In this lesson our instructor talks about elements, compounds, and chemical reactions. For elements, she talks about matter, naturally occurring elements, atomic number, and atomic mass. For compounds, she talks about molecule, atoms, protons, neutrons, and electrons. She also discusses topics such as isotopes, electron shells, valence shell and energy level. Then, she teaches about different types of bonding such as covalent, polar, non polar, ionic, and hydrogen bonding. She then continue to lectures on chemical reactions, molecular mass and molar concentration. Four complete video examples round up this lesson.
are composed of atoms. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and
can be found at different energy levels. The particular energy
levels that electrons spend most their time at are described as
electron shells. The valence shell is the outermost electron shell
in an atom.
bonds are formed when atoms share electron pairs.
bonds are the result of an electron pair being more strongly
attracted to one atom in the bond than another. Nonpolar bonds occur
when an electron pair is equally attracted to both atoms forming the
An ionic bond is the attraction between
positively charged ions, called cations, and negatively charged
ions, called anions.
hydrogen bond is formed when a hydrogen atom covalently bound to one
electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative
undergo reactions by forming or breaking bonds. The initial
substances involved in the reaction are called reactants; the set of
substances resulting from the reaction are the products.
mole (mol) = 6.02 x 1023.
The molecular mass is the mass that contains one mol of the
substance. The molarity of a solution is its concentration in moles
of solute per liter of solution.
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include three full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book has a great topic-by topic breakdown of the 14 must-know principles with sample questions and answers for each of the subjects. Laboratory Review includes a focused review of all 12 AP laboratory exercises. Included in this is 2 full length practice tests that stimulate the actual test along with answers and complete explanations.
This book includes a comprehensive biology test topic review, covering everything from photosynthesis to genetics to evolution. Cracking the AP Biology also includes testing strategies for the grid-in and essay section, great guidance on writing a high-scoring essay, and two full length practice exams with detailed explanations.