Energy flows through the environment in several predictable systems and chemical cycles because energy and mass cannot be created or destroyed. The water cycle underpins all of life. Water evaporates from reservoirs in the ocean to form clouds. Condensed water vapor then falls to earth and flows back into the oceans. Carbon is exchanged between the biosphere atmosphere, rocks, soil, and water in the carbon cycle. Nitrogen and phosphorous also have cycles, with nitrogen- and phosphorous-fixing plants playing a key role. Human activity has altered many of these cycles resulting in changes to the environment, such as the climate change resulting from increased CO2 in the atmosphere and the eutrophication of rivers and lakes as phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizers drain into the water supply.
Diffusion and Osmosis. Study the movement of substances across a
semipermeable membrane. Observe plasmolysis in a plant cell.
Lab 2: Enzyme
catalysis. Determine the rate of conversion of H2O2 to H2O and O2
with and without the enzyme catalase. Determine the effect of
boiling and acid on enzyme activity.
Lab 3: Mitosis
and Meiosis. Determine the percentage of time a cell spends in each
stage of mitosis. Use models of chromosomes to develop an
understanding of the stages of meiosis.
Lab 4: Plant
Pigments and Photosynthesis: Use paper chromatography to separate
plant pigments. Measure the rate of photosynthesis for various plant
Lab 5: Cell
respiration. Determine the rate of oxygen consumption in dry and
germinating seeds through the use of a respirometer. Study the
effect of temperature on cell respiration.
Molecular Biology. Transform E. coli with a plasmid carrying genes
for antibiotic resistance. Digest phage DNA with restriction enzymes
and separate the fragments through gel electrophoresis.
Lab 7: Genetics
of Organism. Determine the mode of inheritance of certain traits in
Drosophila melanogaster by conducting breeding experiments. Do a
chi-square analysis on the results.
Population Genetics and Evolution. Determine how many individuals in
your class can and cannot taste PTC. Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation
to analyze the results.
Transpiration. Use a potometer to study the rate of transpiration
under various conditions. Observe and identify different tissue and
cell types in a plant stem.
Physiology of the Circulatory System. Use a sphygmomanometer to
measure blood pressure. Observe the baroreceptor reflex by assessing
change in pulse rate immediately after standing up. Study the
effect of temperature on heart rate in an ectotherm.
Lab 11: Animal Behavior. Observe the movement of pill bugs with
access to a wet and dry environment. Observe mating behavior in
Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity. Use changes in
dissolved oxygen to determine primary productivity.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.