Prokaryotic cells come in many different shapes, including cocci (spherical); bacilli (rod-shaped); and vibrio (curved rods). Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, short peptides of peptide and polysaccharides that can be gram-positive or gram-negative. Some bacteria have features like capsules, pili/fimbria, and flagella. Internally, they contain nucleoid regions, plasmids, and ribosomes. Eukaryotic animal cells have a phospholipid bilayer cell membrane. Internally, they have structures like the nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. These organelles are held in place in the cytoplasm by the cytoskeleton, and the cell is supported in the larger structure by microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Eukaryotic plant cells have a cell membrane and a cell wall, which is made of cellulose. They also contain a central vacuole and plastids like chloroplasts.
have cell walls containing peptidogylcan. Some bacteria are covered
by a capsule that helps them to evade the immune system.
genetic material in bacteria found in the nucleoid region. Some
bacteria also have small rings of DNA called plasmids, which contain
are projections from the bacterial surface. Sex pili transfer DNA
from one cell to another.
provide a means of motility in some prokaryotes.
cells contain membrane bound organelles including rough and smooth
endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes,
peroxisomes and ribosomes.
DNA is organized as chromosomes bound by histone proteins and is
located within a membrane bound nucleus. The nucleolus is the site
of ribosomal RNA synthesis.
cytoskeleton is a network of filaments composed of microtubules,
microfilaments and intermediate filaments.
cells do not have cell walls. The primary cell walls in plants
contain cellulose. Plants may also have a secondary cell wall
composed of both cellulose and lignin.
cells have a large central vacuole and organelles called plastids,
including chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.