Plants contain dermal (epidermis), vascular (xylem and phloem), and ground (photosynthetic) tissue as well as three major cell types (parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and collenchyma). Vascular tissue like xylem and phloem provides stability and transports water and nutrients throughout the plant. The roots anchor the plants and absorb water and minerals. They can take the form of tap roots (carrots), fibrous systems (grasses), aerial roots, and prop roots. Plants can participate in the nitrogen cycle to absorb and fix this vital nutrient from the atmosphere and also contain stems, leaves (primary site of photosynthesis), stomata (allow for gas exchange), and sometimes symbiotic fungi. They can have widely different lifespans and can grow indefinitely (indeterminate growth) thanks to meristems. They can also grow in width (secondary plant growth) via the lateral meristems.
Roots anchor the plant to the
ground. They are also the site of absorption of water and minerals
from the soil and a site of food storage.
The leaf is the primary site of
photosynthesis in most plants. The outer layer of the leaf is
covered with a cuticle to prevent the loss of water. The cells of
the mesophyll contain numerous chloroplasts where photosynthesis
Stomata are pores on the
surface of leaves that allow for gas exchange. Guard cells flanking
a stoma change shape in order to control the opening and closing of
The xylem conducts water and
minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant. The xylem is
composed of tracheids and vessel elements arranged in chains.
The phloem conducts nutrients
from sites of production to the rest of the plant. Companion cells
associated with the sieve-tube elements regulate the flow of
Plants can grow indefinitely
due to the undifferentiated, embryonic cells in their meristems.
Primary growth increases the length of the plant. Non-herbaceous
plants also undergo secondary growth, which results in an increase
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.