In this lecture, our instructor, Charles Schallhorn looks at the nature of motivation, drives and incentives which motivate us, the work of Abraham Maslow in the study of motivation, and the arousal theory, which states that people want to have their physiological arousal kept at a certain level and will behave in different ways to raise it or lower it as needed.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
In This Part of the Course, We Will Explore Biological and Social Factors That Motivate Behavior and Biological and Cultural Factors That Influence Emotion
Identify and Apply Basic Motivational Concepts to Understand the Behavior of Humans and Other Animals (e.g., Instincts, Incentives, Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation).
Discuss the Biological Underpinnings of Motivation, Including Needs, Drives, and Homeostasis.
Compare and Contrast Motivational Theories (e.g., Drive Reduction Theory, Arousal Theory, General Adaptation Theory), Including the Strengths and Weaknesses of Each.
Describe Classic Research Findings in Specific Motivation Systems (e.g. Eating, Sex, Social)
Objectives, Continued 1:16
Discuss Theories of Stress and the Effects of Stress on Psychological and Physical Well-Being.
Compare and Contrast Major Theories of Emotion (e.g. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Schachter Two-Factor Theory).
Describe How Cultural Influences Shape Emotional Expression, Including Variations in Body Language.
Identify Key Contributors in the Psychology of Motivation and Emotion (e.g. William James, Alfred Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Selye).
A Couple of Videos 1:49
Motivational Speech Videos From YouTube
No Arms, No Legs, No Worries
Defining Motivation and a Model 3:28
Dynamics of Behavior That Initiate, Sustain, Direct, and Terminate Actions
Model of How Motivated Activities Work
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology 4:18
Instinct (Fixed Action Pattern): A Complex Behavior/Set of Behaviors Done in the Same Way by Every Member of the Species
Motives and Incentives 8:41
Motivation is a Psychological Feature That Arouses an Organism to Act Toward a Goal and Elicits, Controls, and Sustains Certain Goal-Directed Behaviors
Incentives -- Something That Motivates an Individual to Perform an Action -- Within Economics, Incentives are External Rewards to Draw Out Particular Desired Behaviors
Motives are Internal, Incentives are External
Drives and Incentives 11:23
Homeostasis-Steady State of Body Equilibrium; Balance
Need -- Biological Imperative
Drive -- Biological Action Affect Need
Drive Reduction -- Behavior to Reduce Drive
Need --> Drive --> Drive Reduction
We May Need Water, We Get Thirsty, We Quench Thirst by Doing Drive-Reducing Behaviors, Like Drinking Water or Another Drink
We May Have the Same Drives, But Reduce Them in Different Ways
Incentive Value 12:48
Goal's Appeal Beyond Its Ability to Fill a Need
High and Low Incentive Value Goals 13:07
Incentive: A Positive or Negative Environment Stimulus That Motivates Behavior
ex: High Incentive Value Goal -- Ice Cream
ex: Low-Incentive Value Goal -- Carrot
Would This Interest You? 14:10
Picture of Larvae or Worms
Types of Motives 15:53
Primary Motive: Innate (Inborn) Motives Based on Biological Needs That Must Be Met to Survive
Stimulus Motive: Needs For Stimulation and Information; Appear to be Innate, But Not Necessary for Survival
Secondary Motive: Based on Learned Needs, Drives, And Goals
Arousal Theory 17:09
People Will Do Certain Actions to Maintain Certain Optimal Levels of Physiological Arousal. If the Level is Too High, They Will Seek to Relax. If Level is too Low, They Will Seek Out Action or Something That Stimulates Them
Based Upon Individual and Situation -- Highly Variable
Being an Introvert or Extrovert May Change One's View of What is a Pleasant Arousal Level
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