In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn, looks further into memories, the repression and suppression of them, how memories are formed, different forms of amnesia, ways to improve your memory, and looks an mnemonic devices and Elizabeth Loftus who did research in the memories of eyewitnesses, which showed how malleable the memory really is.
Maintenance rehearsal is simple repetition of ideas to recall them
Elaborative rehearsal combines the new info with existing memories to help transfer into long term memory
Pseudo-memories are false memories that people believe are true
Procedural memories are related to skills and actions
Declarative memories are related to facts
Semantic memories are related to impersonal facts and everyday knowledge
Episodic memories are related to personal experiences
The serial-position effect shows us that we recall the beginning and end of lists of terms we are trying to recall
Recognition and recall are two ways to show memory—recall is harder due to the lack of external cues
There are many reasons why we forget—disuse, interference, state/mood dependence, lack of cues
Memory, Part II
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Positive Transfer: Mastery of One Task Aids Learning or Performing Another
Negative Transfer: Mastery of One Task Conflicts With Learning or Performing Another
e.g. Volleyball and Softball Training Helps One Another
Repression and Suppression 1:03
Repression: Unconsciously Pushing Painful, Embarrassing, or Threatening Memories Out of Awareness/Consciousness
Suppression: Consciously Putting Something Painful or Threatening Out of Mind Or Trying to Keep It From Entering Awareness
Flashbulb Memories 2:00
Memories Created During Times of Personal Tragedy, Accident, or Other Emotionally Significant Events
Includes Both Positive and Negative Events
Not Always Accurate
Great Confidence is Placed in Them Even Though They May Be Inaccurate
Memory Formation 3:40
Retrograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Occurred Before an Injury or Trauma
Anterograde Amnesia: Forgetting Events That Follow an Injury or Trauma (e.g. 50 First Dates or Memento)
Consolidation: Forming a Long-Term Memory
Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS) 4:47
Mild Electrical Shock Passed Through the Brain Produces a Convulsion, Destroys Any Memory That is Being Formed; One Way to Prevent Consolidation
Memory Structures 5:23
Hippocampus: Brain Structure Associated With Emotion and Transfer of Information Passing From Short-Term Memory Into Long-Term Memory
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): An Increase in a Synapse's Firing Potential After Brief, Rapid Stimulation. Believed to be a Neural Basis for Learning and Memory
Ways to Improve Memory 9:01
Practice, Practice, Practice
Remember the First Time You Played Rock Band or Some Other Video Game? Were You Immediately an Expert?
Priming: The Activation, Often Unconsciously, of Particular Associations in Memory
Recitation: Summarizing Aloud While You Are Learning
Meaningful -- Make the Ideas You Are Studying Meaningful -- When Possible, Make Connections to Ideas You Already Know
Organization: Organizing Difficult Items Into Chunks; a Type of Reordering
Ways to Improve Memory, Continued 13:40
Study Repeatedly: Use Distributed/Spaced Practice-Take Advantage of Down Time -- Little Bits to Review Material
Minimize Interference -- Do Not Study Similar Subjects Back to Back
Sleep -- Get Enough
Overlearning: Studying is Continued Beyond Bare Mastery
Knowledge of Results: Feedback Allowing You to Check Your Progress -- Test Yourself
More Ways to Improve Memory 15:51
Spaced Practice: Alternating Short Study Sessions With Brief Rest Periods
Massed Practice: Studying for Long Periods Without Rest Periods
Lack of Sleep Decreases Retention; Sleep Aids Consolidation
Hunger Decreases Retention
Cognitive Interview: Technique Used to Improve Memories of Witnesses
Mnemonics: Memory Tricks 17:26
Any Kind of Memory System of Aid
Using Mnemonics to Recall an Order 18:37
Form a Chain or a Story: Remember Lists in Order, Forming an Exaggerated Association Connecting Item One to Two and So On
Take a Mental Walk: Mentally Walk Along a Familiar Path, Placing Objects or Ideas Along The Path
Form Acronyms -- My Very Eager Mother Just Served Us Nine (Pizzas) -- The Planets
SOHCAHTOA -- Trigonometry
Eyewitness Memory 21:17
Elizabeth Loftus -- Lots of Research Into the Consolidation of Memory and How Memories Are Easily Changed -- Includes Planting False Memories, Misinformation and Incorrect Attribution
Misinformation Effect: By Incorporating Misleading Information or Asking Leading Questions, An Investigator Can Change One's Memory of an Event
Source Amnesia: Attributing to the Wrong Source an Event We Have Experienced, Heard About, Read About, or Imagined. (Also Called Source Misattribution.) Source Amnesia, Along With the Misinformation Effect, is at the Heart of Many False Memories
Elizabeth Loftus, Continued 23:10
False Memories -- In Court, Gave Evidence of the Malleability of Memory and Showed How the Idea of Repressed Memories Are Likely Just Ideas Implanted During Therapy Sessions, Not Recollections of Actual Events
The Lost in the Mall Technique With Children -- Gave Children the Idea That They Had Had an Experience of Being Lost. 25% Indicated That They Later Thought That This Was a Real Occurrence in Their Lives, They Had a Memory For it
Later Variations Showed the 1/3 of Subjects Could Be Convinced That They Had Traumatizing Events That Had Occurred to Them
Eyewitness Memory 24:40
The Book, Picking Cotton
Wrongfully Accused Man, Ronald Cotton -- Convicted of Rape by Eyewitness Testimony
Eventually Overturned When Real Rapist Was Arrested On Another Charge
Link to Book
Link to The Innocence Project
How Do Misinformation, Imagination, and Source Amnesia Influence Our Memory Construction?
How Real Seeming Are False Memories?
What Is The Controversy Related to Claims of Repressed and Recovered Memories?
How Can an Understanding of Memory Contribute to More Effective Studying Techniques?
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