The science of classifying organisms is called Taxonomy and is based on evolutionary relationships, often including genetic studies and morphology. These relationships can be expressed in a phylogenetics tree, which can also cover cladistics (classification based on common ancestry). Linnaean hierarchical classification is the main system used to classify organisms, which is based on kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, and later domains. Kingdoms used to include monera, Protista, plantae, fungi, and Animalia but were eventually replaced by three domains. Domain eukarya encompasses plants, animals, and fungi as well as protists. Members of domain bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes and include pathogens and decomposers. Domain archaea are also prokaryotes and include thermophiles, halophiles (extremophiles), methanogens, phototropes, autotrophs, chemotrophes, and heterotrophs. Other categorization factors include body symmetry and germ layers.
relationships among groups of organisms based on evolution.
A phylogenic tree visually
represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships among
A hierarchical system for the
classification of organisms was developed by Carl Linnaeus. In its
current form, the system includes the categories Domain, Kingdom,
Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
Domain Bacteria contains
single-celled prokaryotes. Members of Domain Archaea are also
prokaryotes, but have fundamental differences from members of Domain
Bacteria. Archaea include extremophiles such as thermophiles and
Plants, animals, protists and
fungi are all eukaryotes and belong to Domain Eukarya.
Animals may be classified
according to their body plans. Some animals have a body plan that
lacks symmetry, while others exhibit radial symmetry or bilateral
Diploblastic animals have two
germ layers, an ectoderm and an endoderm. Triploblastic animals have
an ectoderm, a mesoderm and an endoderm.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.