Organic compounds contain carbon skeletons of varying lengths, while inorganic compounds do not contain any carbon. Isomers have the same formula but different structures (structural, geometric, enantiomers). Key functional groups include amino groups, carboxyl groups, hydroxyl groups, methyl groups, carbonyl groups, and phosphates. Carbohydrates (sugars like mono- and poly-saccharides and starches), lipids (fats), nucleic acids (DNA), and proteins (made from amino acids) are the four major kinds of organic compounds in biology. Carbohydrates are common in cell walls. Lipids form cell membranes, steroids like cholesterol, saturated and unsaturated fats, etc.
compounds are compounds containing carbon. Organic chemistry is the
study of carbon containing compounds.
consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded together and are
have the same molecular formulas but differ in their structures.
Three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers and
of atoms that are particularly important in determining a molecules
behavior and form are called functional groups.
are sugars and can be categorized as monosaccharides, disaccharides
or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates are a vital source of energy for
are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules. Lipids include fats,
oils, phospholipids and steroids as well as waxes.
can be divided into the categories saturated and unsaturated are
based on the composition of the hydrocarbon portion of the fatty
acids. Saturated fats contain only single bonds between the carbon
membranes are made up of phospholipids. Phospholipids are composed
of two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule that has
phosphate group attached.
are lipids containing a carbon skeleton of four fused rings. This
fused ring structure is called cholesterol and is the building
block for other steroids. Many hormones are steroids.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.