You may remember the Comstock law that try to prevent in fact, people from distributing birth control1083

              so she continued to challenge those Victorian ideas, and got out to the streets and reached out to immigrant communities.1093

              And eventually helped to found the American birth control league to make information available to women.1103

              Ida B. Wells, you may remember her from her work speaking out against lynching1110

              and being an advocate for civil rights, especially in the south.1117

              She helped to found the National Association of Colored Women.1122

              This organization helps with education, daycare centers, and other services to help, especially African American women and families.1128

              There are other social reformers founded the National Women's Trade Union League in 1903.1138

              This was financed and led by wealthy supporters.1146

              They helped to organize women workers and played a role in their strikes.1150

              We are going to see all different types of groups.1156

              Women getting involved in a lot of these progressive reforms.1160

              Suffrage is still a huge goal for a lot of progressives.1165

              As you may remember, in the Seneca Falls convention of 1848, that many of the Quaker activists1170

              and other women's rights activists pledged to continue the good fight for women's equality and legal rights, suffrage rights.1178

              Two important organizations continue to work and advocate for women's suffrage.1191

              The national women's party that was organized with the help of Alice Paul in 1916.1201

              They would use public protest marches to raise awareness.1208

              Somewhere on the more extreme side and went on hunger strikes and used different methods of civil disobedience to break the law1212

              and to draw attention to their cause, and reach out to people's consciences1221

              so that they would realize that preventing women from having equal rights was immoral and unjust and undemocratic, and essentially un-American.1227

              We will see that, I do not know if you remember but in the 19th century, there was a divide in the women's suffrage movement.1238

              We will eventually see, this group in particular, was having a state by state approach.1245

              Whereas, we will see the national movement, the women's suffrage association, was rejuvenated under the leadership of Carrie Chapman Catt,1254

              who organized a broad based campaign to push for a constitutional amendment for women's suffrage.1264

              But it will not be until, it is going to be a long fight, June of 1919 when Congress passed the 19th Amendment.1272

              This will be after World War I.1280

              And of course, that is going to become extremely politicized, as women did their bit during World War I,1282

              and believed that if they were holding down the home front and sacrificing for the cause of war,1291

              they should certainly have the right to vote.1300

              Here we can see women protesting and marching.1306

              Here is a nice quote by Alice Paul, we shall not be safe until the principle of equal rights is written into the framework of our government.1314

              Shifting to urban liberalism.1325

              We are going to see in the urban environment and in cities, that there is a shift from machine politics,1328

              that were known for being quite corrupt to urban politics to address the needs of the poor, and to clean up local government.1335

              Leftist parties like the socialists, challenge the machines.1346

              Republican Hiram Johnson also began to speak out on behalf of the working class.1350

              Nativism also had an effect.1356

              This specially intensified by World War I, when immigration restrictions increased.1360

              This of course is not so progressive but will backlash against immigrant groups and so forth, but that is also part of this history.1365

              Unions under the leadership of Gompers, preached that workers should not seek government help1376

              but that they should accomplish their goals with their own economic power and self help.1382

              Sometimes this is known as volunteerism.1389

              Here we are seeing consistently what I was saying previously about the AFL,1392

              accepting the situation to a certain extent and still advocating for self help, self reliance.1399

              That is still part of the conversation and part of the ethos of many Americans.1407

              Eventually, however, we will see that the labor movement will put pressure for state reforms1415

              because of the industrial hazards and accidents throughout the country.1422

              And they will start to realize that these problems cannot be fixed at the local level,1427

              they need state laws and in some cases they need Federal laws.1434

              This brings up an incident that relates to this point.1438

              The Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire.1443

              This is a great example to show how a horrible accident but that could have been prevented,1446

              many believed, resulted in some major changes and major laws being instituted.1455

              Women were actually, a lot of activists had been advocating for quite awhile that the conditions in the factory were quite horrific.1463

              One of the major issues was that the structure of the building where the factory was located was very unsound and very unsafe.1476

              And we did not have regulations in buildings like we do today.1489

              In fact, it is because of this accident that we have laws.1493

              On March 25, 1911, a fire broke out and they did not have to safety conditions in place either.1498

              The flames trapped the workers.1506

              The doors, if I remember correctly, you could not push them out which is usually how doors are supposed to be because of fire codes,1508

              so you can get your way out of a room or building, whatever it may be.1518

              In this case, they came in and they were not working properly.1523

              A lot of the elevators were not available so women were trapped in the high-rise and many ended up leaping to their deaths.1527

              146 died and most of them were around 19 years old, young ladies.1539

              This was just a horrific event that brought to the surface that the government needs to have regulations regarding safety,1548

              and that they need services to prevent these types of things from happening.1559

              This triggered the New York State factory commission, commissions were created to help regulate different businesses1565

              to make sure they are using fair business practices, that they are putting in safety features1573

              so that workers do not have to work in a dangerous environment.1580

              It is true a lot of these sacrifices and accidents that change was finally advocated for.1584

              The commission did eventually develop labor reform and 56 laws dealing with fire hazards, unsafe machines,1592

              industrial homework and wages, hours for women and children, were instituted.1603

              That is a lot to emphasize that.1609

              56, that is quite a bit.1613

              I’m having fun with my purple today.1616

              The commission was led by Robert F. Wagner and Alfred E. Smith, both Tammany Hall politicians were serving at the time as state legislators.1619

              What became apparent was that Tammany had realized that social problems had outgrown the powers of party machines,1629

              that only the state could bar industrial fire traps or alleviate sweatshop work, and slum life protection of the law.1638

              Again, this is where we are going see that people are looking for government to step in and help to regulate and address these problems.1650

              Urban liberalism was not driven slowly by the plight of the economic downtrodden but by nativism.1661

              One of the new so called progressive goals, and again, this was one of the downsides of a very biased,1669

              shall I say, white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant, group of people, who in some ways believed that they were better1680

              and looked down upon Catholic immigrants, in particular, and specially those who were big drinkers.1689

              The new immigrants, specially, had to receive a lot of backlash during this time.1695

              Cultural pluralism was definitely something that was questionable.1703

              This is obviously a very messy process in U.S. history.1712

              The new progressive goal was to restrict immigration of southern and eastern Europeans into the United States,1717

              specially, against Polish and Italian immigrants.1723

              This is during the time when a lot of prejudices start to emerge and as the temperance movement continues to build momentum,1726

              certain ethnic groups who have a drinking culture, so to speak, will be targeted.1736

              The anti-saloon league which viewed itself as the Protestant church in action, fought for prohibition and the saloon made for dirty politics,1743

              poverty, and bad labor conditions according to their view.1754

              This is kind of a typical, in this case, anti-German cartoon.1759

              Here you see Hun Rule Association boos boos, we are against progress, we rob women and children,1766

              we fill penitentiaries and asylums.1774

              Alcoholism was actually a problem but you can see that this kind of became a slippery slope, like these immigrant groups are drunks,1777

              this type of generalization and stereotype that can be problematic, and unfair, and so forth.1786

              But this term Hun which is a derogatory term addressing Germans.1793

              And we will see that term actually also being used during World War I.1802

              Before, when we talked about the Populist movement, I did mention that in many ways,1809

              the Populist movement is going to inform and help to lead to the progressive movement.1814

              Although the Populist tended to focus primarily on the issue as farmers, there were some overlap,1821

              there were some common threads, some common goals, that we will see Populist as well as progressives will have.1828

              In terms of regulating railroads, for instance, in terms of having more voice in government1836

              and expecting government officials to truly represent them, that is where we are going to see a lot of common ground.1844

              In many ways, the Populist movement is going to fuel the progressive movement.1852

              We will see Populist ideas actually being implemented into politics.1857

              Like I want to point out before, even though this third party never was elected into office, their ideas were far reaching.1861

              Some of the initiatives that were put into place, the direct primary in election1873

              in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections.1878

              There were other important political tools that helped to foster people's rights.1885

              The initiative when people proposal ought to vote on and they put it on the ballot.1891

              The referendum, when legislators proposed laws and they put it on the ballot.1896

              And voters vote whether to pass or not pass the law.1904

              The recall, when voters choose to remove a public servant before the end of his or her term.1910

              These were all mutual that are eventually made legal and implemented.1917

              Other trends that we could see during the progressive movement.1924

              We are going to see a switch from the state to the Federal level.1929

              That is going to be significant progression because it encountered failure in trying to regulate business at the state level.1933

              That is going to be a issue, as businesses become bigger and bigger and more monopolistic,1943

              we are going to see that the Federal government is going to need to step in, that states have limited success in regulating big business.1948

              Increasingly, we will see the Presidency taking a greater role and not a laissez-faire approach.1956

              But again, next time, we will get into the presidents and we will talk about more of the Federal progressive policies.1965

              At the state level, there were some notable progressive governors such as Robert La Follette, also known as Fighting Bob of Wisconsin,1973

              who fought for several reforms including regulating the railroads, educational improvement, the direct primary, and safety in factories.1984

              The state university also became an important resource for his reform administration.1993

              Hiram Johnson of California, he had shattered Southern Pacific Railroads hold on government,1998

              established the direct primary and other forms that putting measures on the ballot.2004

              To northeastern Governor, Theodore Roosevelt, you may know he later becomes president and progressive president of New York.2011

              Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, they developed a fair hiring system for state workers,2020

              they enforced corporations to pay taxes, and were generally quite progressive.2028

              And that will help to inform our politics in their agendas as presidents.2034

              This will kind of set us up for the next lesson.2043

              We will see that Roosevelt is going to work his way up the political ladder, so to speak.2046

              He actually was chosen as William McKinley's running mate by the Republicans who hoped to neutralize him.2053

              But he became President, because he was a bit of outspoken, very strong personality,2059

              and Republicans were not sure if he was the best candidate for the Republicans.2067

              But we are going to see that shortly after McKinley, during McKinley's presidency,2077

              that in fact he is going to be assassinated, as you could see here in this picture, by an anarchist from Czechoslovakia.2085

              He was very much an imperialist, when we talk about his foreign policy, you will understand why he was very unpopular.2100

              Roosevelt, the progressive, will end up as Vice President becoming President.2109

              He was a Harvard graduate that became involved in politics, developed a reputation as a fearless and honest legislator.2114

              He also spent time living in the Dakota territory, after his wife and mother died and worked as a cowboy.2122

              And during this time period, he is going to develop an appreciation for nature which will inform his politics.2131

              More about Teddy Roosevelt, he served in Washington on the Civil Service Commission2143

              and in New York City as Commissioner of Police and in 1897 was appointed Secretary of Navy.2149

              And that is going to give him some foreign policy experience, as he is going to fight in Spanish-American war.2156

              But we will get into that in a future chapter.2164

              He helped to influence U.S. involvement in Cuban independence from Spain and2169

              the U.S. eventually became involved in the Spanish-American war, and he became one of the roughriders in the cavalry regiment.2173

              He supported big business but wanted to protect small businesses and workers.2181

              He is considered a progressive, yet, I do not want to overstate that, he was known as the trustbuster and he wanted to have a square deal.2189

              That is going to be his plan.2201

              And we will talk about that more next time, I do not want to give it away so please come back for more.2202

              We are going to see to what extent he was actually a trustbuster.2209

              Here we are at the end of the lesson and we are at the point when we do the assessment.2215

              The first section here, example 1, we are going to do some multiple choice.2221

              This is an excerpt from Jacob Riis, we talked about him.2227

              Look, how the other half lives.2231

              Today, 3/4 its New York's, three-fourth of its people live in tenements.2236

              If it shall appear that the sufferings and the sins of the other half and the evil they breed are2248

              but as a just punishment upon a community that gave it no other choice, it will be because that is the truth.2254

              In the tenements, all the influences make for evil because they are the hotbeds of the epidemics,2262

              that carried death to rich and poor alike, the nurseries of pauperism, and crime that fill our jails.2270

              And police courts that threw off a scum of 40,000 human wrecks to the island asylums and work houses year by year,2279

              that turned out in the last eight years around half million beggars to prey upon our charities,2294

              that maintain a standing army of 10,000 tramps with all that implies.2302

              Because above all, they touched the family life with deadly moral contagion.2308

              Which phrase best summarizes what Riis considers the cause of the problems he sees?2318

              A just punishment upon the community, in the tenements all the influence is made for evil,2327

              throw off a scum of 40,000 human wrecks, touched the family life with deadly moral contagion?2335

              The answer.2346

              During the late 19th century, which of the following groups most benefited from the poverty described by Riis?2350

              Impressionists, political machines, social Darwinists, or social scientists.2357

              Benefitted, it is kind of a weird question.2365

              The answer is social Darwinists.2369

              This one is a little bit weird but just fine, kind of this survival of the fittest.2374

              Which individual would be most likely to argue that the government should not intervene to improve the tenements?2385

              That should be A, B, C, D.2396

              The government should not intervene.2400

              The answer, Herbert Spencer, Eugene Debs, Walter Raushenbusch, or Jane Addams?2405

              It would be Herbert Spencer, as he was a huge advocate of social Darwinism.2412

              I stand before you tonight under indictment for the alleged crime of having voted at the last presidential election,2424

              without having a lawful right to vote.2430

              It shall be my work this evening to prove to you that in last voting, I not only committed no crime2432

              but instead simply exercised my citizens' rights, guaranteed to me and all United States citizens by the national constitution.2439

              Beyond the power of any states to deny, are women persons?2450

              And I have heard they believed any of our opponents will have the hearty hood to say they are not, being persons then,2460

              women are citizens and no state has a right to make any law or to enforce any old law that shall abridge their privileges or immunities.2466

              Hence, every discrimination against women in the constitution of laws of the several states, is today null and void.2475

              Precisely as is everyone against Negros.2483

              I forgot to highlight this in the beginning, Susan B. Anthony, was it a crime for a citizen of the United States to vote, from 1873.2488

              Susan B. Anthony was arrested and fined $100 for casting an illegal vote in the presidential election of 1872.2503

              She refused to pay the fine, to whom of the following were her action is most similar?2511

              Molly Pitcher, Henry David Thoreau, Dred Scott, or John Brown?2517

              Henry David Thoreau.2525

              Susan B Anthony's arguments for women's suffrage can best be understood in the context of,2528

              Marbury vs. Madison, the Monroe doctrine, the Reconstruction amendments, the American protective association.2534

              The answer.2545

              She was referring to the 14th Amendment.2548

              Anthony targeted the states as the parts of government discriminating against women primarily for which of the following reasons?2551

              Except for the Reconstruction amendments, the U.S. constitution left the power to the states to determine suffrage rights.2559

              She will lead all states violated Federal voting laws.2565

              The states establish marriage laws yet kept women in inferior legal positions.2569

              The Federal government already supported women's suffrage.2574

              This is the one, because women are citizens that was the rationale she used.2582

              Now we are at the point where we are going to do some short answer.2593

              Briefly explain the significance of two of the following during the progressive movement.2599

              You need to pick two, pragmatism, scientific management, muckrakers, or regulatory commissions?2606

              I'm going to choose to illustrate muckrakers and regulatory commission.2614

              You may want to pause and do your own examples, and then check mine.2624

              Muckraker writers and reporters were often at the forefront of trying to expose the problems and corruption in government and society,2628

              but influence public opinion to demand reform from their governments.2637

              Regulatory commissions, progress regulatory commissions were used frequently to study2646

              and address complex problems faced by a large industrial society such as in the U.S.2650

              They oftentimes prevented businesses from using monopolistic or unfair business practices.2656

              Lastly, briefly explain why the progressives thought government needed to play a more active role in solving America's problems.2666

              Progressives believe that society could be improved through an active democratic government.2675

              They have a positive view of government.2680

              They believe that true government initiatives and regulations, the exploitative practices of corporations and the wealthy could be curbed or regulated.2682

              With that, we are done with the progressive era, part one.2694

              Come back for more and thank you for watching