Sign In | Subscribe
Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!
Loading video...
This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Psychology
  • Discussion

  • Study Guides

  • Download Lecture Slides

  • Table of Contents

  • Related Books

Bookmark and Share
Lecture Comments (3)

2 answers

Last reply by: Professor Charles Schallhorn
Fri Jan 1, 2016 11:18 AM

Post by Chudamuni Dahal on October 16, 2013

thanks prof, wonderfully and clearly presented

States of Consciousness

  • Consciousness is a level of awareness about ourselves and our environment
  • There is a distinction between waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness
  • Regarding differing levels of consciousness, there is disagreement given the challenging nature of this topic
  • The historic issue has been the mind-body problem (dualism and materialism)
  • Levels of consciousness can include waking consciousness, nonconscious, preconscious, subconscious, and unconscious—again, debated and not all agreed upon
  • Circadian rhythms are 24 hour cycled rhythms such as the sleep/wake cycle or body temperature changes.
  • Infradian rhythms occurs with a frequency of less than one cycle in a 24-hour period (e.g. menstruation, hibernation)
  • Ultradian rhythms are repeated through a 24 hour cycle (e.g. heart rate, bowel activity, blinking rate)
  • Sleep is a natural and necessary process, humans need sleep
  • Beta waves are associated with wakefulness; alpha waves with relaxation and falling asleep
  • There are four stages of increasingly deep sleep (1, 2, 3, and 4)
  • Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is called paradoxical sleep with the brain being active and the body not moving
  • During healthy sleep, there are a series of predictable patterns of sleep stages as measured by an EEG
  • Sleep deprivation is a common sleep problem
  • There are four primary theories as to why people dream although the views of Freud are widely discarded
  • Sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and other parasomnias
  • Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness in which a person is highly suggestible
  • There are several valid uses for hypnosis although the theories (divided consciousness theory and social influence theory) as to how hypnosis works is still debated

States of Consciousness

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • States of Consciousness (2-4%)
    • Overview and Objectives
    • Objectives, Continued
    • States of Consciousness
    • States of Consciousness
    • Levels of Consciousness
    • Consciousness
    • Biological Rhythms -- Circadian Rhythms
    • Biological Rhythms -- Infradian Rhythms
    • Biological Rhythms -- Ultradian Rhythms
    • Sleep and Dreams
    • Measuring Sleep Changes
    • Stages of Sleep
    • Stages of Sleep
    • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
    • Non-REM or NREM Sleep
    • Sleep Stages
    • REM
    • Why We Sleep
    • Sleep Over Time
    • Sleep Issues
    • Shift Work and Sleep Deprivation
    • Theories of Dreaming
    • Sleep Disorders
    • Hypnosis (Framz Mesmer)
    • Theories of Hypnosis
    • Theories of Hypnosis
    • Review
    • Intro 0:00
    • States of Consciousness (2-4%) 0:12
      • Sleep and Dreaming
      • Hypnosis
      • Psychoactive Drug Effects
    • Overview and Objectives 0:38
      • Understanding Consciousness and What it Encompasses is Critical to an Appreciation of What is Meant by a Given State of Consciousness
      • Objectives
    • Objectives, Continued 1:16
      • Describe Historic and Contemporary Uses of Hypnosis (e.g. Pain Control, Psychotherapy).
      • Explain Hypnotic Phenomena (e.g., Suggestibility, Dissociation).
      • Identify the Major Figures in Consciousness Research (e.g. William James, Sigmund Freud, Ernest Hilgard).
    • States of Consciousness 1:39
      • What is Consciousness?
    • States of Consciousness 2:50
      • Philosophical Discussion on the Nature of Consciousness
    • Levels of Consciousness 4:03
      • Conscious Level
      • All the Sensations, Perceptions, Memories and Feelings You Are Aware of at Any Instant
      • Nonconscious Level
      • Preconscious Level
      • Subconscious Level
      • Unconscious
    • Consciousness 6:36
      • Chart Describing the Various States of Consciousness, Which Can Occur Spontaneously, Be Physiologically Induced, or Psychologically Induced
    • Biological Rhythms -- Circadian Rhythms 8:20
      • Circadian Rhythms
    • Biological Rhythms -- Infradian Rhythms 10:35
      • Rhythm With a Period Longer Than a Circadian Rhythm With a Frequency Less Than One Cycle in 28 Days
    • Biological Rhythms -- Ultradian Rhythms 11:50
      • Recurrent Periods or Cycles Repeated Throughout a Circadian Rhythm Multiple Times Per Day
    • Sleep and Dreams 12:42
      • Characteristics of Sleep
    • Measuring Sleep Changes 15:29
      • Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-Wave Machine Amplifies and Records Electrical Activity in the Brain
      • Beta Waves: Small Fast Waves Associated With Alertness and Awakeness
      • Alpha Waves: Large, Slow Waves Associated With Relaxation and Falling Asleep
    • Stages of Sleep 16:24
      • Awake -- Alpha (Getting Relaxed)
      • Stage Zero
      • Stage One
    • Stages of Sleep 18:00
      • Stage Two
      • Stage Three
      • Stage Four
    • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep 19:09
      • Active Sleep: REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
    • Non-REM or NREM Sleep 21:56
      • Occurs During Stages One, Two, Three, and Four; No Rapid Eye Movement Occurs
      • 90 Percent of Sleep Here is Dream-Free
      • Seems to Help Us Recover From Daily Fatigue
    • Sleep Stages 22:19
      • Graphic of Hypnogram, Which Measures a Sleeping Person's Brain Waves
    • REM 23:17
      • Good Band
      • Rapid Eye Movement
      • Occurs at Second Descent
      • Function is Somewhat Mysterious
      • REM Sleep Function vs. NREM Sleep Function
    • Why We Sleep 24:01
      • Sleep Theories
    • Sleep Over Time 24:25
      • Infants -- 16 Hours of Sleep Per Day, Half REM
      • Five to 13 Year-Olds -- 10 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2+ Hours REM
      • Twenty Year-Olds -- 7.5 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2 Hours REM
      • Fifty+ -- Typically Six Hours Per Day, Less Than 2 Hours REM
      • We Need Less Sleep as We Get Older
    • Sleep Issues 25:25
      • Variations in Sleeping Patterns
      • Cultural Influences
      • Sleep Debt -- Effects of Sleep Loss -- Need an Alarm to Wake Up; Struggle to Get Out of Bed, Feeling Tired and Irritable, Difficulty Concentrating and Remembering, Slow Thinking and Problem Solving, Sleepy When Not Moving (Lectures, TV, Riding in Cars), etc.
      • Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): Occurs in NREM Sleep During Stages 3 and 4.
      • Sleeptalking: Speaking While Asleep; Occurs in NREM Sleep
    • Shift Work and Sleep Deprivation 28:42
      • What Is Sleep Debt and What Symptoms Does it Have?
      • How Does Shift Work Disrupt People's Sleep Habits?
      • What Are Good Sleep Habits?
      • Restaurants and How to Get Rid of an Employee
    • Theories of Dreaming 31:48
      • Dreaming -- The Experience of Envisioned Images, Sounds, and Other Sensations During Sleep
      • Sigmund Freud/Psychodynamic Theory
      • Activation-Synthesis Theory
      • Problem Solving/Information Processing Theory
      • Physiological Function Theory
    • Sleep Disorders 36:09
      • Insomnia -- Temporary and Chronic
      • Narcolepsy -- May Include Cataplexy
      • Sleep Apnea
      • Parasomnias
    • Hypnosis (Framz Mesmer) 40:38
      • An Altered State of Consciousness In Which a Person is Highly Suggestible
      • What Hypnosis Can Do:
    • Theories of Hypnosis 43:11
      • Social Influence Theory (Role Theory)
    • Theories of Hypnosis 44:15
      • Divided Consciousness Theory (Dissociation Theory)
    • Review 46:28
      • Distinguish Among Circadian, Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms.
      • Give an Example of Each of the Above
      • Describe the Difference Between REM and NREM Sleep
      • What are Two Common Sleep Disorders and Their Likely Causes?
      • Compare the Different Theories of Dreaming -- Which Makes the Most Sense from a Scientific Point of View?
      • What are the Best and Worst Uses For Hypnosis?
      • Is Hypnosis Widely Accepted Among Psychologists?