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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Charles Schallhorn
Tue Mar 10, 2015 11:19 AM

Post by Michael Osman on March 8, 2015

I think you explained trichromatic theory twice....

Visual Processes

  • Vision is the process whereby electromagnetic waves of the visible spectrum are transduced by cells in the eyes and interpreted by the brain
  • Humans can “see” a very small part of the EM spectrum
  • The length and amplitude of waves change the properties, changing our perceptions
  • The anatomy of the eye includes the lens, sclera, cornea, iris, ciliary body, pupil, vitrous humor, fovea retina (rods, cones, bipolar cells, amicrine cells, horizontal cells), and optic nerve
  • Feature detectors in the brain are nerve cells that respond to particular stimuli such as shape, angle or movement
  • The Tri-chromatic Theory (Young-Helmholtz) and the Opponent Process Theory are two differing, but accurate ways of explaining how we see color
  • Dark adaptation relies on rhodopsin, a light-sensitive pigment that helps with night vision

Visual Processes

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Objectives
    • What Can We See?
    • Vision
    • Vision
    • Wavelengths
    • Wavelengths
    • Parts of the Eye
    • Eye Anatomy
    • Anatomy of the Eye
    • The Retina and Photoreceptors
    • The Eye and Transduction
    • The Eye, Continued
    • The Eye and Transduction
    • Light Control
    • Visual Information Processing
    • Visual Acuity -- Snellen Test
    • Trichromatic Theory
    • Trichromatic Theory
    • Trichromatic Theory
    • Opponent Process Theory
    • Optical Illusion
    • Continuation of Illusion
    • Negative Afterimage
    • Color Vision Deficiency
    • Color Blindness
    • Ishihara Test
    • Color Blindness
    • Wiki Color Test
    • Dark Adaptation
    • Dark Adaptation
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Objectives 0:17
      • Describe Sensory Processes (e.g. Hearing, Vision, Touch, Taste, Smell, Vestibular, Kinesthesis, Pain), Including the Specific Nature of Energy Transduction, Relevant Anatomical Structures, and Specialized Pathways in the Brain for Each of the Senses
    • What Can We See? 0:40
      • Do You All See Those Two Large Black Circles?
      • Our Vision is Actually Upside Down, Blurry, and Riddled With Black Splotches
      • Our Brain Cleans it Up
    • Vision 2:12
      • What Can We Really See?
      • Do We Really See Each Other?
      • Light Comes to Us in Waves as Part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (Vision, Hearing, and Touch -- The Energy Senses)
      • Wavelength (Distance From One Wave Peak to the Next)
      • Hue (The Color We Experience -- Blue, Green, Red)
      • Intensity (The Amount of Energy in the Wave -- Measured by Amplitude or Height)
    • Vision 5:24
      • Graphic of Measurement in Nanometers of Different Kinds of Light and Sound Waves
    • Wavelengths 10:58
      • Drawing Depicting Short Wavelengths (High Frequency and Bluish Colors) and Long Wavelengths (Low Frequency and Reddish Colors)
    • Wavelengths 11:20
      • Picture Showing Bright Colors Have a Greater Amplitude than More Dull Colors
    • Parts of the Eye 11:46
      • Lens: Structure in the Eye That Focuses Light Rays -- When it Does This = Accommodation
      • Photoreceptors: Light-Sensitive Cells in the Eye -- The Rods and Cones
      • Retina: Light-Sensitive Layer of Cells in the Back of the Eye
      • Easily Damaged from Excessive Exposure to Light (Staring at a Solar Eclipse)
      • Cornea: Transparent Membrane Covering the Front of the Eye; Bends Light Rays Inward
    • Eye Anatomy 14:45
      • Graphic Showing Location of Parts of the Eye
    • Anatomy of the Eye 17:47
      • Another View of the Parts of the Eye
    • The Retina and Photoreceptors 18:52
      • Picture of Photoreceptors
    • The Eye and Transduction 19:51
      • Light Waves Enter Through the Cornea (Outer Covering of the Eye)
      • Retina
      • Blind Spot
    • The Eye, Continued 21:07
      • Back of the Retina (The Light-Sensitive Inner Surface of the Eye, Containing the Receptor Rods and Cones Plus Layers of Neurons That Begin the Processing of Visual Information.)
      • Rods/Cones Transduce the Information Into Electrical Signals
      • Signals Go Through:
      • Steps of Light -- Cornea, Pupil, Lens, Retina Rods/Cones, Bipolar Cells, Ganglion Cells (Amacrine cells, Horizontal, and Muller cells)
    • The Eye and Transduction 22:05
      • Graphic Showing Path Light Takes Through the Eye to be Seen
    • Light Control 22:56
      • Visual Acuity: Sharpness of Visual Perception
      • Fovea: Area at the Center of the Retina Containing Only Cones -- When Focused Here, See Only Color
      • Peripheral Vision: Vision at Edges of Visual Field; Side Vision
      • Tunnel Vision: Loss of Peripheral Vision
    • Visual Information Processing 28:02
      • Feature Detectors: Nerve Cells in the Brain That Respond to Specific Features of the Stimulus, Such as Shape, Angle, or Movement.
      • Different Locations in the Brain Have Specialized Functions, e.g. Color, Form, Edge, Motion, Depth, Etc.
      • Saccade: Reflexive Movement of Eyes From Side to Side so that the Neurons Will Continue Firing and so Fill In Information Due to Blind Spot
    • Visual Acuity -- Snellen Test 31:55
      • Snellen Test is Another Name for an Eye Chart
    • Trichromatic Theory 33:46
      • The Trichromatic, or Young-Helmboltz, Theory
      • Color Vision Theory That Hypothesizes We Have Three Cone Types in the Retina: Red, Green, Blue
      • Most Researchers Conclude That This Theory Along With the Trichromatic Can Explain Color Vision -- Individually, Each is Lacking
    • Trichromatic Theory 36:28
      • The Trichromatic, or Young-Helmboltz, Theory
      • Color Vision Theory That Hypothesizes We Have Three Cone Types in the Retina: Red, Green, Blue
    • Trichromatic Theory 37:59
      • We See a Specific Color by Comparing Responses From 3 Kinds of Cones, Each Most Sensitive to a Short, Medium, or Long Wavelength of Light
      • Fewer Short Wavelength Cones (Blue) So We See Red, Yellow, and Green Colors Better
      • When All 3 Cones Are Equally Active, We See White or Gray
      • Incomplete Theory, e.g., Can't Explain Negative Color Afterimage
    • Opponent Process Theory 39:28
      • Color Vision Theory Based on Three Systems: Red or Green, Blue or Yellow, Black or White
    • Optical Illusion 41:11
      • Demonstration of Opponent Process Theory With Picture of Green, Black, and Yellow American Flag
    • Continuation of Illusion 42:13
      • Optical Illusion Continued: Staring at Black Dot on Picture on Last Slide Will Produce a Red, White, and Blue Flag on This Slide
    • Negative Afterimage 42:26
      • Why Did You See an American Flag When You Looked at the White Screen?
    • Color Vision Deficiency 43:14
      • Inability to Perceive Color Differences
    • Color Blindness 44:09
      • Inability to Perceive Colors; Lack Cones or Has Malfunctioning Cones
      • Color Weakness: Inability to Distinguish Some Colors
    • Ishihara Test 44:38
      • Test for Color Blindness and Color Weakness
    • Color Blindness 45:20
      • Pictures of Different Apples Viewed By A Trichromatic Color Viewer and One Who is Colorblind
    • Wiki Color Test 45:54
      • Demonstration of Test
    • Dark Adaptation 46:20
      • Increased Retinal Sensitivity to Light After Entering the Dark, Similar to Going From Daylight Into a Dark Movie Theater
      • Rhodopsin: Light-Sensitive Pigment in the Rods; Involved with Night Vision
      • Night Blindness: Blindness Under Low-Light Conditions; Hazardous for Driving at Night
    • Dark Adaptation 47:36
      • Graph Showing Length of Time it Takes Cones and Rods to Acclimate to the Dark
    • Review 49:22
      • What is the Order of Eye Parts That a Light Wave Travels Through Before it Gets to the Optic Nerve?
      • Describe What Transduction Is
      • Compare and Contrast (or Differentiate) the Two Theories of Color -- Trichromatic and Opponent-Process Theory
      • What Makes Someone Colorblind? What Do They See as Compared to Others?
      • What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? Why Can We See Only Part of It?