In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn Takes a Look at Different States of Consciousness: He also takes a look at the various stages of sleep and sleep disorders. He also examines hypnosis, its many uses and its effectiveness.
Consciousness is a level of awareness about ourselves and our environment
There is a distinction between waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness
Regarding differing levels of consciousness, there is disagreement given the challenging nature of this topic
The historic issue has been the mind-body problem (dualism and materialism)
Levels of consciousness can include waking consciousness, nonconscious, preconscious, subconscious, and unconscious—again, debated and not all agreed upon
Circadian rhythms are 24 hour cycled rhythms such as the sleep/wake cycle or body temperature changes.
Infradian rhythms occurs with a frequency of less than one cycle in a 24-hour period (e.g. menstruation, hibernation)
Ultradian rhythms are repeated through a 24 hour cycle (e.g. heart rate, bowel activity, blinking rate)
Sleep is a natural and necessary process, humans need sleep
Beta waves are associated with wakefulness; alpha waves with relaxation and falling asleep
There are four stages of increasingly deep sleep (1, 2, 3, and 4)
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is called paradoxical sleep with the brain being active and the body not moving
During healthy sleep, there are a series of predictable patterns of sleep stages as measured by an EEG
Sleep deprivation is a common sleep problem
There are four primary theories as to why people dream although the views of Freud are widely discarded
Sleep disorders include insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and other parasomnias
Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness in which a person is highly suggestible
There are several valid uses for hypnosis although the theories (divided consciousness theory and social influence theory) as to how hypnosis works is still debated
States of Consciousness
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Identify the Major Figures in Consciousness Research (e.g. William James, Sigmund Freud, Ernest Hilgard).
States of Consciousness 1:39
What is Consciousness?
States of Consciousness 2:50
Philosophical Discussion on the Nature of Consciousness
Levels of Consciousness 4:03
All the Sensations, Perceptions, Memories and Feelings You Are Aware of at Any Instant
Chart Describing the Various States of Consciousness, Which Can Occur Spontaneously, Be Physiologically Induced, or Psychologically Induced
Biological Rhythms -- Circadian Rhythms 8:20
Biological Rhythms -- Infradian Rhythms 10:35
Rhythm With a Period Longer Than a Circadian Rhythm With a Frequency Less Than One Cycle in 28 Days
Biological Rhythms -- Ultradian Rhythms 11:50
Recurrent Periods or Cycles Repeated Throughout a Circadian Rhythm Multiple Times Per Day
Sleep and Dreams 12:42
Characteristics of Sleep
Measuring Sleep Changes 15:29
Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-Wave Machine Amplifies and Records Electrical Activity in the Brain
Beta Waves: Small Fast Waves Associated With Alertness and Awakeness
Alpha Waves: Large, Slow Waves Associated With Relaxation and Falling Asleep
Stages of Sleep 16:24
Awake -- Alpha (Getting Relaxed)
Stages of Sleep 18:00
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep 19:09
Active Sleep: REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
Non-REM or NREM Sleep 21:56
Occurs During Stages One, Two, Three, and Four; No Rapid Eye Movement Occurs
90 Percent of Sleep Here is Dream-Free
Seems to Help Us Recover From Daily Fatigue
Sleep Stages 22:19
Graphic of Hypnogram, Which Measures a Sleeping Person's Brain Waves
Rapid Eye Movement
Occurs at Second Descent
Function is Somewhat Mysterious
REM Sleep Function vs. NREM Sleep Function
Why We Sleep 24:01
Sleep Over Time 24:25
Infants -- 16 Hours of Sleep Per Day, Half REM
Five to 13 Year-Olds -- 10 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2+ Hours REM
Twenty Year-Olds -- 7.5 Hours Sleep Per Day, 2 Hours REM
Fifty+ -- Typically Six Hours Per Day, Less Than 2 Hours REM
We Need Less Sleep as We Get Older
Sleep Issues 25:25
Variations in Sleeping Patterns
Sleep Debt -- Effects of Sleep Loss -- Need an Alarm to Wake Up; Struggle to Get Out of Bed, Feeling Tired and Irritable, Difficulty Concentrating and Remembering, Slow Thinking and Problem Solving, Sleepy When Not Moving (Lectures, TV, Riding in Cars), etc.
Sleepwalking (Somnambulism): Occurs in NREM Sleep During Stages 3 and 4.
Sleeptalking: Speaking While Asleep; Occurs in NREM Sleep
Shift Work and Sleep Deprivation 28:42
What Is Sleep Debt and What Symptoms Does it Have?
How Does Shift Work Disrupt People's Sleep Habits?
What Are Good Sleep Habits?
Restaurants and How to Get Rid of an Employee
Theories of Dreaming 31:48
Dreaming -- The Experience of Envisioned Images, Sounds, and Other Sensations During Sleep
Sigmund Freud/Psychodynamic Theory
Problem Solving/Information Processing Theory
Physiological Function Theory
Sleep Disorders 36:09
Insomnia -- Temporary and Chronic
Narcolepsy -- May Include Cataplexy
Hypnosis (Framz Mesmer) 40:38
An Altered State of Consciousness In Which a Person is Highly Suggestible
What Hypnosis Can Do:
Theories of Hypnosis 43:11
Social Influence Theory (Role Theory)
Theories of Hypnosis 44:15
Divided Consciousness Theory (Dissociation Theory)
Distinguish Among Circadian, Infradian and Ultradian Rhythms.
Give an Example of Each of the Above
Describe the Difference Between REM and NREM Sleep
What are Two Common Sleep Disorders and Their Likely Causes?
Compare the Different Theories of Dreaming -- Which Makes the Most Sense from a Scientific Point of View?
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