In this lesson our instructor talks about the circulatory system. First she discusses types of circulatory systems, blood vessels, vasoconstriction, and vasodilation. Second, she talks about blood, clotting, the heart, pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation. Lastly, she talks about the cardiac cycle, hemoglobin, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, and transport of carbon dioxide. Four complete example videos round up this lesson.
Arteries have thick walls and
carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood towards the
heart, have thinner walls and have valves to prevent backflow.
Capillaries are small vessels
with very thin walls across which nutrients, hormones, gases and
waste products can diffuse.
Blood contains fluid called
plasma, as well as red blood cells and white blood cells. Red blood
cells (erythrocytes) contain hemoglobin and transport oxygen. White
blood cells (leukocytes) function in immunity. Platelets are cell
fragments that play a role in clotting.
Red blood cells contain
hemoglobin, a four subunit protein that binds cooperatively to
The mammalian heart has four
chambers. The right atrium and ventricle pump blood through the
pulmonary circuit and the left atrium and ventricle pump blood
through the systemic circuit.
The sinoatrial node (SA) node
is the pacemaker for the heart.
Deoxygenated blood leaves
organs and returns to the heart via the superior vena cava and the
inferior vena cava. Blood drains into the right atrium and then
enters the right the right ventricle. Blood is pumped through the
pulmonary arteries into the lungs and the newly oxygenated blood
returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins, draining into the left
atrium and then the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood
through the aorta to tissues and organs.
The Circulatory System
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include three full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book has a great topic-by topic breakdown of the 14 must-know principles with sample questions and answers for each of the subjects. Laboratory Review includes a focused review of all 12 AP laboratory exercises. Included in this is 2 full length practice tests that stimulate the actual test along with answers and complete explanations.
This book includes a comprehensive biology test topic review, covering everything from photosynthesis to genetics to evolution. Cracking the AP Biology also includes testing strategies for the grid-in and essay section, great guidance on writing a high-scoring essay, and two full length practice exams with detailed explanations.