In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn talks about short and long-term memory, how they are acquired and how they differ from each other. He uses examples to show the different ways people might try to remember a long list of items, such as alphabetically, regionally or chronologically, and looks at ways to measure one's memory.
Memory is an active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information
Information must be encoded in order to be stored or retrieved from long term memory
Encoding, rehearsal, storage, retrieval and schema are all important parts of the memory creation process
Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory are three phases of Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of memory
There are different kinds of processing the mind does—parallel, automatic, and effortful
The magic number of 7 +/- 2 from the work of George Miller is how much we can keep in our working memory at any given time
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
In This Unit, You Will Learn How Humans Convert Sensory Input Into Kinds of Information. We Examine How Human Learn, Remember, and Retrieve Information. This part of the Course Also Addresses Problem Solving, Language, and Creativity.
Compare and Contrast Various Cognitive Processes
Describe and Differentiate Psychological and Physiological Systems of Memory (e.g., Short-Term Memory, Procedural Memory)
Outline the Principles That Underlie Effective Encoding, Storage, and Construction of Memories
Describe Strategies For Memory Improvement
Objectives, Continued 1:41
Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language
Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness
List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers
Identify Key Contributors in Cognitive Psychology (e.g. Noam Chomsky, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Wolfgang Kohler, Elizabeth Loftus, George A. Miller).
Memory Demo #1 2:13
Memorizing a 20 Digit Number
Without Writing it Down
Debriefing and Explanation
Memory Demo #2 3:54
Recalling the Presidents of the US
Debriefing and Explanation
Memory Demo #3 6:24
Make a List of the US States in Any Order
Debriefing and Explanation
Memory: Some Key Terms 8:57
Memory: Active System That Stores, Organizes, Alters, and Recovers (Retrieves) Information
Encoding: Converting Information Into a Useable Form
Rehearsal: The Conscious Repetition of Information, Either to Maintain it in Consciousness or to Encode It For Storage
Storage: Holding This Information in Memory
Retrieval: Taking Memories Out of Storage
Schema: The Mental Map or Filter That One Uses to Connect New Information to Old, Established Information -- Can Make Learning New Things Much Easier
Sensory Memory 9:47
Storing an Exact Copy of Incoming Information For a Few Seconds (Either What is Seen or Heard); The First Stage of Memory
Icon: A Fleeting Mental Image or Visual Representation
Echo: After a Sound is Heard, a Brief Continuation of the Activity in the Auditory System
Short-Term Memory (STM) 10:51
Storing Small Amounts of Information Briefly
Very Sensitive to Interruption or Interference
Long-Term Memory (LTM) 13:41
Storing Information Relatively Permanently
Stored on Basis of Meaning and Importance
Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model -- Modified 14:27
Parallel: The Processing of Many Aspects of a Problem Simultaneously; The Brain's Natural Mode of Information Processing for Many Functions. Contrasts With the Step-by-Step (Serial) Processing of Most Computers and of Conscious Problem-Solving
Automatic -- Unconscious Encoding of Incidental Information, Such as Space, Time, and Frequency, and of Well-Learned Information, Such as Word Meanings
Effortful -- Encoding that Requires Attention and Conscious Effort
Short-Term Memory Concepts 19:47
Digit Span: Test of Attention and Short-Term Memory; String of Numbers is Recalled Forward or Backward
Magic Number 7 (Plus or Minus 2): STM is Limited to Holding Seven (Plus or Minus 2) Information Bits at Once
More STM Concepts 20:57
Recoding: Reorganizing or Modifying Information to Assist Storage in STM
Maintenance Rehearsal 22:25
Repeating Information Silently to Prolong Its Presence in STM
Elaborative Rehearsal 24:34
Links New Information With Existing Memories and Knowledge in LTM
Long-Term Memory Concepts 26:37
Constructive Processing: Updating Long-Term Memories on Basis of Logic, Reasoning, or New Information
Pseudo-Memories: False Memories That a Person Believes are True or Accurate
Types of Long-Term Memories 28:00
Procedural (Skilled): Long-term Memories of Conditioned Responses and Learned Skills, e.g. Driving
Declarative (Fact): LTM Factual Information -- Also Called Explicit Memory
Types of Memory 30:06
Chart Showing Hierarchies of Memory
Measuring Memory 31:06
Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) State: Feeling That a Memory is Available But Not Quite Retrievable
Feeling of Knowing: Feeling That Allows People to Predict Beforehand Whether They'll Be Able to Remember Something
Serial Position Effect 32:02
Measuring Memory 33:16
Recognition Memory: Previously Learned Material is Correctly Identified
Distractors: False Items Included With Correct Item
False Positive: False Sense of Recognition
Recall: Direct Retrieval of Facts or Information
Measuring Memory Continued 35:46
Relearning: Learning Again Something That Was Previously Learned
Used to Measure Memory of Prior Learning
Savings Score: Amount of Time Saved When Relearning Information
Memory Features 37:01
Recalled Better With Use of Mnemonics
Spaced Practice Better Than Massed Practice
Measuring Memory -- Concluded 37:38
Explicit Memory: Past Experiences That Are Consciously Brought to Mind
Implicit Memory: A Memory Not Known to Exist; Memory That is Unconsciously Retrieved
Priming: When Cues Are Used to Activate Hidden Memories
Internal Images: Mental Pictures Used in Memory and Thinking
Eidetic Memory 39:56
Occurs When a Person (Usually a Child) Has Visual Images Clear Enough to be Scanned or Retained for at Least 30 Seconds
Usually Projected Onto a Plain Surface, Like a Blank Piece of Paper
Usually Disappears During Adolescence and is Rare by Adulthood
Sheldon From TBBT Claims to Have This
Nonsense Syllables: Meaningless Three-Letter Words (Fej, Quf) That Test Learning and Forgetting
Encoding Failure: When a Memory Was Never Formed in the First Place
Memory Traces: Physical Changes in Nerve Cells or Brain Activity That Occur When Memories are Stored
Memory Decay: When Memory Traces Become Weaker; Fading to Weakening of Memories
Disuse: Theory That Memory Traces Weaken When Memories Are Not Used or Retrieved
More Forgetting Theories 43:16
Memory Cue: Any Stimulus Associated With a Memory; Usually Enhances Retrieval of a Memory
State Dependent/Mood Dependent
When Memory Retrieval is Influenced by Body State; If Your Body State is the Same at the Time of Learning AND The Time of Retrieval, Retrievals Will Be Improved
Tendency for New Memories to Impair Retrieval of Older Memories, and the Reverse
Retroactive Interference: Tendency for New Memories to Interfere With Retrieval of Old Memories
Proactive Interference: Prior Learning Inhibits (Interferes With) Recall of Later Learning
How Do Psychologists Describe The Human Memory System?
What Information Do We Encode Automatically?
What Information Do We Encode Effortfully, and How Does the Distribution of Practice Influence Retention?
What Effortful Processing Methods Aid in Forming Memories?
What is Sensory Memory?
What are the Duration and Capacity of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory?
How Does the Brain Store Our Memories?
How Do We Get Information Out of Memory?
How Do External Contects and Internal Emotions Influence Memory Retrieval?
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