In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn, looks at the different classifications of drugs (depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants) which can alter our brain chemistry and perception in different ways.
Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that alter perception, mood or behavior—these changes occur via the brain chemistry
Experts distinguish between dependence and addiction, with many myths existing regarding addiction
Three categories of drugs include central nervous system depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates), stimulants (nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines), and hallucinogens (LSD, PCP and marijuana)
People use drugs for a variety of reasons—main categories are biological, psychological, and socio-cultural influences
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Identify the Major Psychoactive Drug Categories (e.g. Depressants, Stimulants) and Classify Specific Drugs, Including Their Psychological and Physiological Effects
Discuss Drug Dependence, Addiction, Tolerance, and Withdrawal
Psychological Dependence -- Drugs That Reduce Stress Become and Increasingly Important Part of a User's Life, Often as a Way to Relieve Negative Emotions (Sometimes Called Self-Medication)
Misconceptions About Addiction 3:54
Addiction -- Compulsive Drug Craving and Use, Despite Adverse Consequences
How Drugs Affect the Brain 6:58
Psychoactive Drugs Affect Synapses and Neurotransmitters in Three Ways
Tolerance: The Brain Will Produce Less of a Specific Neurotransmitter if it is Being Artificially Supplied by a Psychoactive Drug
Categories of Drugs 8:06
Alcohol, Barbiturates, Opiates
Drugs That Reduce Neural Activity and Slow Body Functioning
Includes Alcohol and Sedatives
All Depressants Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction
Drugs That Reduce Anxiety or Induce Sleep
Also Called Tranquilizers or Hypnotics
Include Barbiturates (Drugs That Depress the Activity of the Central Nervous System, Reducing Anxiety but Impairing Memory and Judgment e.g. Phenobarbital or Seconal) and Benzodiazepines (Anti-Anxiety Drugs)
Drugs That Depress Neural Activity, Temporarily Lessen Pain and Anxiety
Include: Opium, Morphine, Codeine, and Heroin
Strong Sedative and Pain-Relieving Drugs
Work By Preventing Pain Neurons From Firing or Releasing Pain-Signaling Neurotransmitters Into the Synapse, and Increasing Endorphin Levels
Over Time, the Brain Eventually Stops Producing Its Own Endorphins (Endogenous Opioid Peptides)
All Opiates Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction
Drugs That Excite Neural Activity and Speed Up Body Functions
Include: Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, and Cocaine
Provides User With a Sense of Increased Energy, Mental Alertness and Forced Wakefulness
Blocks Neurological Receptor Sites That, If Activated, Sedate the Central Nervous System
All Stimulants Can Cause Dependence, Tolerance, Withdrawal, and Psychological Addiction
Methamphetamines = Super Stimulant
Stimulants -- Cocaine 20:50
Sniffed/Snorted, Injected or Smoked -- Gets Into Bloodstream Quickly
Euphoria Created Depletes Brain's Supply of Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine
Crack is More Potent Version -- Briefer, More Intense High, a Craving for More
Cocaine is a Reuptake Inhibitor -- This Means it Blocks Neurotransmitters Already in the Synapse
Once Cocaine Level Drops, There is a Crash
Stimulants -- MDMA 22:42
Ecstasy, Molly -- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
First Used in Northern California in Therapists' Offices
This book features an effective, 5-step plan to guide your preparation program and help you build the skills, knowledge, and test-taking confidence you need to succeed. This fully revised edition covers the latest course syllabus and provides 2 full-length practice tests that reflect the latest version of the exam, as well as access to online AP Psychology quizzes.
This book that preps you for the AP Psychology Exam includes 2 full-length practie tests with detailed explanations, thorough subject reviews for all test topics, from sensation and perception to abnormal psychology, and proven techniques to help you score higher.
This book is an updated manual that offers detailed preparation for the AP Psychology exam with features that include: three full-length exams (one diagnostic test and two full-length practice tests), and a review of all AP test topics, including research methods, the biological basis of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, cognition, personality, abnormal psychology, and treatment of disorders. It also includes fifteen additional multiple-choice practice questions for each unit with explained answers, and an analysis of the test's essay section with a sample annotated essay.
"This set of 500 flash cards will help you understand and appropriately use psychological vocabulary terms frequently found in the multiple choice and free response sections of the AP Psychology exam. Each 4-1/2"" x 2-3/4"" card features: a frequently used psychology term on one side, with definitions, synonyms, explanations, and examples on the reverse side. It also features the context for the term, or the areas of psychology in which the term is most often used."
This book addresses the market changes and provides a unique survey of psychology that meets three goals: to demonstrate the unity and diversity of psychology's subject matter, to illuminate the research process and its link to application, and to make the material challenging and thought-provoking yet easy to learn. Weiten accomplishes the successful balance of scientific rigor and a student-friendly approach through the integration of seven unifying themes, an unparalleled didactic art program, real-life examples, and a streamlined set of learning aids that help students see beyond research to big-picture concepts. Major topics typically covered in today's courses are included, such as evolutionary psychology, neuropsychology, biological psychology, positive psychology, applied psychology, careers, and multiculturalism and diversity.