In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn looks at learning in terms of conditioned responses and how those are formed. He also describes experiments done by Pavlov and Watson that demonstrated how an unconditioned stimulus can help form a conditioned response.
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience (does not include instincts, reflexes or maturation
The primary ways of learning that are focused upon in psychology are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning and cognitive learning
Classical conditioning is learning that takes place when an originally neutral stimulus comes to produce a conditioned response due to an association with and unconditioned stimulus
Ivan Pavlov discovered the process of classical conditioning
The parts of CC are the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response—they form a series of steps in relation to one another
Early research was done by John Watson on a child called “Little Albert” in which various stimuli were paired with a loud sound creating fear in the child
Learning: Intro & Classical Conditioning
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This Section of the Course Introduces Students to the Differences Between Learned and Unlearned Behavior. The Primary Focus is Exploration of Different Kinds of Learning, Including Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning. The Biological Bases of Behavior Illustrate Predispositions for Learning.
Distinguish General Differences Between Principles of Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning (e.g. Contingencies).
Describe Basic Classical Conditioning Phenomena, Such as Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, Generalization, Discrimination, and Higher Order Learning.
Predict the Effects of Operant Conditioning (e.g. Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, Schedules of Reinforcement).
Predict How Practice, Schedules of Reinforcement, and Motivation Will Influence Quality of Learning.
Objectives, Continued 2:45
Describe the Essential Characteristics of Insight Learning, Latent Learning, and Social Learning
Apply Learning Principles to Explain Emotional Learning, Taste Aversion, Superstitious Behavior, and Learned Helplessness
Suggest How Behavior Modification, Biofeedback, Coping Strategies, and Self-Control Can Be Used to Address Behavioral Problems
Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Learning (e.g. Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescale, B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Dolman, John B. Watson)
Learning = Conditioning 3:43
Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior
As a Result of Experience
Does NOT Include Instincts, Reflexes, and Maturation
In This Unit, We Will Examine Learning By Association by Consequence and By Observation
Lots of Terms and Relationships to Each Other
Learning is Inferred From a Change in Behavior/Performance
Learning Results in an Inferred Change in Memory
This Means That Behavior Changes That are Temporary or Due to Things Like Drugs, Alcohol, etc. are NOT Learned
Classical Conditioning 5:46
One Type of Learning
Learning That Takes Place When an Originally Neutral Stimulus Comes to Produce a Conditioned Response Because of its Association With an Unconditioned Stimulus.
History: Discovered by Russian Psychologist, Ivan Pavlov.
Studied Dogs and Salivation
Pavlov and Contiguity 8:34
Temporal Association Between Two Events That Occur Closely Together in Time.
The More Closely in Time Two Events Occurred, the More Likely They Were to Become Associated; as Time Passes, Association Becomes Less Likely
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS or US) -- Any Stimulus That Creates an Autonomic/Automatic/Reflexive Response in an Organism
Unconditioned Response (UCR or UR) -- Response That Occurs Due to Autonomic or Reflective Stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) -- Anything That Can Be Perceived
Conditioned Response (CR) -- Anything That Can Be a UCR/UR Can Become a CR. For AP Psych, the UR is ALWAYS the Same as the CR
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This book that preps you for the AP Psychology Exam includes 2 full-length practie tests with detailed explanations, thorough subject reviews for all test topics, from sensation and perception to abnormal psychology, and proven techniques to help you score higher.
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