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Jackson, The Removal of Native Americans and The Bank Veto

  • Jackson’s concept of democracy did not extend to the Native Americans; his sympathy was for land-hungry citizens who wanted Native American lands
  • He believed the most humane viable solution was to compel Native Americans to leave their traditional homelands & resettle west of the Mississippi , so he supported the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and ignored the court’s decision in Worcester v. Georgia when Marshall affirmed the rights of tribes to remain free from the authority of state govts
  • After the May 1838 deadline passed, when only 2,000 of 17,000 Cherokees abided by the treaty, President Martin Van Buren ordered General Winfield Scott to enforce the treaty and thousands of Native Americans moved to Indian reservations during what became known as the “Trail of Tears”
  • The removal was never complete, some tribes especially resisted removal, such as the Seminoles who fought and resisted for years
  • Jackson vetoed the second bank’s charter because of his distrust for banks or perhaps b/c of his business failure & debt as a result of the Panic of 1797

Jackson, The Removal of Native Americans and The Bank Veto

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Overview
      • “King” Jackson and Native Americans
      • “King Jackson”
        • Attitudes Toward Native Americans
        • The “Five Civilized Tribes”
        • Tribal Map in Southeast
          • The Indian Removal Act, 1830
          • The Black Hawk War
          • Portrait of Black Hawk by Charles Bird King
            • Worcester v. Georgia in 1832
            • Jackson's Response
            • Johnson v. McIntosh in 1823
            • Indian Removal
              • Trail of Tears
                • Trail of Tears, a 1200 Mile Journey
                  • The Seminole War
                  • Osceola
                    • “The Indians and Negroes Massacre the Whites in Florida, in January 1836”
                      • Result of Removal
                      • Jackson's Bank Veto
                      • Jackson's Second Term
                      • Jackson Cartoon
                        • Jackson's Species Circular
                        • Example 1
                          • Example 2
                            • Intro 0:00
                            • Overview 0:08
                            • “King” Jackson and Native Americans 2:01
                              • Vetoed 12 Bills
                              • Abusing Power
                              • Land-Hungry Citizens
                            • “King Jackson” 4:55
                            • Attitudes Toward Native Americans 6:42
                              • White Expansion
                              • Get Rid of Indian Landholdings
                              • Indian Removal Act
                            • The “Five Civilized Tribes” 8:08
                              • Cherokees
                              • Southern Indians
                            • Tribal Map in Southeast 10:37
                            • The Indian Removal Act, 1830 11:00
                              • The Resettlement of Many Thousands of American Indians
                              • Bureau of Indian Affairs
                            • The Black Hawk War 12:01
                              • Chief Black Hawk
                              • Last Battle
                              • 70 Indian Nation to Sign Treaties
                            • Portrait of Black Hawk by Charles Bird King 13:26
                            • Worcester v. Georgia in 1832 13:55
                              • Worcester
                              • Native American Sovereignty
                              • The Rights of Tries to Remain Free from the State Government
                            • Jackson's Response 16:54
                              • Let the Court Enforce It
                              • Removal Continued
                            • Johnson v. McIntosh in 1823 17:32
                              • Illinois and Pinakeshaw
                              • Buy Land from Tribes not from Individuals
                            • Indian Removal 18:33
                            • Trail of Tears 20:07
                            • Trail of Tears, a 1200 Mile Journey 20:44
                            • The Seminole War 21:37
                              • The Seminoles of Florida
                              • The Struggle Dragged on for Years
                              • Uprising in 1835
                            • Osceola 23:24
                            • “The Indians and Negroes Massacre the Whites in Florida, in January 1836” 23:30
                            • Result of Removal 25:07
                              • Less Hospitable Lands of the Mississippi
                              • Disease or Exhaustion
                              • Alien Environment
                            • Jackson's Bank Veto 27:03
                              • Most Powerful Financial Institution in the Nation
                              • Nicholas Biddle
                              • The “Soft Money” Faction
                              • The Hard money Position
                              • Henry Clay
                              • Private Monopoly
                            • Jackson's Second Term 31:13
                              • Destroy the “Monster” Bank
                              • Attorney General Roger B. Taney
                              • Raising Interest Rates and Calling in Loans
                              • Chronically Unstable Banking System
                            • Jackson Cartoon 33:14
                            • Jackson's Species Circular 35:52
                              • Inflated Prices for Land and Various Goods
                              • Specie Circular
                              • The Panic of 1837
                            • Example 1 37:41
                            • Example 2 40:09

                            Transcription: Jackson, The Removal of Native Americans and The Bank Veto

                            Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

                            This lesson is on Jackson, the removal of Native Americans, and the bank veto.0002

                            Let us get into it.0010

                            In the last lesson, we had talked about the strengths of the Jackson administration.0012

                            We also talked about how he was a very controversial president.0017

                            He certainly helped ordinary people but he was a no friend of the Native Americans, and we will also see, of African-Americans.0022

                            We are going to talk about primarily in this lesson, Andrew Jackson's policy of removal and his patronizing attitude towards Native Americans.0031

                            And as a result, we are going to see major resistance movements.0041

                            And then, we will also see relocation of Native Americans to western lands, what today we would consider the Midwest.0047

                            We are going to talk about this.0059

                            And as a result of Indian removal, we are going to talk about the infamous trail of tears.0061

                            The process when Native Americans were being forced off the land.0068

                            And then, another resistance movement that broke out in the Seminole war that showed tremendous resistance, especially in Florida.0072

                            Then, we are going to talk about the controversial banking policies of the Jackson administration and how he vetoed the bank.0082

                            He really was determined to kill the bank, and then eventually create Pet Banks.0090

                            He is going to have another strategy called the Specie Circular.0098

                            And eventually because of the policies of the Jackson administration, 0104

                            we are going to see that the United States is going to fall into a financial panic.0108

                            And the economy is going to be in a really rough shape.0112

                            Let us continue on here.0120

                            The critics of Jackson definitely considered him to really be overstepping his boundaries as president.0124

                            He was oftentimes named King Jackson.0133

                            There are a lot of great cartoons that depict him as a despotic monarch who is looking to have all the power, absolute power to himself.0136

                            Yes, this really was part of his style of government, and his enemies certainly liked to highlight these qualities.0152

                            As I indicated previously that Jackson had used his presidential power 0164

                            and interpreted the powers of Congress narrowly, thus he ended up vetoing more bills, it was 12.0168

                            I could not remember the exact number last time but here I have a number for you, 12 times.0176

                            This was much more than all six of his predecessors combined.0182

                            That was pretty significant.0190

                            Thus, he is called King Jackson for abusing his power and pushing the limits of presidential power.0194

                            His concept of democracy even though he really considered himself as leader in democracy and trying to democratize the voting process,0204

                            he did pull in more white Americans, those who did not come from elite families, those who did not traditionally have property.0217

                            Yes, they will have more rights during the age of Jackson.0229

                            But we will see other minority groups are not going to be included in his definition of democracy and who should be empowered.0233

                            Yes, obviously at the top of this list would be the Native Americans.0243

                            He did not sympathize with Native Americans.0247

                            He was very patronizing, he believed that the best thing for them was to be removed.0250

                            He had a long history of fighting against Native Americans, and kind of known for his deep prejudices.0258

                            He sympathy is firmly with the land hungry citizens who wanted Native American lands.0269

                            They ultimately wanted them pushed off the land.0277

                            We are going to see Native Americans being pushed farther and farther westward.0280

                            He believed that the most humane viable solution was to compel Native Americans 0285

                            to leave their traditional homelands and resettle west of the Mississippi.0289

                            Before I show you the map in a bit, of the various tribes that are going to be affected, this was a famous cartoon.0297

                            Obviously, they are critical of Andrew Jackson, King Andrew I, born to command, shall he reign over us or shall the people rule.0306

                            I will read some of these to you.0317

                            A king who possessing as much power, as his gracious brother William IV, makes a worse use of it.0319

                            A king who has placed himself above the laws, as he is shown by his contempt of our judges.0325

                            A king who destroys our currency and substitute old rags payable by no one, no one knows who, and no one knows where, instead of good silver dollars.0332

                            A king born to command, as he has shown himself by appointing men to office contrary to the will of the people.0344

                            A king who while he was feeding his favorites out of the public money,0353

                            denied a pittance to the old soldiers who fought and bled for our independence.0358

                            A king whose prime minister and heir apparent was thought unfit for the office of the ambassador by the people.0364

                            In here, born to command, had I been consulted, King Andrew I.0373

                            This is a veto memonic.0381

                            You may notice here, that he is actually stepping on the constitution.0384

                            He has a veto in his hand, and the staff, and the crown.0389

                            He looks like a king.0395

                            You can really understand how people were upset with Andrew Jackson's approach to the presidency.0397

                            Back to Native Americans, Jackson’s attitude, definitely wants them to move so that white Americans can continue westward expansion.0407

                            He definitely had a very patronizing view. 0419

                            We are going to see this changed throughout U.S. history, that Native Americans were considered noble savages, according to 18th century beliefs.0424

                            But that starts to change by the 19th century.0434

                            People became more and more hostile and intolerant, and ultimately want Native Americans to move.0440

                            In Georgia, in particular, the legislature wanted to get rid of Indian Land holdings in the state0446

                            in return for its 1802 ceding of western land claims.0453

                            Ultimately, removal will be the goal for many of the Georgians and the government there.0458

                            There will be a push from Jackson, as well, for the Indian Removal Act, which did eventually get passed,0468

                            which provided territory in modern day Oklahoma and Kansas to Native Americans who would give up their ancestral holdings, 0475

                            on the promise that they could live on the new lands in perpetuity.0482

                            We are going to see in a few slides, this region in the southeastern part of the United States 0489

                            where these so called five civilized tribes are going to be pushed off their land and relocated.0495

                            Just to tell you a little bit about these tribes.0504

                            In many ways, they were looked upon, the five civilized tribes were looked upon in a higher regard than most other tribes0508

                            because they had agricultural societies, they have written constitutions and a written language.0519

                            In many ways, we are going to see that Native Americans will try to adapt, 0528

                            and in some ways do take on some of the European American ways of life.0534

                            And in some ways, they try to use this as a justification that they should be able to be sovereign people, and that they should have rights.0542

                            But we are going to see that there is a double standard, and how sovereignty ultimately is interpreted.0553

                            The Federal government was troubled by these remaining tribes in the south.0563

                            Some thought that Cherokees should be allowed to retain their eastern lands, 0568

                            since they had become a civilized society and had given up many of their traditional ways.0574

                            In other words, they are meeting us halfway, they are trying to assimilate into mainstream U.S. society to a certain extent.0585

                            Yet, we are going to see some people just do not take into consideration, 0593

                            and ultimately just have a hostile policy and attitude toward Native Americans.0597

                            Yet, we are going to see attempts by, especially the Cherokee, but some of the other tribes as well, 0603

                            to stand up and assert for the rights.0608

                            The Federal government did work to negotiate treaties with southern Indians,0611

                            but again, the push, time and time again will ultimately be to benefit white Americans and push Native Americans off their land.0616

                            Impatient local whites wanted rapid removal and pressure their governments to support them.0632

                            Here is the map that I have been promising.0640

                            You could see this is where the five civilized tribes were relocated originally, in the southeastern part of the United States.0642

                            Tribes like the Cherokees, the Chikasaws, the Creeks, the Choktaws, you see the Natchez here too.0653

                            Eventually, the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was passed.0662

                            The law was signed by Jackson, and it forced the resettlement of many thousands of Native American Indians.0667

                            By 1835, most eastern tribes had reluctantly complied and moved west.0676

                            Now we will see a few exceptions, and I will touch upon that later.0682

                            During this time, the Bureau of Indian affair was also created to assist the resettled tribes,0688

                            or you can say forcefully accompany them to Oklahoma and Kansas, and so forth.0695

                            Most politicians supported this policy of removal.0703

                            They are going to support a lot of state governments such as in Georgia, 0708

                            other states that passed laws requiring Cherokees or other groups to migrate to the west.0713

                            Now we are going to talk about some of the uprisings and some of the wars that broke out as a result.0724

                            This is a little farther to the north.0730

                            Chief Black Hawk and his followers refuse to move from their rich farmland in Western Illinois.0732

                            Here is Jackson, he is not a friend of Native Americans.0739

                            He wants them pushed off their land.0742

                            He sent troops in to expel them.0744

                            The last battle we will see the Native American groups in this region Illinois, last battle 1831 to 1832, 0747

                            between white settlers in Illinois, in the lines of Sauk and Fox under Black Hawk.0757

                            This is going to be very significant.0764

                            Ultimately, we are going to see that these Native American tribes being pushed off their land, 0768

                            and further encroachment by white American settlers.0773

                            There were continued brutal military efforts that pushed Native Americans westward.0778

                            And over the next five years, U.S. diplomatic and military powers forced 70 Indian nations 0782

                            to sign treaties and move west of the Mississippi river.0790

                            Several treaties were forged through.0794

                            We will see the military taking a much more aggressive action to relocate Native Americans.0798

                            Which really left a very bitter legacy, I would say, and is certainly even today one of the most unpopular,0807

                            I would say, chapters in U.S. history.0816

                            This is a little to the north, but we can see in Michigan and Illinois, 0820

                            these were the areas that were affected, along with the portrait here of Black Hawk.0827

                            I also want to talk about the role of the Supreme Court.0837

                            Do keep in mind that Marshall was still in power, and Marshall is still being a federalist, is going to assert his power on the court.0842

                            We are going to see that Jackson is going to have conflict with the Supreme Court's position on Native American removal,0853

                            and the way that they are dealing with these land claims, and so forth.0863

                            We are going to see that the Cherokees will challenge Georgia in the courts.0870

                            The thing to keep in mind too, there was a desire to dig for, mine for gold, in this region.0877

                            And there are certainly were those who wanted to expand plantations throughout Georgia, they really wanted this land.0885

                            But we will see that the Cherokees did know something about the law, and ultimately will take Georgia to court.0892

                            There was another court case, Cherokee nation vs. Georgia that took place in 1831.0902

                            Where it was determined by the court, Cherokees were not a nation with the right to sue in a Federal Court.0910

                            However, we are going to see in the next court case, this is where we do kind of see some discrepancy, I guess you could say.0918

                            Where we are going to see this is kind of a change.0925

                            In the Worcester case, the court invalidated Georgia's laws that attempted to regulate access by U.S. citizens to Cherokee country.0928

                            Basically, against the state.0937

                            Federal Power, it is always a theme when we talk about the Marshall court.0939

                            Marshall claimed that only the Federal government could do that, could regulate these exchanges.0946

                            Native American sovereignty was also more clearly established, 0955

                            that they are distinct political communities having territorial boundaries, within which their authority is exclusive.0959

                            This is very significant in the Worcester case.0967

                            Marshall also affirms the rights of tribes to remain free from the authority of state governments.0972

                            Obviously, he is not saying that Federal government does have a say.0980

                            But he is definitely arguing against the state.0985

                            What the issue here was, even though he ruled on behalf of the Cherokees to exist, and against the Georgia state law,0992

                            the court was essentially powerless to enforce its decision without the President's support.1002

                            And surprise, do you think that Andrew Jackson supported this?1008

                            Absolutely not.1013

                            In fact, his response will be the court has made its decision, now let them enforce it.1015

                            He basically was sticking his nose up to the court, and saying I'm not going to enforce this law.1021

                            In essence, that is another example of Jackson viewing himself as above the law.1031

                            He does disagree with this decision, he was going to do everything in his power to ignore it.1040

                            He does not enforce the ruling, and removal as a result will continue, and much to the detriment of the Cherokees.1046

                            I also wanted to include, because I think this connects as well, in earlier court case, the Johnson vs. McIntosh of 1823,1056

                            even though chronologically it is a little bit off, but fanatically I wanted to pull this in, the Illinois and Piankeshaw tribes sold land.1065

                            This is what was related or what was involved in this court case.1074

                            The Illinois and Piankeshaw tribes sold land to white settlers, who had later signed the treaty with the Federal government 1080

                            ceding territory that included those same parcels to the United States.1086

                            In this court case, we will see that the court decided that Native Americans had a right to their tribal lands, 1090

                            and that only the Federal government could buy or take land from the tribes, not from individuals.1097

                            Again, very consistent with the last court case.1105

                            Yet, Andrew Jackson is not going to be going for it.1113

                            Removal is really going to take place.1117

                            The areas in green will be the areas that land will be ceded, meaning Native Americans are pushed off those lands,1120

                            they are forced to give up these lands.1128

                            The areas in pink will be the new areas called Indian reservations, where all of these different tribes will be forced onto.1132

                            One thing to keep in mind is, we will also see even further west, 1142

                            Native Americans were oftentimes pushed onto land that was not as desirable, was not as fertile, in some cases.1148

                            Different tribes were all lumped together in a very insensitive way.1157

                            This was really very tragic, disregard the different tribal groups in the United States.1164

                            This was a very painful process, and something that definitely left a very negative, very sad legacy, in our history.1175

                            In many ways, we still are seeing the effects of this Indian removal policy today.1187

                            You can see that Indian removal in the southeast, but also in parts of what we call the Midwest today.1196

                            Here is a picture of what became known as the trail of tears.1208

                            The idea here is that Native Americans are so sad from being pushed off their land.1212

                            Sad, angry, demoralized, they had to deal with the elements.1217

                            Many people died on this trip.1225

                            Families being uprooted, leaving their land that had been in the families for a very long time.1229

                            People get sick along the trip, they had to go on foot.1237

                            This was a very difficult process, a very long journey about 1200 miles.1243

                            The idea is that they are leaving a trail of tears because they are so sad being uprooted from their homeland.1251

                            Not a very happy part of the U.S. history.1259

                            Around the time of 1838, when the deadline passed, we are going to see that this is going to be a process.1266

                            When only about 2000 of the 17,000 Cherokees abided by the treaty, we will see after Jackson's administration, 1275

                            President Van Buren ordered General Winfield Scott to enforce the treaty.1285

                            Thousands and thousands of more Native Americans were forced off the land as well, kind of continued.1291

                            I also must include that there was tremendous resistance, whereas somewhere kind of demoralized,1300

                            just like we had no choice but to move.1306

                            We will see some very notable uprisings and resistance movements.1309

                            The Seminoles are one such case, I would say.1315

                            Seminoles of Florida managed to resist the pressures to relocate.1321

                            Even though their success was limited, they agreed under pressure to a settlement1326

                            and ceded lands to the government and agreed to move to Indian Territory.1332

                            We are going to see that they resist, they fight on for many years.1337

                            They really gave the U.S. government a good fight, good run for their money, if you will.1342

                            We will see that most moved west but a substantial minority under the leadership of Chieftain Osceola,1350

                            refused to leave and stage an uprising in 1835 to defend their lands.1358

                            Jackson, eventually, because of their refusal, had to send troops in to Florida.1365

                            But the Seminoles with their African-American associates were masterful warriors, 1370

                            guerrilla warriors, using hit and run tactics, and so forth.1377

                            Huge casualties, about 1500 white soldiers died, about $20,000,000 was spent on the struggle.1382

                            This was pretty substantial.1390

                            Seminoles remained but the relocation was never complete.1393

                            A very significant example of resistance to the removal.1399

                            A picture of Osceola, this was some propaganda.1406

                            The Indians and Negros massacred the whites in Florida, in January 1836.1413

                            Of course, the language is very outdated, and we do not use this language anymore, especially when we talk about Native Americans.1419

                            This was the terminology of the time, and obviously this is supposed to depict that African-Americans and Native Americans as savage people,1428

                            that they are lying together, they are dangerous, they are a threat.1437

                            Besides Native Americans being enemies, we will see also African-Americans1444

                            do not really get the support of the Jackson administration, in particular.1450

                            It is worth mentioning actually this time, that abolitionist who were very active in the south, 1456

                            that wanting to send out pamphlets, were prevented to do so.1462

                            And in fact, Andrew Jackson sought legislation, and even supported the idea of having a gag rule to prevent abolitionist from getting their fliers, 1467

                            and abolitionist propaganda, and information out to people to try to make the cause for abolitionism.1479

                            But he was not a supporter of abolitionism.1489

                            He is a slave owner himself.1492

                            Again, something to keep in mind fanatically, was Andrew Jackson, a man of the people, 1495

                            to what extent, and democracy for whom.1502

                            Again, keep this in mind, when we talk about the diverse peoples of the United States and1506

                            how policies affect different groups of people in different ways.1513

                            Back to Native American removal, some of the results.1521

                            The tribe ceded over 108,000,000 acres of land to the Federal government,1527

                            and received $68,000,000 and 32,000,000 acres in less hospitable lands of the Mississippi area, west of the Mississippi.1532

                            And in reservations, these were new territories set aside specifically for Native Americans.1545

                            Obviously, the issue of what to do with the Native Americans was a controversial one, 1552

                            instead of just wanting them to live where they wanted to live.1558

                            What were their alternatives?1562

                            Were all white Americans hostile towards Native American?1565

                            Certainly not, there were some examples of Native Americans and white groups are living together peacefully.1568

                            But we are going to see government policy, especially Andrew Jackson, and continuing with Van Buren was pretty hostile and very tense.1575

                            This is really going to exacerbate tensions between Native American groups and whites, and cause a lot of distrust for years to come.1586

                            During the trail of tears, awful statistics here as well, nearly 1/3 died of disease or exhaustion along the way.1598

                            Other effects, many Native Americans were never able to adjust to the prevailing environment from west of the Mississippi River.1607

                            And again, resistance will continue in Florida until about 1841.1617

                            Now we are going to move on to the other major topic of this lesson which is Jackson's policy toward the bank.1625

                            He was very distrustful of moneyed interests, of elitist institutions like the Bank of the United States.1635

                            He was going to do everything within his power to kill it.1645

                            Before we get to that, let me give you a little background on the bank.1651

                            Its headquarters were in Philadelphia, there were 29 branches in other cities.1654

                            Making it the most powerful financial institution in the nation.1660

                            By law, it was the only place that the Federal government could deposit its own funds.1665

                            Nicholas Biddle was the bank president from 1823 on, and did a great deal to make it prosperous.1671

                            The bank served as a dependable medium of exchange and provided credit to growing enterprises.1679

                            It is certainly necessary for businesses to grow because they needed money, capital to invest in their businesses.1685

                            Opposition to the bank was rooted in the conflict between two factions, two political groups, 1693

                            the soft money faction or you could say the political economic groups.1700

                            The soft money faction which wanted more currency in circulation unsupported by gold and silver.1707

                            The hard money faction, those who believed that gold and silver were the only basis for money.1713

                            Two different perspectives on what helps stabilize currency and the economy in the long run.1721

                            Soft money and hard money.1728

                            Jackson supported the hard money position.1731

                            He made it clear that he would not favor renewing the charter that was due to expire in 1836.1738

                            This is the charter for the bank, Second Bank of the United States.1744

                            A lot of historians would say, why was he so superstitious almost about the bank, why was he so distrustful?1748

                            Many would say that it was because of his business failure and debt, as a result of the panic of 1797, that really left a scar on his memory.1759

                            But nonetheless, he just really did not think that this was good for ordinary people.1773

                            On top of that, Biddle, the president of the bank, started to grant financial favors to influential man, 1780

                            whom he thought might help him preserve the bank.1788

                            Here we go, Jackson's foe, Henry Clay, Jackson's chief political opponent, favored the bank.1793

                            Clay challenged Jackson on the bank issue, persuading majority in Congress to pass a recharter bill of the bank.1803

                            The bill to renew the bank's charter was up for a vote in 1832, and Jackson vetoed it.1811

                            Surprise, surprise, calling it a private monopoly that enriched the wealthy and foreigners at the expense of the common people.1819

                            I should highlight this as well.1835

                            He is using the claim that this is really on behalf of common people, and that he is really trying to keep the moneyed interests in check.1839

                            And ultimately, he is going to feel that he is being supported by the people, since they end up reelecting him.1852

                            That he is the voice of the people, and they are going along with this, and they are distrustful as well.1862

                            Perhaps, it is because they were as educated about economics.1868

                            Because what we are going to see is that the United States relied on the bank for stability, and for capital and credit, and so forth.1872

                            Anyway, Jackson was on a mission to kill it.1883

                            After his win in the election of 1832, Jackson moves to destroy what he called the monster bank of the United States.1887

                            When his Secretary of Treasury spoke out against Jackson, who wanted to remove the government's deposits from the bank, 1896

                            the Secretary of the Treasury was fired.1903

                            This, Jackson is really looking like a tyrant.1908

                            He is looking like a madman, regarding this issue.1912

                            There was also a new Secretary of the Treasury, Attorney-General Robert B. Taney, 1916

                            who placed government deposits in what were known as State Pet Banks.1923

                            In response, Biddle raised the interest rates and started calling in loans.1929

                            And ultimately, this is what is going to kind of make the economy constrict, 1937

                            and cause huge problems in the economy eventually, resulting in a panic.1944

                            First a recession, and then eventually a panic.1952

                            There is a huge battle politically between Jacksonians and Biddle supporters, but Jackson ends up winning.1955

                            The bank died in 1836, however. Yes, the country ends up losing a valuable flawed financial institution, 1962

                            and was left with a fragmented and chronically unstable banking system that would plague the economy for more than a century.1973

                            Jackson, what were you thinking?1986

                            But again, he is very much afraid of these moneyed interests and the bank, and this is very much to the detriment of the economy.1988

                            This is a very critical cartoon of Jackson’s move to kill the bank, General Jackson slays the many headed monster.2000

                            Again, the bank is really viewed as the monster.2008

                            This is a satire on Jackson's campaign to destroy the bank of the United States and his support among state banks.2013

                            Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Jack Downing struggle against a snake with heads representing the states.2022

                            These are all the states here, you can clearly see Van Buren with his famous sideburns.2030

                            Jackson, who is on the left, raises a cane marked Veto and says, Biddle thou monster avaunt.2038

                            Avaount I say, or by the Great Eternal I will cleave thee to the earth, aye thee and thy four and twenty satellites.2046

                            Matty if thou art true, come on, if thou art false, may the venomous monster turn his dire fang upon thee.2054

                            Van Buren is saying, well done General, Major Jack Downing, Adams, Clay, well done all.2063

                            I disliked dissentions beyond everything, for it often compels a man to play a double part, were it only for his own safety.2070

                            Policy, policy is my motto, but intrigues I cannot countenance.2083

                            Downing, dropping his axe, Over here, now now you nasty varmint, be you imperishable?2089

                            I swan General that are beats all I reckon, that is the horrible wiper wot vommits venomous heads I guess.2098

                            The largest of the heads is president of the bank Nicholas Biddle.2107

                            This one right here, he wears a top hat labeled Penn for Pennsylvania.2113

                            You may not be able to see that, but if you look closely, you will be able to see it, and $35,000,000.2122

                            This refers to the rechartering of the bank by the Pennsylvania legislature in defiance of the administration's efforts to destroy it.2127

                            There is a lot in this cartoon that obviously indicates very critical view, and all the different people, 2137

                            different players involved in the bank.2148

                            As a result of Jackson's financial policies and feverish speculation in western lands, prices for land and various goods were inflated.2155

                            And when we have inflation, prices go up, currency is not worth as much.2166

                            It is really bad for the economy.2171

                            In response, Jackson will order the Specie Circular that require all future purchases of Federal lands2174

                            to be made in gold and silver, rather than paper banknotes.2182

                            And soon afterward, banknotes lost their value and land sales plummeted.2187

                            This is having a snowball effect in a negative way on the economy.2192

                            And eventually after he left office, the panic of 1837 broke out, plunging the national economy into a depression.2197

                            Thank you Andrew Jackson, being sarcastic.2206

                            Anyway, love him or hate him, he is a controversial president.2211

                            Some people would actually like to see him removed from the $20.00 bill, what do you think?2217

                            Many view him as a successful common man's president, others see him as very hostile toward minority groups.2225

                            And ultimately, one of the worst presidents in the United States.2235

                            Nonetheless, he is an interesting character, and perhaps had many strengths, many weaknesses.2240

                            He was a man of this time.2248

                            Certainly was a self made man but you can decide for yourself your views on Jackson.2250

                            And that concludes the lesson, and we are going to get into the examples.2258

                            Example 1, this will be multiple choice.2264

                            Look, President Andrew Jackson, message vetoing the bank in 1832.2272

                            It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes.2278

                            Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government.2286

                            In a full enjoyment of the gifts of heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, 2291

                            every man is equally entitled to protection by the law.2297

                            But when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages, artificial distinctions to make the rich richer,2302

                            the humble members of society, the farmers, mechanics, and laborers, have a right to complain of the injustices of their government.2312

                            There are no necessary evils in government.2323

                            If it would confine itself to equal protection, the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing.2326

                            In the act before me, there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just principles.2333

                            Based on the passage, which of the following groups was Jackson trying to support?2347

                            The war veterans, the slaves, landowners, or ordinary common people?2353

                            The answer.2365

                            Moving on, which of the following groups provided the greatest support for Jackson's veto of the bank?2368

                            Manufactures, nativists, southerners, or westerners?2374

                            The answer is southerners.2383

                            President Jackson’s veto of the bank would contribute most significantly to,2389

                            Lower interest rates, financial panic, increased land speculation, Clay’s political support.2394

                            The answer is financial panic.2405

                            Here we go, born to command.2411

                            We have seen this one before.2413

                            Born to command, had I been consulted, King Andrew I, a veto of memory.2419

                            He you could see, he was stepping on, this says internal improvement, U.S. bank, 2426

                            constitution of the United States, judicial statutes, I believe this says here.2435

                            You can see the veto on his hand, staff in the other.2445

                            This is short answer, explain the point of view reflected in the cartoon above regarding one of the following, 2449

                            presidential powers, American Indians, or states’ rights.2457

                            I think this one is the most straightforward.2464

                            You could obviously choose this one, these are all great options but I’m going to go with the first one, for example.2468

                            The cartoon depicts Andrew Jackson as a despotic monarch who overstepped his boundaries as president and abused his power.2478

                            His critics believed that his excessive vetoing as president reflects his kinglike approach to governing.2486

                            Thus, he abused his presidential powers, something along those lines, overstepped the boundaries.2500

                            Let us look at B, explain how one element of the cartoon expresses the point of view you identified in part A.2507

                            Jackson is stepping on the constitution and holds a veto in his left hand.2518

                            And the messages around the borders such as born to command and had I been consulted,2522

                            exemplify his kinglike approach to governments.2529

                            Part C, explain how the point of view you identified in part A2536

                            helped to shape one specific U.S. government action between 1824 and 1844.2540

                            Here is my answer, Jackson was criticized for the 1833 removal of Federal deposits 2557

                            from the Bank of the United States without Congressional approval.2563

                            As a result of removing those Federal deposits, he put those deposits in Pet banks, 2572

                            and eventually a depression resulted from his poor financial decisions as president.2578

                            That can be something specific.2588

                            Obviously, if you went with the Native Americans, you could talk about the Indian Removal Act, 2591

                            trail of tears, and so forth, that could obviously tie in as well.2596

                            There are a lot of different examples you could use, but I think that one was the most straightforward.2602

                            You should probably go with the most simple examples that you could pull in a lot of information that seem the most logical.2607

                            I think with that, we are done with our lesson on Jackson and the bank, and Native American removal.2618

                            Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2626