Fungi have nuclei and membrane-bound organelles, so they are eukaryotic, and can be multicellular. Fungi take the form of multicellular webs called mycelia formed from thread-like hyphae with chitin in their cell walls. Coenocytic fungi are not separated into individual cells but are multinucleated. Fungi can act as decomposers and live symbiotically with plants. Lichen is a symbiotic relationship between fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae. Fungi generally reproduce asexually through budding or spores but sometimes sexually via plasmogamy, fusion of cell membranes. This results in a cell with two nuclei (dikaryotic). These nuclei can eventually merge during karyogamy. Phylums include chytridiomycot, zygomycota, basidomycota, and Ascomycota.
Fungi are unicellular or
multicellular eukaryotes with cell walls containing chitin.
Multicellular fungi are
composed of microscopic thread-like structures called hyphae.
Adjacent cells are separated from each other by septa. Coenocytic
fungi lack septa and are multinucleated. Groups of hyphae form a
mycelium, which is a visible structure.
Fungi play an important role in
the environment. As decomposers, they break down organic materials,
releasing the organic components for reuse.
Certain fungi form mycorrhizae
in association with the roots of plants. This symbiotic relationship
provides the plant with increased surface area for the absorption of
water and minerals and provides the fungus with a source of
Lichen are the result of a
symbiotic relationship between fungi and either cyanobacteria or
green algae. Lichen can survive in extreme conditions and are one of
the first colonizers of a new area.
Plasmogamy is the fusion of the
cytoplasm of two cells, without fusion of the two nuclei. Karyogamy
is the fusion of the nuclei and may occur long after plasmogamy in
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.