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The Other Senses

  • Olfaction is the sense of smell, one of the chemo-senses
  • Receptors are located in a mucous membrane in the upper nasal cavity
  • The nerves are connected to the underside of the frontal lobe
  • Pheromones are airborne chemical signals the brain understands but that we cannot consciously smell
  • Anosmia is a defective sense of smell for a single odor
  • Gustation is the sense of taste-there are papillae on the tongue that sense sweet, sour, salt, bitter and umami
  • Taste works with smell work effectively
  • The McGurk Effect is the interaction of vision and hearing to produce an auditory illusion
  • In addition to the traditional five sense, humans also have the vestibular sense, the kinesthetic sense, and sensory receptors for pain

The Other Senses

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Smell
    • Olfactory System
    • Olfactory System
    • Gustation and Taste Buds
    • Taste and Survival Functions
    • The Tongue
    • Sensory Interaction
    • Somethetic Senses
    • The Skin
    • Vestibular System
    • Vestibular System and Motion Sickness
    • Pain
    • Types of Pain
    • Gate-Control Theory of Pain
    • Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating
    • Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating
    • Controlling Pain
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Smell 0:13
      • Olfaction: Sense of Smell -- A Chemo Sense
      • Receptors are Located in a Mucous Membrane in the Upper Nasal Cavity (as Many as 100x Kinds of Receptors May Exist)
      • Olfactory Nerve Fibers Respond to Gaseous Molecules -- Approx. 5 Million in Each Nasal Cavity
      • Nerve Fibers From the Olf. Bulb Connect to the Brain at the Amygdala, Then to Hippocampus (Connected to Emotions and Memory)
      • Pheromones: Airborne Chemical Signal
      • Lock and Key Theory: Odors are Related to Shapes of Chemicals and Molecules
      • Anosmia: Defective Sense of Smell for a Single Odor
    • Olfactory System 4:41
      • Picture of What the Olfactory System Looks Like
    • Olfactory System 5:26
      • Animals and Scent Marking, e.g. Cats and Dogs
      • Cats Have Special Glands in Their Faces --> Rubbing
      • Women Tend to be Able to Smell More Accurately Than Men at All Ages
      • Ability to Smell Peaks From About 30-50
      • Decline After 50
      • Think Old Ladies and Perfume
      • Smells Tend to be Very Evocative of Memories -- Even of Ones Long Past -- From Learned Associations
      • Malls and Stores -- Will Pump in Certain Smells to Lure You In
    • Gustation and Taste Buds 11:08
      • Taste-Receptor Cells on Tongue Absorb Chemicals From Food We Eat
      • Papillae are the Cells on the Tongue -- The More Packed Together The Papillae Are, the More Chemicals Are Absorbed, The More Intense the Taste
      • Sense of Taste
      • Taste Works With Smell to Work
      • As We Age, Sense Gets Weaker
    • Taste and Survival Functions 14:31
      • Sweet -- A Source of Energy
      • Salty -- We Need Sodium for Our Basic Physiology
      • Sour -- Potentially Toxic Acid
      • Bitter -- Potential Poison
      • Umami -- Proteins for Growth and Tissue Repair
      • Dr. Linda Bartushock -- Research on Super-Tasters
    • The Tongue 17:08
      • Diagram of Tongue and Its Types of Papillae
    • Sensory Interaction 17:28
      • If You Close Your Eyes and Close Your Nose, Have Someone You Trust Feed You Various Foods
      • McGurk Effect
    • Somethetic Senses 19:31
      • Skin Senses (Touch): Light Touch, Pressure, Pain, Cold, Warmth
    • The Skin 19:41
      • Diagram of Layers of the Parts of the Skin
    • Vestibular System 20:47
      • Vestibular: Balance, Gravity, and Acceleration of the Head
      • Kinesthetic: Detect Body Position and Movement (Where is the Body in Space -- Gymnasts, Divers, Dancers, etc.) Procioreceptors
      • Otolith Organs: Sensitive to Movement, Acceleration, and Gravity
      • Semicircular Canals: Fluid-Filled Tubes in Ears That are Sensory Organs for Balance
      • Crista: Float That Detects Movement in Semicircular Canals
      • Ampulla: A Wider Part of the Canal
    • Vestibular System and Motion Sickness 23:25
      • Motion Sickness is Directly Related to Vestibular System
      • Sensory Conflict Theory: Motion Sickness Results From a Mismatch Between Information From Vision, Vestibular System, and Kinesthesis
      • Medications, Relaxation, and Lying Down Might Help
    • Pain 24:28
      • Visceral Pain: Pain Originating in Internal Organs
      • Referred Pain: Pain Felt on Surface of Body, Away from Origin Point
      • Somatic Pain: Sharp, Bright, Fast; Comes From Skin, Joints, Muscles, Tendons
      • Phantom Limb: Missing Limb Feels Like It is Present, Like Always Before Amputation or Accident (V.S. Ramachandran's Work Phantoms in the Brain)
    • Types of Pain 26:51
      • Warning System: Pain Carried by Large Nerve Fibers; Sharp, Bright, Fast Pain That Tells You Body Damage May Be Occurring (e.g. Knife Cut)
      • Reminding System: Small Nerve Fibers: Slower, Nagging, Aching, Widespread; Gets Worse if Stimulus is Repeated; Reminds System That Body has Been Injured
    • Gate-Control Theory of Pain 28:16
      • Sensory (Afferent) Receptors That Respond to Damaging Tissue (or Other Noxious Stimuli) Are Pain Receptors or Nociceptors
      • The More the Neurons Fire, The More Intense the Pain
      • Theory That Pain Messages From Different Nerve Fibers Pass Through the Same Neural Gate in the Spinal Cord
      • If Gate is Closed by One Pain Message, Other Messages May Not be Able to Pass Through
      • Substance P is a Neuropeptide (regulatory) Neurotransmitter -- Along With Other NTs Can Increase Neural Inflammation
    • Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating 30:22
      • Sensory Adaptation: When Sensory Receptors Respond Less to Unchanging Stimuli
      • Perceptual Adaptation (Sensory Habituation): One's Perceptions of Senses Depends Upon How Focused We Are on Them
    • Adaptation, Attention, and Sensory Gating 32:44
      • Selective Attention: Voluntarily Focusing on a Specific Sensory Input
      • Sensory Gating: Facilitating or Blocking Sensory Messages in the Spinal Cord
    • Controlling Pain 34:32
      • Fear, or High Levels of Anxiety, Almost Always Increase Pain
      • If You Can Regulate a Painful Stimulus, You Have Control Over It
      • Distraction Can Also Significantly Reduce Pain
      • The Interpretation You Give A Stimulus Also Affects Pain
      • Beta-endorphins -- Natural Pain Chemical Similar to Morphine (Endogenous Opioid Peptides)
      • e.g. Runner's High
    • Review 37:33
      • How Do We Taste and Smell? What Parts of the Head and Brain are Involved?
      • What Does the Term Chemoreceptors Mean?
      • What are the Senses That We Have? Go Beyond the Main Five
      • Describe Different Kinds of Pain
      • What is Sensory Adaptation? Give at Least Two Examples