In this lesson, our instructor Charles Schallhorn, talks about the experimental process: how subjects are selected, the different kinds of variables found in experiments, the placebo effect, the types of biases that can arise when gathering data, and what must be considered to ethically use people or animals when conducting experiments.
An Experiment is a controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another
Psychological researchers rely on operational definitions and measurement in behavioral research
An hypothesis is a statement that attempts to predict an outcome within the confines of the experiment—how the manipulation of the independent variable changes the dependent variable
An Independent Variable is variable that an experimenter manipulates
A Dependent Variable is a variable than an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable
Extraneous Variables are conditions that a researcher wants to prevent from affecting the outcomes of the experiment
Random Selection is choosing subjects for the experiment without bias—often using a random number table or other randomizing procedure
Random Assignment is choosing which group, the experimental or control group each subject goes to
Randomness is a procedure that creates the attempt to limit bias and create representativeness
Single Blind Experiment is when only the subjects have no idea whether they get real treatment or placebo
A Double Blind Experiment is when the subjects AND the experimenters have no idea whether the subjects get real treatment or placebo
Placebo Effect is when changes in behavior that result from belief that one has ingested a drug or received a treatment
Ethical Issues in Research include the practice of no coercion-participation must be voluntary; Doctrine of “informed consent;” anonymity or confidentiality of participants; respecting dignity and welfare of human subjects; protection from physical or emotional risk—temporary discomfort ok, but not long-term harm; ability to withdraw at any time; and “debriefing”—done after experiment-explains true purpose of study and if any deceptions
Experimenting on Animals can be done but must have a clear scientific purpose, answer a specific, important scientific question with animals chosen must be best suited for the question and acquired legally
The Experimental Process & Ethical Guidelines
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Describe how Research Design Drives the Reasonable Conclusions That Can Be Drawn (e.g. Experiments are Useful for Determining Cause And Effect; The Use of Experimental Controls Reduces Alternate Explanations
Identify Independent, Dependent, Confounding, and Control Variables In Experimental Designs
Distinguish Between Random Assignments of Participants to Conditions in Experiments and Random Selection of Participants, Primarily in Correlational Studies and Surveys
Objectives, Cont. 0:57
Predict the Validity of Behavioral Explanations Based on the Quality of Research Design (e.g., Confounding Variables Limit Confidence in Research Conclusions).
Discuss the Value of Reliance on Operational Definitions and Measurement in Behavioral Research
The Experiment: Searching for Causes 1:23
Experimental and Control Conditions
Advantages and Limitations of Experiments
An Experiment 1:55
A Controlled Test of a Hypothesis in Which the Researcher Manipulates One Variable to Discover Its Effect on Another.
To Identify Cause-And-Effect Relationships, We Conduct Experiments
Some Vocabulary 3:34
Hypothesis: A Statement That Attempts to Predict an Outcome Within the Confines of the Experiment -- How the Manipulation of the Independent Variable Changes the Dependent Variable. To Make It Easier, Put it In a Conditional Format, If, Then
Independent Variable: A Variable That an Experimenter Manipulates.
Dependent Variable: A Variable That an Experimenter Predicts Will Be Affected By Manipulations of the Independent Variable
Unwanted Variables -- Extraneous Variables: Conditions That a Researcher Wants To Prevent From Affecting The Outcomes of the Experiment (e.g., Number of Hours Slept Before the Experiment)
More Concepts 5:15
Random Selection -- Choosing Subjects for the Experiment Without Bias -- Often Using a Random Number Table or Other Randomizing Procedure
Random Assignment -- Choosing Which Group, The Experimental or Control Group Each Subject Goes To
Randomness is a Procedure That Creates the Attempt to Limit Bias and Create Representativeness
A Graphic Overview 8:31
If One Eats Peanuts, One Will Recall Better 12:06
Practice -- Caffeine and Memory 14:16
Practice -- Sleep and Reaction Time 17:29
Potential Biases 21:05
Experimenter Effects -- This is When The Experimenter Unconsciously Pushes Subject into a Particular Response
Changes in Behavior Caused by the Unintended Influence of the Experimenter
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: A Prediction That Leads People to Act in Ways to Make the Prediction Come True
Single Blind Experiment: Only the Subjects Have No Idea Whether They Get Real Treatment or Placebo
Double Blind Experiment: The Subjects AND The Experimenters Have No Idea Whether the Subjects Get Real Treatment or Placebo
Evaluating Results in an Experiment 22:54
Statistically Significant: Results Gained Would Occur Very Rarely by Chance Alone, Usually Less Than Five Experiments Out of 100
Meta-Analysis: Study of Results of Other Studies
Placebo Effect 25:15
Changes in Behavior That Result From Belief That One Has Ingested a Drug
Ethics/Ethical Responsibility 28:28
No Coercion -- Participation Must Be Voluntary
Doctrine of Informed Consent -- Must Be Volunteer and Know Enough to Intelligently Decide About Participating
Anonymity or Confidentiality of Participants
Respecting Dignity and Welfare of Human Subjects
Protection From Physical or Emotional Risk -- Temporary Discomfort OK, But Not Long-Term Harm
Ability to Withdraw at Any Time
Deception of Subjects Can Be OK
Debriefing -- Done After Experiment -- Explains True Purpose of Study and If Any Deceptions
Experimenting on Animals 30:43
Humans are Similar to Other Animals in Many Ways
Two Extreme Options -- Do No Testing or Test in Any Way We Want, Without Constraint
Researchers Must (APA 2002) Ensure the Comfort, Health, and Humane Treatment of Animals and of Minimizing Infection, Illness, and Pain of Animal Subjects.
Must Have a Clear Scientific Purpose
Must Answer a Specific, Important Scientific Question
Animals Chosen Must be Best Suited for the Question
Animals Must Be Acquired Legally (Accredited Companies or Trapped Humanely, if Wild)
Practice Questions 32:06
To Understand In-Depth a Particular Individual or Family By Using Many Different Tools
To Watch a Person or People and Describe What They Do -- Often Involves Keeping Counts of Particular Behaviors
To Examine the Strength of Relationship Between Two or More Variables
Using Controlled Methods, Create a Situation Where the Researcher Can Measure Cause and Effect by Applying the Independent Variable With the Experimental Group and Comparing Results With a Control Group.
Practice Questions 33:31
To Find Out a Lot of People's Views, Attitudes, Experiences or Feelings About Some Aspect of Their Lives
To Use a Manipulated Situation to See What People Will Do in That Situation
Professor Xavier is Interested in Understanding the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety
Dr. Jones Wishes to Investigate the Effects of a New Training Program on Employees' Job Performances
Professor Smith Wishes to Study the Effects of Food Deprivation on Learning in Rats
Dr. Watusi is Interested in Studying Peer Influence Among High School Students. He Decides to go to Several Local High Schools and Observe Students Over the Course of Several Weeks.
This book features an effective, 5-step plan to guide your preparation program and help you build the skills, knowledge, and test-taking confidence you need to succeed. This fully revised edition covers the latest course syllabus and provides 2 full-length practice tests that reflect the latest version of the exam, as well as access to online AP Psychology quizzes.
This book that preps you for the AP Psychology Exam includes 2 full-length practie tests with detailed explanations, thorough subject reviews for all test topics, from sensation and perception to abnormal psychology, and proven techniques to help you score higher.
This book is an updated manual that offers detailed preparation for the AP Psychology exam with features that include: three full-length exams (one diagnostic test and two full-length practice tests), and a review of all AP test topics, including research methods, the biological basis of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, cognition, personality, abnormal psychology, and treatment of disorders. It also includes fifteen additional multiple-choice practice questions for each unit with explained answers, and an analysis of the test's essay section with a sample annotated essay.
"This set of 500 flash cards will help you understand and appropriately use psychological vocabulary terms frequently found in the multiple choice and free response sections of the AP Psychology exam. Each 4-1/2"" x 2-3/4"" card features: a frequently used psychology term on one side, with definitions, synonyms, explanations, and examples on the reverse side. It also features the context for the term, or the areas of psychology in which the term is most often used."
This book addresses the market changes and provides a unique survey of psychology that meets three goals: to demonstrate the unity and diversity of psychology's subject matter, to illuminate the research process and its link to application, and to make the material challenging and thought-provoking yet easy to learn. Weiten accomplishes the successful balance of scientific rigor and a student-friendly approach through the integration of seven unifying themes, an unparalleled didactic art program, real-life examples, and a streamlined set of learning aids that help students see beyond research to big-picture concepts. Major topics typically covered in today's courses are included, such as evolutionary psychology, neuropsychology, biological psychology, positive psychology, applied psychology, careers, and multiculturalism and diversity.