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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Charles Schallhorn
Mon Nov 10, 2014 2:37 PM

Post by Omar El Sherbiny on November 25, 2013

potassium is K, P is phosphorus.

Neurons, Neurotransmitters, and Neural Communication

  • The basic cell of the brain is the neuron
  • Neurons are composed of dendrites, cell body (soma), axon, myelin sheath, terminal branches, terminal buttons, and vesicles
  • The synapse is the gap between neurons where neurotransmitters cross from the sending to the receiving neuron
  • The normal resting potential is -70 millivolts. If the charge of the neuron surpasses +30 mv, then the action potential occurs, causing the neuron to fire
  • After firing, the neuron takes time to repolarize to be ready to fire again
  • Sodium and potassium are two elements crucial to the electrical process within a neuron
  • Key neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and GABA.
  • Neural regulators include neuropeptides, enkaphalines, and endorphins
  • Agonists are chemicals that mimic the actions of neurotransmitter
  • Antagonists are chemicals that block the action of a neurotransmitter
  • Excitatory Neurotransmitters are chemicals released from the terminal buttons of a neuron that excite the next neuron into firing
  • Inhibitory Neurotransmitters are chemicals released from the terminal buttons of a neuron that inhibit (prevent) the next neuron into firing

Neurons, Neurotransmitters, and Neural Communication

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Objectives
    • Neuron Parts
    • Structure of a Typical Neuron
    • Neuron Anatomy Quick Quiz
    • Neural Conduction
    • Firing of a Neuron
    • Technique to Recall Chemicals
    • Electrical Nature of Neurons
    • Neural Speed
    • Neural Speed
    • The Neuron
    • Neuron and Synapse
    • Neural Reuptake (Recycling)
    • Neural Communication
    • Nerves and Neurons
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
    • Dopamine and Serotonin Pathways
    • Acetylcholine (ACh)
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
    • GABA
    • Glutamate
    • Other Neurotransmitters
    • Neural Regulators
    • Neural Regulators
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • Objectives 0:16
      • Identify Basic Processes and Systems in the Biological Bases of Behavior, Including Parts of the Neuron and the Process of Transmission of a Signal Between Neurons
      • Discuss the Influence of Drugs on Neurotransmitters (e.g. Reuptake Mechanisms, Antagonists, and Agonists)
    • Neuron Parts 0:39
      • Dendrite
      • Cell Body
      • Axon
      • Myelin Sheath (Myelin)
      • Axon Branches = Terminal Branches
      • Terminal Buttons (End Buttons, Axon Terminal, Terminal Branches of Axon, Synaptic Knobs)
      • Vesicles = Synaptic Vesicles
      • Synapse = Synaptic Gap
      • Neural Impulse
      • Glial Cells: 10-50 x More Glial Cells Than Neurons; Housekeeping, Nutrition, and Support
    • Structure of a Typical Neuron 2:34
      • Diagram of Neuron and its Parts
    • Neuron Anatomy Quick Quiz 3:41
      • Label the Parts of the Neuron
    • Neural Conduction 4:43
      • Voltage
      • Resting Potential
      • Action Potential
      • Threshold
      • Refractory Period
      • All-or-None Response (Principle)
      • Depolarization
      • Repolarization
    • Firing of a Neuron 6:54
      • Firing of a Neuron
    • Technique to Recall Chemicals 9:13
      • Salty Banana -- What is This?
      • Salt is Na+. Bananas Have a Lot of Potassium K+
    • Electrical Nature of Neurons 10:37
      • Graph Showing Voltage Measurement of a Firing Neuron and at Rest
    • Neural Speed 11:58
      • Speed of a Neuron Impulse
    • Neural Speed 13:57
      • Class Demonstration
      • Three Conditions
    • The Neuron 16:32
      • Detailed Diagram of Parts of Neuron
    • Neuron and Synapse 18:17
      • Graphic of Neuron Transmission
    • Neural Reuptake (Recycling) 19:46
      • Graphic of Neuron Recycling Neurotransmitters Between Receptors
    • Neural Communication 21:42
      • Picture of How Neurons Communicate With Each Other
    • Nerves and Neurons 22:40
      • Nerves: Large Bundles of Axons
      • Myelin: Fatty Layer That Coats Some Axons
    • Neurotransmitters 23:43
      • Dopamine (DA)
      • Serotonin (5-HT)
      • Acetylcholine (ACh)
      • Epinephrine (NE)
      • Norepinephrine
      • GABA
      • Caution -- These Descriptions Are Oversimplified -- Reality is Much More Complex (As Will Be Your Biological Psych-Course at University)
    • Neurotransmitters 24:32
      • Acetylcholine: Activates Muscles
      • Dopamine: Muscle Control
      • Serotonin: Mood and Appetite Control
    • Dopamine 25:32
      • Pleasure Centers of Brain -- Nucleus Accumbens
      • Parkinson's -- Loss of Dopamine Generating Neurons
      • Schizophrenia -- Elevated Levels of Dopamine in Mesolimbic Pathway
      • Low Levels Assoc. With Addiction
      • Dopaminergic
      • Recent Research Show That It's Not the Actual Release Associated With Pleasure, But the Anticipation of Reward
    • Serotonin 27:28
      • Inhibitory Neurotransmitter
      • Connected to Mood and Emotion, Appetite and Sleep
      • Low Levels Associated With Depression, Anger-Control, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Suicide
      • Plays a Role in Perception (Think Raves, E, and Molly)
    • Dopamine and Serotonin Pathways 29:53
      • Picture of Brain and Dopaminerges System and Serotonerges System
    • Acetylcholine (ACh) 30:56
      • First Neurotransmitter Discovered
      • Both in Peripheral and Central NS
      • Primary Function is in Somatic Nervous System
      • Activates Muscles
      • Associated With Movement
      • Loss Associated With Alzheimer's
    • Epinephrine 31:34
      • Associated With Energy and Emergency Systems in the Endocrine System (Sympathetic NS)
      • Connected to Forming Memories
      • Related to Traumatic or Incidents With Really Strong Emotions
    • Norepinephrine 32:32
      • Part of Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Danger -- Fight or Flight Response
      • Increases Blood Pressure and Heart Rate, Releases Glucose Stores
      • Connected to Amygdala Function
    • GABA 33:06
      • Gamma Amino Butyric Acid
      • An Inhibitory Neurotransmitter -- Slows Things Down
      • Associated with Anxiety -- Too Little Associated With Anxiety Disorders
    • Glutamate 33:47
      • At This Point, Not on AP Exam as a Neurotransmitter
      • Plays Key Role in Long-Term Potentiation
      • Important for Learning and Memory
    • Other Neurotransmitters 34:19
      • Others Definitely Exist
      • Will Be Part of a BioPsych-Course
      • Do Not Worry About Them for AP Psych
    • Neural Regulators 34:35
      • Neuropeptides: Regulate Activity of Other Neurons
    • Neural Regulators 35:37
      • Agonist (Chemicals That Mimic the Actions of a Neurotransmitter)
      • Antagonist (Chemicals That Oppose the Action of a Neurotransmitter)
      • Excitatory Neurotransmitters: Chemicals Released From the Terminal Buttons of a Neuron That Excite the Next Neuron Into Firing
      • Inhibitory Neurotransmitters: Chemicals Released From the Terminal Buttons of a Neuron That Inhibit (Prevent) the Next Neuron Into Firing
    • Review 37:24
      • Neural Parts -- Direction of Signal
      • Action Potential
      • Neurotransmitters