In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn looks at cognition as part of development, focusing on Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development through childhood. He also looks at Lev Vyovsky, who took Piaget's ideas one step further to address the social and environmental factors that contribute to a child's development.
Lev Vygotsky added to Piaget’s theory by adding that cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors—much bigger than what Piaget had indicated
Vygotsky also contributed the concepts of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding in the learning process
Development, Part III
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Cognition: Is the Mental Activity of Knowing and the Process By Which Knowledge is Acquired And Problems Are Solved
Cognitive Development 0:41
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
A Schema is an Organized Cluster of Knowledge You Use to Understand and Interpret Information
Assimilation is the Process of Absorbing New Information Into Existing Schemas
Accommodation is the Process of Changing Schemas in Order to Absorb New Information
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development 4:22
Chart Describing Different Stages of Development According to Piaget
Sensorimotor Stage 9:37
Infants Develop the Ability to Coordinate Sensory Input With Motor Actions.
Object Permanence is the Realization That An Object Continues to Exist Even if You Can't See It Or Touch It.
Representational Thought is the Ability to Picture (or Represent) Something in Your Mind, Even When Not Physically Present.
Preoperational Stage 10:54
Children Think in Terms of Language and Begin to Engage in Make-Believe Play.
Egocentrism is the Tendency to View the World From Your Own Perspective Without Recognizing That Others May Have Different Viewpoints.
Conservation is the Understanding that Certain Physical Properties of an Object Remain Unchanged Despite Changes in its Appearance.
Animism -- e.g. The Sun is Following Us
Concrete Operational Stage 15:48
Children Perform Mental Operations and Begin Logical Reasoning (Operations)
Working on Conservation Problem (Volume)
Children's Thinking and Use of Logic are Limited to Concrete Reality, Not Abstract or Hypothetical Concepts.
Classify, Organize, Categorize
Formal Operations Stage 17:52
Children Reason Abstractly and Make Predictions About Hypothetical Situations
Problem Solving Involves Systemic and Reflective Strategies.
Not everyone Gets to This Stage.
Refinements of Piaget's Theory 20:12
Children are More Cognitively Advanced and Adults are Less Cognitively Complex Than Piaget's Theory Suggests.
Theory of Mind: People's Ideas About Their Own and Others' Mental States (About Their Feelings, Perceptions, and Thoughts) That Allow You to Understand and Predict Their Behavior.
Social and Environmental Factors Have a Greater Influence on Cognitive Development Than Piaget Thought
Lev Vygotsky 21:32
Children's Cognitive Development is Heavily Influenced by Social and Cultural Factors
Children's Thinking Develops Through Dialogues With More Capable People
Importance of Social Interaction -- Community and Culture Plays a Central Role in the Process of Making Meaning and Cognitive Development
Social Factors are Big (Piaget Minimized Them)
Emphasis on Role of Language in Cognitive Development (Piaget Minimized This)
More Vygotsky 23:43
Zone of Proximal Development -- Range of Tasks a Child Cannot Master Alone Even Though They Are Close to Having the Necessary Mental Skills; They Need Guidance From a Skilled Partner in Order to Complete the Task
Scaffolding: Framework or Temporary Support. Adults Help Children Learn How to Think by Scaffolding, or Supporting, Their Attempts to Solve a Problem or to Discover Principles
How Does Thinking Change During Childhood Into Adulthood for Piaget?
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