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Development, Part III

  • Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, studied the cognitive development of children
  • A schema is an organized cluster of knowledge that you use to understand and interpret information.
  • Assimilation is the process of absorbing new information into existing schemas.
  • Accommodation is the process of changing existing schemas in order to absorb new information.
  • Piaget proposed four stages of development, Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
  • Not all adults reach the last stage of abstract reasoning—according to recent research, only 35% of adults in industrialized nations obtain this level (
  • Lev Vygotsky added to Piaget’s theory by adding that cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors—much bigger than what Piaget had indicated
  • Vygotsky also contributed the concepts of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding in the learning process

Development, Part III

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Cognition
    • Cognitive Development
    • Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
    • Sensorimotor Stage
    • Preoperational Stage
    • Concrete Operational Stage
    • Formal Operations Stage
    • Refinements of Piaget's Theory
    • Lev Vygotsky
    • More Vygotsky
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Cognition 0:10
      • Cognition: Is the Mental Activity of Knowing and the Process By Which Knowledge is Acquired And Problems Are Solved
    • Cognitive Development 0:41
      • Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
      • A Schema is an Organized Cluster of Knowledge You Use to Understand and Interpret Information
      • Assimilation is the Process of Absorbing New Information Into Existing Schemas
      • Accommodation is the Process of Changing Schemas in Order to Absorb New Information
    • Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development 4:22
      • Chart Describing Different Stages of Development According to Piaget
    • Sensorimotor Stage 9:37
      • Infants Develop the Ability to Coordinate Sensory Input With Motor Actions.
      • Object Permanence is the Realization That An Object Continues to Exist Even if You Can't See It Or Touch It.
      • Representational Thought is the Ability to Picture (or Represent) Something in Your Mind, Even When Not Physically Present.
    • Preoperational Stage 10:54
      • Children Think in Terms of Language and Begin to Engage in Make-Believe Play.
      • Egocentrism is the Tendency to View the World From Your Own Perspective Without Recognizing That Others May Have Different Viewpoints.
      • Conservation is the Understanding that Certain Physical Properties of an Object Remain Unchanged Despite Changes in its Appearance.
      • Animism -- e.g. The Sun is Following Us
      • Literal Thinking
      • Thinking Aloud
    • Concrete Operational Stage 15:48
      • Children Perform Mental Operations and Begin Logical Reasoning (Operations)
      • Working on Conservation Problem (Volume)
      • Children's Thinking and Use of Logic are Limited to Concrete Reality, Not Abstract or Hypothetical Concepts.
      • Classify, Organize, Categorize
    • Formal Operations Stage 17:52
      • Children Reason Abstractly and Make Predictions About Hypothetical Situations
      • Problem Solving Involves Systemic and Reflective Strategies.
      • Not everyone Gets to This Stage.
    • Refinements of Piaget's Theory 20:12
      • Children are More Cognitively Advanced and Adults are Less Cognitively Complex Than Piaget's Theory Suggests.
      • Theory of Mind: People's Ideas About Their Own and Others' Mental States (About Their Feelings, Perceptions, and Thoughts) That Allow You to Understand and Predict Their Behavior.
      • Social and Environmental Factors Have a Greater Influence on Cognitive Development Than Piaget Thought
    • Lev Vygotsky 21:32
      • Children's Cognitive Development is Heavily Influenced by Social and Cultural Factors
      • Children's Thinking Develops Through Dialogues With More Capable People
      • Importance of Social Interaction -- Community and Culture Plays a Central Role in the Process of Making Meaning and Cognitive Development
      • Social Factors are Big (Piaget Minimized Them)
      • Emphasis on Role of Language in Cognitive Development (Piaget Minimized This)
    • More Vygotsky 23:43
      • Zone of Proximal Development -- Range of Tasks a Child Cannot Master Alone Even Though They Are Close to Having the Necessary Mental Skills; They Need Guidance From a Skilled Partner in Order to Complete the Task
      • Scaffolding: Framework or Temporary Support. Adults Help Children Learn How to Think by Scaffolding, or Supporting, Their Attempts to Solve a Problem or to Discover Principles
    • Review 27:49
      • How Does Thinking Change During Childhood Into Adulthood for Piaget?
      • How Did Vygotsky Add to Piaget's Work?
      • What Aspect of Vygotsky Do You See In School?