In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn goes into greater detail with the concept of operant conditioning, which includes escape conditioning -- learning how to stop an unpleasant stimulus, avoidance conditioning, which is learning how to avoid the unwanted stimulus completely. He looks at the different kinds of reinforcements used to condition behavior: fixed interval and variable interval schedules of reinforcement and fixed ratio and variable ratio schedules.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Chart Looking at Positive/Negative (Adding or Removing Stimulus And Reinforcement vs. Punishment
Escape Conditioning 1:12
Escape Conditioning Occurs When the Animal Learns to Perform an Operant to Terminate an Ongoing, Aversive Stimulus. It is a Get Me Out of Here or Shut This Off Reaction, Aimed at Escape From Pain or Annoyance. The Behavior That Produces Escape is Negatively Reinforced (Reinforced by the Elimination of the Unpleasant Stimulus).
Avoidance Conditioning 2:52
When an Organism Learns to Avoid Unpleasant or Punishing Stimuli by Learning the Appropriate Anticipatory Response to Protect it From Further Stimuli (Learns a Cue Before the Stimuli -- Follows Escape Conditioning)
Occurs Quickly and is Very Durable.
e.g. If You Sounded a Tone Before You Electrified the Platform. After One or Two Trials, the Rat Would Respond to the Tone by Jumping Into the Water. It Would Not Wait for the Shock.
This is a Form of Stimulus Control, Because it Puts Behavior Under Control of a Stimulus, in This Case, the Warning Tone.
Avoidance Behaviors are Incredibly Persistent. This is True When There is No Longer Anything to Avoid.
Schedules of Reinforcement 5:17
Continuous Reinforcement: Every Instance of a Behavior Occurs is Reinforced
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement -- Reinforcing a Response Only Part of the Time; Results in Slower Acquisition of a Response But Much Greater Resistance to Extinction Than Does Continuous Reinforcement
Ratio Schedules: Reinforcement is Based on the Number of Behaviors Required
Interval Schedules: Reinforcement is Based on the Passage of Time
Variable -- Uncertain Number of Times/Behaviors
Fixed -- Certain Number of Times/Behaviors
Immediate v. Delayed Reinforcers -- Like Pavlov and Contiguity, the Longer the Delay, the Less, the Connection.
Schedules of Reinforcement 7:13
Fixed Ratio and Variable Ratio vs. Fixed Interval and Variable Interval
Fixed Interval Examples 11:11
Doing My Job and Receiving my Paycheck Monthly (Last Day of the Month)
The Daily Mail -- I Receive My Mail at Roughly the Same Time Each Day
A Course Where There are Exams Every Three Weeks (Studying Right Before the Exam and Then Stopping Until the Next Round)
Variable Interval Examples 12:22
Unpredictable -- Reinforcement Occurs After a Random Amount of Time
Checking Your Phone For Text Messages -- You Do Not Know When You Will be Rewarded With a Message, But Continue to Check Until You Do.
A Parent Attending to the Cries of a Child. Parents Will Not Typically Attend to the Child Each Time It Cries, But Will Leave He or She to Fuss For a Period Before Attending
Fixed Ratio Examples 13:43
Giving a Child Candy EVERY Time She Picks Up Her Toys
Getting Paid After Each Car Gets Sold
Student May Be Given a Prize After Reading Ten Books
Factory Workers Getting Paid by the Piece (e.g. $10 for Each Widget Made)
Getting a Free Sandwich Upon Purchase of 10 Sandwiches
Variable Ratio Examples 15:11
The Classic of Winning the Jackpot on the Slot Machine After Changing a Number of Times Playing It.
Playing Poker -- I Do Not Win Every Time, But Must Play in Order to Have a Chance
Buying Lottery Tickets and Winning Occasionally
Going Fly Fishing
Playing The Lottery
Shaping is a Technique Using Positive Reinforcements in Order to Create a More Complex Behavior
Television Examples 23:45
The Big Bang Theory
Now That You Know These Ideas, You Will Begin to See Them Everywhere -- This is Called Selective Perception -- It's Due to a Recent Change in Your Schema
Operant and Classical Conditioning on TV 26:52
Cesar Milan -- Dogs
Jackson Galaxy -- Cats
Both are Animal Behaviorists
Watch One or Two Episodes Each -- They Modify the Owner's Behavior as Much as the Animal
Which Schedule of Reinforcement is Most Effective in Training Someone/Thing to Do a Behavior?
Which is Most Difficult to Extinguish?
Examine Your Own Life and Find an Example of Operant Conditioning in Which You Were Conditioned and Another Example in Which You Conditioned Someone Else -- Now Connect Reinforcement Schedules -- Where Are Some of These in Your Life?
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