In this lesson, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn looks at cognition, and how we solve problems. He describes what a heuristic is, and then describes what a representative heuristic and availability heuristic are. He describes the various ways people arrive at the wrong conclusion when trying to problem-solve, and talks about the qualities of creativity and what intuition is.
Cognition: the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Prototype: a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
Algorithms: a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Heuristics: “rules of thumb” or a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
Insight: a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
Confirmation Bias: a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence—we are uncomfortable with cognitive dissonance
Fixation: the inability to see a problem from a fresh point of view—this relates to how we see/define a problem—can lead to others
Representative Heuristic: judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
Overconfidence: the tendency to be more confident that correct – to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
Belief Perseverance: clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited
Framing: the way an issue is posed or presented; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
Creativity is the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas in all fields
Characteristics of creativity include expertise, imaginative thinking skills, an adventurous personality, intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment
While convergent thinking limits creativity, divergent thinking increases the likelihood
Intuition is an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought—contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
Synthesize How Biological, Cognitive, and Cultural Factors Converge to Facilitate Acquisition, Development, and Use of Language.
Identify Problem-Solving Strategies as Well as Factors That Influence Their Effectiveness.
List the Characteristics of Creative Thought and Creative Thinkers
Cognition: The Mental Activities Associated With Thinking, Knowing, Remembering, and Communicating
Ideas Behind Thinking
Solving Problems 2:42
Algorithms: a Methodical, Logical Rule or Procedure That Guarantees Solving a Particular Problem
Heuristics: Rules of Thumb or a Simple Thinking Strategy That Often Allows Us to Make Judgments and Solve Problems Efficiently
Insight: A Sudden and Often Novel Realization of the Solution to a Problem; It Contrasts With Strategy-Based Solutions
Friendship Algorithm 3:50
Sheldon (of BBT) made up a Friendship Algorithm, Which is Displayed Here
Problems in Problem Solving 5:33
Confirmation Bias: A Tendency to Search for Information That Supports Our Preconceptions and to Ignore or Distort Contradictory Evidence -- We Are Uncomfortable With Cognitive Dissonance
Fixation: The Inability to See a Problem From a Fresh Point of View -- This Relates to How We See/Define a Problem -- Can Lead to Others
More Problems: Representative Heuristic 8:55
Representative Heuristic: Judging the Likelihood of Things in Terms of How Well They Seem to Represent, or Match, Particular Prototypes; May Lead Us to Ignore Other Relevant Information.
More Problems: Representative Heuristic 10:59
e.g. A Person Might Judge a Young Person More Likely to Commit Suicide Because of a Prototype of the Depressed Adolescent -- The Reality is That Suicide Rates are Not Higher in Younger Populations
More Problems: Availability Heuristic 12:02
Availability Heuristic: Estimating the Likelihood of Events Based on Their Availability in Memory; If Instances Come Readily to Mind (Perhaps Because of Their Vividness), We Presume Such Events are Common
We May Fear Flying Because of 9/11 or Some Other Notable Event -- This Influences Our Thinking
More Impediments to Problem Solving 14:06
Overconfidence: The Tendency to Be More Confident Than Correct -- To Over-Estimate the Accuracy of Our Beliefs and Judgments
Belief Perseverance: Clinging to One's Initial Conceptions After The Basis On Which They Are Formed Has Been Discredited
Framing: The Way an Issue Is Posed or Presented; How an Issue is Framed Can Significantly Affect Decisions and Judgments
In Short 17:19
Humans Are Not the Rational Creatures We Often Presume Them to Be
They Are Often Irrational, But Predictably So
Other Biases We Often Exhibit (Will Visit These in Later Units):
The Ability to Produce Novel and Valuable Ideas
Characteristics/Components of Creativity
Wolfgang Kohler Documented the Aha Experience While Studying Chimps When They Were Trying to Obtain a Banana That Was Out of Reach
Convergent Thinking -- Limits Creativity
Divergent Thinking -- Increases Likelihood of Creativity
An Effortless Immediate, Automatic Feeling or Thought, As Contrasted With Explicit, Conscious Reasoning
How Can Shortcuts That The Mind Uses Inhibit Our Thinking Skills?
How Do Smart Thinkers Use Intuition?
What is Framing?
What Factors Assist Creativity?
What is the Difference Between Convergent and Divergent Thinking?
How is Intuition Different From Conscious Cognition?
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