In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn discusses operant conditioning, which uses punishment and rewards to condition a certain behavior, describes the differences between positive punishment and negative punishment and positive and negative reinforcement looks at Thorndike and his Law of Effect, and B.F. Skinner and his use of the Operant Conditioning Box he devised.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect was when responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation
Operant conditioning predict the effects of operant conditioning (e.g., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, schedules of reinforcement)
B.F. Skinner was the father of modern behaviorism, where an organism operates within its environment exhibiting behaviors that are inborn or learned
All other behaviors have consequences, neutral, reinforcing, or punishing—organisms repeat or reduce behaviors depending upon the consequences
Reinforcement and punishment can be both positive or negative, involving the addition or subtraction of pleasant or aversive consequences
The closer in time the consequence occurs, the more effective it is likely to be
Operant Conditioning, Part I
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Predict the Effects of Operant Conditioning (e.g. Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement).
Predict How Practice, Schedules of Reinforcement, And Motivation Will Influence Quality of Learning.
Thorndike and the Law of Effect 1:07
Responses That Produce a Satisfying Effect in a Particular Situation Become More Likely to Occur Again in That Situation, and Responses That Produce a Discomforting Effect Become Less Likely to Occur Again In That Situation
In Other Words, When Better Things Happen After We Do Something, We Are More Likely to Do It Again
Connectionism -- Organisms Connect Behaviors to What Occurs After -- Early Form of Behaviorism
Thorndike is Father of Modern Educational Psychology
Thorndike's Puzzle Box 2:35
Picture of Puzzle Box and Graph Illustrating The More Trials a Subject Went Through, The Less Time it Took to Solve Puzzle.
Cats, Puzzle Box, and Law of Effect 3:27
First Trial in Puzzle Box -- More Likely to Scratch at Bars, Yeowl, Dig at Door, etc. Before Pushing Release Lever
After Many Trials in Box, Cat is More Likely to Push Release Lever First to Escape Box.
B.F. Skinner 4:17
Founder of Modern Behavioral Perspective
Operant Conditioning -- An Organism Operates in Its Environment, Exhibiting Behaviors That are Inborn or Learned
Invented the Operant Conditioning Box -- Sometimes Called a Skinner Box -- He Hated That Term
Trained Rats, Birds, and People
So Much Research in This Area -- One of the Most Scientifically Validated Theories/Approaches
Operant Conditioning 6:09
A Type of Learning in Which Behavior is Strengthened if Followed by a Reinforcer or Diminished if Followed by a Punisher
What We Are Trying to do is Learn How We Can Modify an Organism's Behavior Using the Most Effective Means Possible. We Use Reinforcement and Punishment. Each Organism Interprets This Differently.
Key Distinction in Terms -- in OC, The Organism EMITS Behavior. In CC, The Behavior is ELICITED (Drawn Out of the Organism)
Skinner's Experiments 7:28
Operant Conditioning Chamber (aka Skinner Box)
Diagram of Box and Its Parts, and Rat Inside Box
Terms and Ideas 11:05
These Are Labels That Are Put on After Behavior Is Seen
Kinds of Reinforcement & Punishment 12:53
Positive and Negative Reinforcement/ Positive and Negative Punishment
Positive Reinforcement 15:46
Positive Reinforcement -- Adding a Pleasant Stimulus to Increase a Behavior
e.g. Getting a Hug
e.g. Receiving a Paycheck
e.g. Getting a Great Job! From Coach or Teacher
There was this Goose -- Tale of Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement 20:05
Negative Reinforcement -- Removing an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Increase a Behavior
e.g. The Buzzing Stops When You Fasten Seat Belt
e.g. You Put on Sunscreen Before Getting in the Sun at the Beach
Positive Punishment -- Adding an Unpleasant/Aversive Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior
Negative Punishment -- Removing a Pleasant Stimulus to Reduce a Behavior
All Consequences 25:11
Most Effective When Immediately Follows a Response AND is Applied Consistently
What is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Differ From Classical Conditioning?
Describe the Law of Effect
Describe the Difference Between Reinforcement and Punishment
How is Positive Punishment Related to Negative Reinforcement?
Examine Your Own Life and Find an Example of Operant Conditioning in Which You Were Conditioned and Another Example in Which You Conditioned Someone Else
This book features an effective, 5-step plan to guide your preparation program and help you build the skills, knowledge, and test-taking confidence you need to succeed. This fully revised edition covers the latest course syllabus and provides 2 full-length practice tests that reflect the latest version of the exam, as well as access to online AP Psychology quizzes.
This book that preps you for the AP Psychology Exam includes 2 full-length practie tests with detailed explanations, thorough subject reviews for all test topics, from sensation and perception to abnormal psychology, and proven techniques to help you score higher.
This book is an updated manual that offers detailed preparation for the AP Psychology exam with features that include: three full-length exams (one diagnostic test and two full-length practice tests), and a review of all AP test topics, including research methods, the biological basis of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, cognition, personality, abnormal psychology, and treatment of disorders. It also includes fifteen additional multiple-choice practice questions for each unit with explained answers, and an analysis of the test's essay section with a sample annotated essay.
"This set of 500 flash cards will help you understand and appropriately use psychological vocabulary terms frequently found in the multiple choice and free response sections of the AP Psychology exam. Each 4-1/2"" x 2-3/4"" card features: a frequently used psychology term on one side, with definitions, synonyms, explanations, and examples on the reverse side. It also features the context for the term, or the areas of psychology in which the term is most often used."
This book addresses the market changes and provides a unique survey of psychology that meets three goals: to demonstrate the unity and diversity of psychology's subject matter, to illuminate the research process and its link to application, and to make the material challenging and thought-provoking yet easy to learn. Weiten accomplishes the successful balance of scientific rigor and a student-friendly approach through the integration of seven unifying themes, an unparalleled didactic art program, real-life examples, and a streamlined set of learning aids that help students see beyond research to big-picture concepts. Major topics typically covered in today's courses are included, such as evolutionary psychology, neuropsychology, biological psychology, positive psychology, applied psychology, careers, and multiculturalism and diversity.