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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
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Cognition Memory

  • Memory is a part of cognition
  • Memory is an active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information
  • Information must be encoded in order to be stored or retrieved from long term memory
  • Encoding, rehearsal, storage, retrieval and schema are all important parts of the memory creation process
  • Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory are three phases of Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of memory
  • There are different kinds of processing the mind does—parallel, automatic, and effortful
  • The magic number of 7 +/- 2 from the work of George Miller is how much we can keep in our working memory at any given time

Cognition Memory

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Cognition (8-10%)
    • Objectives
    • Objectives, Continued
    • Memory Demo #1
    • Memory Demo #2
    • Memory Demo #3
    • Memory: Some Key Terms
    • Sensory Memory
    • Short-Term Memory (STM)
    • Long-Term Memory (LTM)
    • Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model -- Modified
    • Processing
    • Short-Term Memory Concepts
    • More STM Concepts
    • Maintenance Rehearsal
    • Elaborative Rehearsal
    • Long-Term Memory Concepts
    • Types of Long-Term Memories
    • Types of Memory
    • Measuring Memory
    • Serial Position Effect
    • Measuring Memory
    • Measuring Memory Continued
    • Memory Features
    • Measuring Memory -- Concluded
    • Eidetic Memory
    • Forgetting
    • More Forgetting Theories
    • Interference
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Cognition (8-10%) 0:08
      • Memory
      • Language
      • Thinking
      • Problem Solving and Creativity
      • In This Unit, You Will Learn How Humans Convert Sensory Input Into Kinds of Information. We Examine How Human Learn, Remember, and Retrieve Information. This part of the Course Also Addresses Problem Solving, Language, and Creativity.
    • Objectives 0:50
      • Compare and Contrast Various Cognitive Processes
      • Describe and Differentiate Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory (e.g., Short-Term Memory, Procedural Memory)
      • Outline the Principles That Underlie Effective Encoding, Storage, and Construction of Memories
      • Describe Strategies For Memory Improvement
    • Objectives, Continued 1:41
      • Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language
      • Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness
      • List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers
      • Identify Key Contributors in Cognitive Psychology (e.g. Noam Chomsky, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Wolfgang Kohler, Elizabeth Loftus, George A. Miller).
    • Memory Demo #1 2:13
      • Memorizing a 20 Digit Number
      • Without Writing it Down
      • Listen Carefully
      • Debriefing and Explanation
    • Memory Demo #2 3:54
      • Recalling the Presidents of the US
      • Debriefing and Explanation
    • Memory Demo #3 6:24
      • Make a List of the US States in Any Order
      • Debriefing and Explanation
    • Memory: Some Key Terms 8:57
      • Memory: Active System That Stores, Organizes, Alters, and Recovers (Retrieves) Information
      • Encoding: Converting Information Into a Useable Form
      • Rehearsal: The Conscious Repetition of Information, Either to Maintain it in Consciousness or to Encode It For Storage
      • Storage: Holding This Information in Memory
      • Retrieval: Taking Memories Out of Storage
      • Schema: The Mental Map or Filter That One Uses to Connect New Information to Old, Established Information -- Can Make Learning New Things Much Easier
    • Sensory Memory 9:47
      • Storing an Exact Copy of Incoming Information For a Few Seconds (Either What is Seen or Heard); The First Stage of Memory
      • Icon: A Fleeting Mental Image or Visual Representation
      • Echo: After a Sound is Heard, a Brief Continuation of the Activity in the Auditory System
    • Short-Term Memory (STM) 10:51
      • Storing Small Amounts of Information Briefly
      • Very Sensitive to Interruption or Interference
    • Long-Term Memory (LTM) 13:41
      • Storing Information Relatively Permanently
      • Stored on Basis of Meaning and Importance
    • Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model -- Modified 14:27
      • Diagram
    • Processing 16:24
      • Parallel: The Processing of Many Aspects of a Problem Simultaneously; The Brain's Natural Mode of Information Processing for Many Functions. Contrasts With the Step-by-Step (Serial) Processing of Most Computers and of Conscious Problem-Solving
      • Automatic -- Unconscious Encoding of Incidental Information, Such as Space, Time, and Frequency, and of Well-Learned Information, Such as Word Meanings
      • Effortful -- Encoding that Requires Attention and Conscious Effort
    • Short-Term Memory Concepts 19:47
      • Digit Span: Test of Attention and Short-Term Memory; String of Numbers is Recalled Forward or Backward
      • Magic Number 7 (Plus or Minus 2): STM is Limited to Holding Seven (Plus or Minus 2) Information Bits at Once
    • More STM Concepts 20:57
      • Recoding: Reorganizing or Modifying Information to Assist Storage in STM
    • Maintenance Rehearsal 22:25
      • Repeating Information Silently to Prolong Its Presence in STM
    • Elaborative Rehearsal 24:34
      • Links New Information With Existing Memories and Knowledge in LTM
    • Long-Term Memory Concepts 26:37
      • Constructive Processing: Updating Long-Term Memories on Basis of Logic, Reasoning, or New Information
      • Pseudo-Memories: False Memories That a Person Believes are True or Accurate
    • Types of Long-Term Memories 28:00
      • Procedural (Skilled): Long-term Memories of Conditioned Responses and Learned Skills, e.g. Driving
      • Declarative (Fact): LTM Factual Information -- Also Called Explicit Memory
    • Types of Memory 30:06
      • Chart Showing Hierarchies of Memory
    • Measuring Memory 31:06
      • Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) State: Feeling That a Memory is Available But Not Quite Retrievable
      • Feeling of Knowing: Feeling That Allows People to Predict Beforehand Whether They'll Be Able to Remember Something
    • Serial Position Effect 32:02
      • Chart
    • Measuring Memory 33:16
      • Recognition Memory: Previously Learned Material is Correctly Identified
      • Distractors: False Items Included With Correct Item
      • False Positive: False Sense of Recognition
      • Recall: Direct Retrieval of Facts or Information
    • Measuring Memory Continued 35:46
      • Relearning: Learning Again Something That Was Previously Learned
      • Used to Measure Memory of Prior Learning
      • Savings Score: Amount of Time Saved When Relearning Information
    • Memory Features 37:01
      • Recalled Better With Use of Mnemonics
      • Spaced Practice Better Than Massed Practice
    • Measuring Memory -- Concluded 37:38
      • Explicit Memory: Past Experiences That Are Consciously Brought to Mind
      • Implicit Memory: A Memory Not Known to Exist; Memory That is Unconsciously Retrieved
      • Priming: When Cues Are Used to Activate Hidden Memories
      • Internal Images: Mental Pictures Used in Memory and Thinking
    • Eidetic Memory 39:56
      • Occurs When a Person (Usually a Child) Has Visual Images Clear Enough to be Scanned or Retained for at Least 30 Seconds
      • Usually Projected Onto a Plain Surface, Like a Blank Piece of Paper
      • Usually Disappears During Adolescence and is Rare by Adulthood
      • Sheldon From TBBT Claims to Have This
    • Forgetting 41:01
      • Ebbinghaus Research
      • Nonsense Syllables: Meaningless Three-Letter Words (Fej, Quf) That Test Learning and Forgetting
      • Encoding Failure: When a Memory Was Never Formed in the First Place
      • Memory Traces: Physical Changes in Nerve Cells or Brain Activity That Occur When Memories are Stored
      • Memory Decay: When Memory Traces Become Weaker; Fading to Weakening of Memories
      • Disuse: Theory That Memory Traces Weaken When Memories Are Not Used or Retrieved
    • More Forgetting Theories 43:16
      • Memory Cue: Any Stimulus Associated With a Memory; Usually Enhances Retrieval of a Memory
      • State Dependent/Mood Dependent
      • When Memory Retrieval is Influenced by Body State; If Your Body State is the Same at the Time of Learning AND The Time of Retrieval, Retrievals Will Be Improved
    • Interference 45:30
      • Tendency for New Memories to Impair Retrieval of Older Memories, and the Reverse
      • Retroactive Interference: Tendency for New Memories to Interfere With Retrieval of Old Memories
      • Proactive Interference: Prior Learning Inhibits (Interferes With) Recall of Later Learning
      • Two Ways
    • Review 49:17
      • How Do Psychologists Describe The Human Memory System?
      • What Information Do We Encode Automatically?
      • What Information Do We Encode Effortfully, and How Does the Distribution of Practice Influence Retention?
      • What Effortful Processing Methods Aid in Forming Memories?
      • What is Sensory Memory?
      • What are the Duration and Capacity of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory?
      • How Does the Brain Store Our Memories?
      • How Do We Get Information Out of Memory?
      • How Do External Contects and Internal Emotions Influence Memory Retrieval?
      • Why Do We Forget?