In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn gives more examples of classical conditioning, and discusses the Garcia Effect, an aversion to a specific kind of food because eating it was accompanied with nausea. He also looks at second order conditioning, extinction and spontaneous recovery, and stimulus generalization and discrimination.
Examples of classical conditioning include are many in real life
Classical conditioning is learning that has as a conditioned response a reflexive or autonomic response (at the primary level)
Stimulus generalization is applying the learning to similar things to the original stimulus
Stimulus discrimination is applying the learning only to the specific stimulus, not similar ones
Extinction is the gradual weakening of the learned response
Spontaneous recover occurs when a previous extinguished behavior reappears
John Garcia discovered that classical conditioning can occur after a single pairing when it involves a taste aversion
Classical Conditioning, Part II
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Kissing(UCS) --> Arousal (UCR) then Kissing + Onions (CS) --> Eventually Becomes Onions --> Arousal
Beer Ads Example 1:42
Beer Ads Often Feature Attractive Young Women Wearing Bikinis. The Goal is to Get Men to Buy the Beer. What are the Parts of the CC Diagram With This Example?
Beer Ads 2:02
Attractive Women (UCS) --> Arousal (UCR) then Attractive Women + Beer (CS) --> Eventually Becomes Beer --> Arousal
Crime Example 2:52
When a Professor Was in College, He Was Robbed at Gun Point by a Young Man Who Gave Him the Choice (Your Money or Your Life) It was an Unexpected and Frightening Experience
This Event Occurred At Just About Dusk and for a Long Time Thereafter, He Often Experienced Moments of Dread in the Late Afternoons Particularly When He Was Just Walking Around the City
Even Though He Was Quite Safe, The Lengthening Shadows of the Day Were So Strongly Associated With the Dear He Experienced in the Robbery, That He Could Not But Help Feel the Emotion All Over
Label the Crime Experience 4:15
Threat (UCS) --> Fear (UCR) then Dusk + Robbery Became Dusk (CS) --> Fear (CR)
Another Way to Treat Alcoholics is to Have Them Take a Drug Called Antabuse (Disulfiram). If They Ingest Any Alcohol at All, They Will Have Serious Vomiting Issues. The Desire is to Pair the Vomiting With the Alcoholic Drink.
Can You Label the Diagram?
Antabuse Example 6:19
Antabuse (UCS) --> Vomiting (UCR) then Alcohol + Antabuse (CS) Eventually Becomes Alcohol --> Vomiting (CR) (But WITHOUT Use of Antabuse)
Anna Learns to Blink When She Sees Her Father Hold The Camera to His Eye
Anna With the Camera and Flash 9:55
Flash (UCS) --> Blink (UCR) then Flash + Camera Eventually Becomes Camera (CS) --> Blink (CR)
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination 10:21
Applies Learning to Similar Things to What Was Associated
Does NOT Apply Learning to Similar Things To What Was Associated -- Responds Only to the Original Association
Glaucoma Test 11:36
Opticians and the Puff Machines -- How My Chin Made Me Cry
Air Puff (UCS) --> Eyes Watering (UCR) then Air Puff + Chin Cup Eventually Becomes Chin Cup --> Eyes Watering
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery 13:33
A Procedure That Leads to the Gradual Weakening And Eventual Disappearance of the CR.
Involves Repeatedly Presenting the CS Without Pairing it With the UCS.
Occurs When a Previously Extinguished CR Reappears After a Period of No Training
Will Often Result From Non-Recognized Factors Not Previously Identified
The (John) Garcia Effect 15:51
This is the Conditioned Taste Aversion That is Rapidly Achieved by a Single Pairing of an Illness Such as Nausea With Eating a Specific Food
Originally Discovered While Working With Rats and Studying Radiation Effects -- Initial Exposure to Food Followed by Toxic Reaction (Even if Several Hours Later) Made Rats Averse to Food
Conditioned Animals to Avoid Foods Paired With a Previously Aversive Taste
Conditioning Applied to Tastes But Not to Sights and Sounds
Process Not Traditional CS --> UCS --> CR/UCR Process Since CS Occurred Long Afterward, Not Immediately
Taste Aversion in Chemotherapy Patients is Very Common
Higher Order (Second Order) Conditioning 18:40
Starts Off With Traditional Unlearned Stimulus-Response Relationship, With First Association Pairing Made But Then a Second Association is Introduced
Ex: Training Involving a Tone Then Adding Light as Second Association
Describe the Relationship Among the US, the UR, the CS and the CR
What Can Be a Conditioned Stimulus?
What Can Be an Unconditioned Response?
What Can Be an Unconditioned Stimulus?
Come Up With Your Own Examples of Classical Conditioning in Your Life -- Label the Parts
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