In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn, examines Developmental Psychology, and the more famous people (like Piaget) who are associated with it. In this section, he looks at the beginning stages of life, from the pre-natal stages of development up to a newborn baby's stages of development, including the survival reflexes each child is born with.
The branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span (The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities)
Psychology examines everything from conception until death
Teratogens are agents such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Women can take several precautions during pregnancy to minimize prenatal risks
There are several methods of birthing available
Newborns have several reflexes if healthy, grasping, rooting, sucking, moro, and Babinksi
Temperament: The physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood
Maturation is the physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system—coded in genes
Early deprivation and enrichment can have substantial effects on the development of the child
Development, Part 1
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Research Methods (e.g. Longitudinal, Cross-Sectional)
Dimensions of Development
Sex Roles and Gender Roles
Developmental Psychology Deals With the Behavior of Organisms From Conception to Death and Examines the Processes That Contribute to Behavioral Change Throughout the Life Span. The Major Areas of Emphasis in the Course are Prenatal Development, Motor Development, Socialization, Cognitive Development, Adolescence, and Adulthood
Developmental Psychology 1:20
Branch of Psychology That Studies Physical, Cognitive, and Social Change Throughout the Life Span (The Study of Progressive Changes in Behavior and Abilities)
Issues Within Developmental Psych
Nature vs. Nurture
Continuity and Stages
Stability and Change
Heredity (Nature): Transmission of Physical and Psychological Characteristics From Parents to Their Children Through Genes
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Molecular Structure, Shaped Like a Double Helix That Contains Coded Genetic Information
Genes: Specific Areas on a Strand of DNA That Carry Hereditary Information
Prenatal Development and the Newborn 3:31
Prenatal Issues 5:21
Placenta: An Organ That Connects the Developing Fetus to the Uterine Wall to Allow Nutrient Uptake. Waste Elimination, and Gas Exchange Via the Mother's Blood Supply
Teratogens: Agents, Such as Chemicals and Viruses, That Can Reach the Embryo or Fetus During Prenatal Development and Cause Harm
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Physical and Cognitive Abnormalities -- Low Birth Weight, Small Head, Body Defects, Facial Malformations
Minimizing Prenatal Risks 10:04
Maintain Good Nutrition During Pregnancy
Learn Relaxation and Stress Reduction Techniques to Ease Transition to Motherhood
Avoid Teratogens and Other Harmful Substances
Get Adequate Exercise During Pregnancy
Obtain General Education About Pregnancy and Childbirth
Teenage Females and Hip Bones -- Difficulty During Childbirth
Medicated Birth: Traditional in West; Mother is Assisted by Physician and Given Drugs For Pain (Recent Research Indicates Epidurals Can Be Quite Dangerous)
Prepared Childbirth: Parents Learn Specific Behavioral Techniques to Manage Pain and Facilitate Labor. Lamaze Methods is Most Famous
Traditional Childbirth in Remote Cultures (Attendants, Family, Solo, Midwife)
The Placenta -- What Should Be Done With It?
Potential Problems 14:10
Congenital Problem: A Problem or Defect That Occurs During Prenatal Development -- Exists at Birth and Sometimes Before Birth; Birth Defect
Genetic Disorder: Problem Caused by Inherited Characteristics From Parents; May Not be Visible at Birth (e.g. Cystic Fibrosis, Metabolic Disorders (Hypothyroidism), and Many Others
The Newborn (Neonate): Reflexes 16:23
Grasping: If an Object is Placed in the Infant's Palm, She'll Grasp It Automatically (All Reflexes Are Automatic Responses; i.e., They Come From Nature, Not Nurture)
Rooting: Lightly Touch the Infant's Cheek and He'll Turn Toward The Object and Attempt to Nurse; Helps Infant Find Nipple or Food
Sucking: Touch an Object or Nipple to the Infant's Mouth And She'll Make Rhythmic Sucking Movements
Moro: If a Baby's Position is Abruptly Changed or if He is Startled by a Loud Noise, He Will Make a Hugging Motion
Babinski: Firmly Touch Foot, Toes Fan Out
There Are Others, But These You Need to Know
The Newborn 19:13
Temperament: The Physical Core of Personality; Includes Sensitivity, Irritability, Distractibility, and Typical Mood
Emotional and Social Development 20:29
Basic Emotions: Anger, Fear, Joy; Appear to be Unlearned
Social Smile: Smiling Elicited by Social Stimuli; Not Exclusive to Seeing Parents
Self-Awareness: Awareness of Oneself as a Person; Can Be Tested by Having Infants Look in a Mirror and See if They Recognize Themselves
Social Referencing: Observing Other People To Get Information or Guidance
Physical Growth and Development of the Body, Brain, and Nervous System -- Coded in Genes
Sets the Basic Course of Development; Experience Adjusts It
Increased Muscular Control Occurs in Patterns; Order of Maturation is Almost Universal
Readiness: When Maturation Has Advanced Enough to Allow Rapid Acquisition of a Particular Skill
Newborns and the Brain 25:56
In Womb, Brain Cells Were Formed at Almost 1/4 Million Per Minute
Newborns Have All the Brain Cells They Will Ever Possess
The Brain Begins to Network -- Lots of Neurons, But Few Connections -- Explosive Growth as an Infant -- Walking, Talking, Remembering
Deprivation and Enrichment 28:00
Deprivation: Lack of Normal Stimulation, Nutrition, Comfort, or Love
Enrichment: When an Environment is Deliberately Made More Complex and Intellectually Stimulating and Emotionally Supportive
How Does Life Develop Before Birth?
What Are Some Birth Defects That Babies Can Be Born With?
What Are Some Newborn Abilities, and How Do Researchers Explore Infants' Mental Abilities?
What is Maturation And How Does it Differ From Development?
During Infancy and Childhood, How Do the Brain and Motor Skills Develop?
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