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Lecture Comments (11)

1 answer

Last reply by: Joel Barrett
Fri Nov 7, 2014 2:02 AM

Post by Tim Zhang on October 22, 2014

Your lecture on the glycolysis helped me a lot. However I faced a really difficult question on this topic, could you help me solve this?  
The question ask that average human requires about 2,000 kcal of energy per day, which is equivalent to about 3 mol of glucose per day. It is a lot calories! but why don't humans spontaneously combust?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Sun Jun 24, 2012 6:16 PM

Post by michelle daane on June 11, 2012

Love these lectures, thank you so much.
When you refer to substrate level phosphorylation... how do we know what to consider the substrate? I would have called glucose the substrate, making step 1 and 3 examples of substrate phosphorylation?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Thu Jun 21, 2012 12:21 PM

Post by Susan McConnell on May 26, 2012

I love these lectures, they're so clear and helpful :)

2 answers

Last reply by: Rebecca Bulmer
Sat Jul 20, 2013 5:17 PM

Post by William Davis on March 28, 2012

Really David Winski??? Get over it dude

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Sun Nov 27, 2011 4:11 PM

Post by David Winski on November 21, 2011

It's not "faculative," it's "facultative."

Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of the cell; it provides energy for cellular processes.
  • During cellular respiration energy stored in the chemical bonds of organic compounds is released and used to make ATP. Cellular respiration may be either aerobic or anaerobic.
  • During glycolysis, a glucose molecule is split into two pyruvate molecules. This process takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • A net of two ATP and two NADH molecules are produced during glycolysis.
  • Obligate, or strict, anaerobes are organisms that can only perform anaerobic respiration. Facultative anaerobes can perform both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
  • When cellular respiration is anaerobic, fermentation follows glycolysis in order to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. In aerobic respiration, NAD+ is regenerated by the electron transport chain.
  • Two types of fermentation are alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.

Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

Transcription: Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to continue on with cellular energetics with the discussion of cellular respiration starting out with glycolysis and anaerobic respiration.0002

We are going to begin with an overview of cellular respiration.0014

First of all, during cellular respiration, energy stored in the chemical bonds of organic compounds such as glucose is released and used to make ATP.0019

Through this process, nutrients such as glucose are broken down, and the energy is released to make ATP.0030

Recall from the previous lesson that ATP is the energy currency of the cell.0037

It provides the direct energy source for most work in the cell such as active transport, production of macromolecules such as protein and the repair and growth of cells.0042

Just to review, here is the structure of ATP- adenosine triphosphate.0056

It contains three phosphate groups, and these bonds between the phosphate groups are high energy especially the bond between the terminal and the middle phosphate group.0061

When that is cleaved, energy can be released and used to power the cell.0074

The reason that there is a high amount of energy in these bonds is because you will notice that the phosphate groups are negatively charged.0080

Yet, they are held close together by these bonds.0087

Negative charges do not want to be closed together. They want to repel each other.0090

Yet, they are being forced to be near each other, and that creates potential energy.0094

The cleavage of that bond, it releases that energy.0099

Recall that the hydrolysis of ATP to create ADP plus phosphate has a ΔG of approximately -7.3kcal/mol.0102

This amount of energy would be released and could be used by the cell.0119

The opposite reaction, ADP plus phosphate, so the phosphorylation of ADP to create ATP, would require the input of 7.3kcal/mol.0124

And that energy, in order to phosphorylate ADP, can be found in the bonds of glucose that by breaking down glucose, that energy can be harnessed to form ATP.0140

And that is what cellular respiration is all about.0157

Notice that cellular respiration can either be aerobic or anaerobic.0160

Aerobic meaning requiring an oxygen. Anaerobic is when cellular respiration occurs without the presence of oxygen.0166

Today, we are going to focus on anaerobic respiration. In a separate lecture, we will focus on aerobic respiration.0173

Now, I mentioned that cellular respiration involves the breakdown of organic compounds such as glucose.0180

Well, where is this glucose come from?0186

In photosynthetic organism such as plants, glucose is actually produced, is generated by harnessing light energy.0189

Carbon dioxide and water are used along with light energy to produce glucose, which is later broken down via cellular respiration.0199

In organisms such as animals that are non-photosynthetic, the organic compounds come from ingesting other organisms such as plants and other animals.0208

One way or another, the organism needs to obtain glucose either by ingesting or by forming it through photosynthesis, and then, that is broken down via cellular respiration.0219

Now, in these two types of cellular respiration, aerobic and anaerobic, ATP is created for both. However, aerobic respiration is much more efficient.0231

With anaerobic respiration, only a net of two ATP molecules can be formed per glucose molecule that is metabolized.0242

Contrast that with aerobic respiration.0257

With aerobic respiration, there is a range, and you will hear different numbers in different books; but approximately 36-38 ATPs can be formed through aerobic respiration.0259

You will see that aerobic respiration is far more efficient than anaerobic respiration.0273

The first step for both of these processes is the same. It is glycolysis.0278

That is what we are going to focus on right now.0284

OK, we are going to begin by an overview of what glycolysis is, and then I am going to go into the steps of the process.0292

First of all, looking at the word glycolysis, gly meaning sugar and lysis meaning split, so glycolysis is the splitting of sugar.0299

You see here, that there is one glucose molecule that enters the glycolysis cycle, and it has 6 carbons.0314

Each of these spheres represents a carbon- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.0322

By the end of glycolysis, there will be two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules.0328

These two sides are mere images of each other, but just to keep the picture clean and clear, only one side is labelled.0335

But whatever is happening here on this side, is also happening, reflected across on the other side.0341

Looking at what has happened, one molecule of glucose is split to form two molecules of pyruvate.0347

The net production of ATP is two ATP molecules.0354

Looking at this overall equation, there is an input of one glucose molecule and two ATP molecules as well as two NAD+s.0359

We will talk in a minute about what these are and what they do.0369

But for right now, seeing that one, two ATP molecules are hydrolyzed. One glucose enters, and an NAD+ also enters the cycle.0372

The result is two pyruvate molecules, four ATPs.0381

One ATP, two ATP and on the other side, the same thing would be happening0386

We would end up with an ATP here and at this step, another ATP as well, so created 1, 2, 3, 4 ATP molecules- two in, four out, net production: two ATPs.0391

There is also a production of two NADHs, and this is going to become important when we talk about aerobic respiration.0410

Alright, I mentioned NAD+.0419

What does that do? Why is it important to glycolysis?0421

Well, one step of glycolysis, the one that involves NAD+, involves what is called a redox reaction.0424

Just going over some chemistry right now so that you could understand this step of glycolysis,0433

reactions, in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another, are called redox reactions.0439

Longer name for that is oxidation reduction or reduction oxidation reaction, so shorten that- redox reaction.0446

When electrons are transferred from one atom or molecule to another, that is what is called a redox reaction.0457

The molecule that loses an electron, one or more electrons, is oxidized, so the molecule that loses an electron has been oxidized.0466

It is transferring those electrons or that electron to another molecule on the molecule that gains an electron we say is reduced.0487

Molecule loses an electron. It has been oxidized.0500

Molecule gains electrons. It is reduced.0503

This allows for the transfer of energy, and the reason is the electrons move from a molecule that is less electronegative to one that is more strongly electronegative.0509

Remember that electrons are attracted to very electronegative atoms.0521

A perfect example is oxygen. Electrons are attracted to oxygen.0526

Therefore, by moving towards a more electronegative atom, energy is released.0531

There is a decrease in free energy as electrons move from a less electronegative to a more electronegative atom.0536

This energy can be harnessed to make ATP, and we are going to see a lot more about this in aerobic respiration.0543

We should start understanding it now because glycolysis does involve a redox reaction.0550

These electrons are usually not transferred alone. They actually move along with a proton.0555

Therefore, the transfer that we are talking about here, involves one electron plus one proton, and if you think about it, that is hydrogen.0561

We can also think about redox reactions as being the transfer of hydrogen atoms.0573

We can think of it in terms of transfer of hydrogen or transfer of electrons.0578

Since oxygen is very highly electronegative, it is an excellent electron acceptor.0583

It becomes reduced. It accepts electrons.0592

Therefore, it is an oxidizing agent. It accepts electrons and becomes reduced and therefore, oxidizes the other molecule.0596

Oxygen is very electronegative and therefore, is a good oxidizing agent.0605

And again, this is going to come into play more in aerobic respiration when we see that oxygen is the final electron acceptor.0615

Alright, now, getting to NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is the full name. We usually just call it NAD.0624

NAD+ is a coenzyme, and we discussed coenzymes in the previous lecture; and this is a coenzyme or an organic cofactor.0633

Remember that cofactors are molecules that have specific functions that aid in catalyzing reaction.0643

They are necessary to catalyze the reaction so you have the enzyme.0653

And there may be a cofactor or coenzyme sitting in the active site of that enzyme, and they have various functions.0656

The function for a coenzyme such as this one, NAD, is to act as an electron carrier.0663

NAD is a coenzyme that acts as an electron carrier during glycolysis and also during other parts of cellular respiration.0669

Electrons are passed not directly from one molecule to another in glycolysis, but actually through NAD, the coenzyme. It acts as intermediary.0678

We are going to see a couple other coenzymes that act as electron carriers.0689

There is one NADP, which we are going to see in photosynthesis and also FAD.0694

We will talk about this more in - actually FAD - later lectures, but for right now, we are focusing on NAD.0706

In glycolysis, one step is a redox reaction, and that is the 6th step.0713

In that step, two hydrogen atoms are removed from the substrate, and one hydrogen ion is released.0719

The remaining proton, as well as two electrons, are transferred to NAD+.0729

Let me write that out to make this much clearer.0734

Let x represent inorganic molecule, and here, we have xH2, so This H2 is part of this.0737

It is attached to this organic molecule. It is an organic substrate, and we have xH2 plus our electron carrier NAD+.0746

Remember that a redox reaction involves the transport of electrons.0762

Here, there is a proton coming along with the two electrons.0766

Two electrons are transferred and as well as one proton. The other proton is released.0772

What we end up with is - these are partly transferred, partly released - the remainder of this organic substrate plus NADH plus a hydrogen ion.0781

Remember, two hydrogen atoms will be composed of two electrons and two protons, so let's figure out where everything went.0802

Two electrons and two protons, two electrons we are transferred to NAD.0810

One proton was transferred to the NAD, and then one proton is released as a hydrogen ion.0816

Let's look at the charge here.0822

NAD was positively charge here. It was NAD+.0823

Two electrons were transferred plus one proton, so we have two negative charges and one positive charge.0827

That is a net of -1 charge. This started out with a +1 charge.0835

+1 and -1 combined becomes neutral. That is why when NAD is reduced, when it accepts these electrons, it ends up with a neutral charge.0841

It ends up as NADH plus hydrogen ion is released.0855

What has happened here is that NAD+ has become reduced - this is the reduced form - and the organic substrate is now oxidized.0860

It has lost electrons, so it is oxidized. This has gained electrons, so it is reduced.0870

FAD, when it is reduced becomes FADH2, and NAD+ becomes NADPH.0880

Notice that they are gaining electrons. They are gaining hydrogen, and that is how I know that this is the reduced form; and this is the oxidized form.0890

Alright, now, that helps you to understand one of the steps of glycolysis0900

OK, now we are going to go through glycolysis step by step, but remember, for the AP exam, there are some main facts that you have to know.0904

You should understand glycolysis, but you certainly do not have to memorize every intermediate and every enzyme.0912

The first thing you should know is that it takes place in the cytoplasm.0918

For cellular respiration, you should now where each step takes place, so glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm.0923

Second: there is a net production of two ATPs.0929

There is also production of two NADHs, and as we discussed in the overall reaction, one glucose molecule is split to form two pyruvate molecules.0935

Looking here, each sphere represents a carbon, so this is a 6-carbon molecule. We end up with two 3-carbon pyruvates.0951

You should also know that each step is catalyzed by a specific different enzyme.0961

Again, you do not have to memorize these enzymes, but just be aware that there are enzymes involved at each step.0966

There are two general phases. One phase is the energy investment phase.0973

You can see that ATP is utilized, so ATP is broken down to ADP in two steps here in the beginning; so energy is invested.0981

Here, the second phase is the energy payoff phase, where ATP is produced.0992

Starting from the top, starting out with the glucose, one ATP is used, and a phosphate group that is released is transferred to glucose to form glucose 6-phosphate.1007

In this step, the glucose is activated. That is the first step.1019

In the second step, glucose 6-phosphate is converted to its isomer, fructose 6-phosphate.1025

No energy input is required for that step.1033

In the third step, again, energy input is required.1036

ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP, and fructose 6-phosphate is phosphorylated to form fructose 1,6-phosphate.1039

Now, this next step is where the molecule is split form a 6-carbon molecule to two 3-carbon molecules.1049

I want to talk a little bit more about what occurs in this split.1056

We have had step 1, 2, 3, and then, the splitting occurs, that is step four.1060

Fructose 1,6-phosphate is not split into two identical molecules. Instead, we have fructose 1,6-phosphate.1070

It is converted into two different 3-carbon molecules. They are isomers of each other.1083

One of them is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate right here. The other one is dihydroxyacetone phosphate.1092

Only glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate continues on in glycolysis. You can see that here.1111

Yet, initially, this molecule is split into a molecule that cannot perceive down glycolysis.1117

The solution for that is an enzyme, isomerase, that can catalyze the reaction to convert G3P to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, and this reaction can go either way.1125

However, since glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is being consumed by glycolysis, the reaction gets pulled towards the formation of G3P.1138

As G3P is consumed, this enzyme catalyzes the formation of more from the isomer.1148

This is actually step 5, this isomerization, and the result is that you end up with two G3P molecules.1155

Initially, these are two different molecules.1165

Isomerase converts the other one two G3P, and that way, both of these can continue on through glycolysis.1167

Alright, that was step 4, step 5. Now, we are down to step 6, and notice that from here down, everything is going to occur twice per glucose molecule.1176

The glucose molecule will split, so the rest of these steps are going to all occur twice.1192

In this next step, inorganic phosphate is added. An inorganic phosphate is added to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to convert it to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.1198

This step is a redox reaction.1212

Notice that the electron carrier NAD+ is reduced to NADH.1215

In the process, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is oxidized, and that is going to occur over here as well; so you are going to end up with two NADHs from this step.1221

Now, finally, the energy payoff, energy has been invested. So far, two ATPs were used.1234

In step 7, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is converted to 3-phosphoglyceric acid.1242

In that process, it loses a phosphate group, and that phosphate group is transferred to ADP to form ATP.1252

The same thing is happening over here. I have an ATP formed.1262

At this point, we have used two ATPs, and now, two ATPs have been produced; so the energy debt has been paid. We are at 0.1265

In step 8, 2-phosphoglyceric acid or 2-phosphoglycerate is formed from 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and all that involves is movement or transfer of a phosphate group to a different location on this molecule.1275

It does not require the input of energy nor does it produce energy.1294

In step 9, a molecule of water is removed from the substrate, so 2-phosphoglyceric acid is converted to phosphoenolpyruvic acid or more simply PEP.1298

Finally, step 10, we get in the production of another ATP molecule.1312

PEP is converted to pyruvate, and in the process, ADP is phosphorylated.1318

Actually, I want to talk a little bit more about this. ADP is phosphorylated to form ATP.1329

Previously, what we talked about is that ADP and inorganic phosphate, we often talked about forming ATP.1333

That is not what happens here, and I want to talk about the difference.1342

The type of phosphorylation that occurs in glycolysis is called substrate level phosphorylation.1346

Instead of an inorganic phosphate being added to ADP to form ATP, phosphate is transferred from a substrate for example 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.1359

The phosphate is transferred from there and to the ADP to form ATP, and therefore, it is called substrate level phosphorylation.1371

Both of the phosphorylations in glycolysis occur this way.1383

When we talk about aerobic respiration, a lot of the phosphorylation that we will see occurs by the addition of inorganic phosphate.1388

That is not substrate level phosphorylation, but you should be aware that this is slightly different.1396

The result is the same, though- the production of ATP.1400

Let's back up and look at what has happened.1404

One glucose molecule has been broken down to two pyruvate molecules.1406

In the process, two ATPs were invested. However, four ATPs were formed.1410

There is a net production of two ATPs. There is also a redox reaction in which NAD+ accepted electrons and was reduced to NADH.1418

That occurred twice, so we have two NADHs, and remember, this all occurred in the cytoplasm.1429

OK, now, looking again at aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration now that we are a little bit deeper into things, anaerobic respiration starts out.1437

Step 1 is glycolysis, and then, step two that we are going discuss is called fermentation.1450

Overall, anaerobic respiration is more complicated, but there is a bigger payoff.1461

The first step is, again, glycolysis. However, there are some additional steps that do not occur in anaerobic respiration1467

Instead of fermentation, the next step is conversion of the pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, so we will call that acetyl-CoA formation.1475

Then, acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle, and finally, oxidative phosphorylation occurs; and this is just an overview.1490

The next lecture covers this in extreme detail, but just to have some context with which to compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration.1501

The first step is the same. Subsequent steps are different.1512

And the ATP production here, net of two ATPs here approximately 36-38 or maybe even less ATPs depending on the conditions in the cell.1515

But overall, many more ATPs, then, are produced by anaerobic respiration.1529

Why is there such a difference?1536

Well, in anaerobic respiration, glucose is broken down to pyruvate and that releases some of the energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose.1538

But, the pyruvate is not completely, then, broken down.1545

Therefore, there is still energy that has not been used, whereas in aerobic respiration, the pyruvate ends up completely broken down.1549

CO2 is released, and therefore, a much more energy can be taken from that original glucose molecule.1557

Really, anaerobic respiration only takes it part of the way.1564

When we talk about organisms that perform aerobic or anaerobic respiration, we can classify them.1569

You might hear the term obligate anaerobe, obligate or strict anaerobe- same thing.1575

An obligate or strict anaerobe does not have a choice. It can only perform cellular respiration anaerobically.1583

In fact, these organisms are often harmed by the presence of oxygen.1593

One example of an obligate anaerobe is the bacteria that causes botulism. There are other types of anaerobes that are called facultative anaerobes.1597

For example, many yeasts are facultative anaerobes. They can perform either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.1612

Obligate anaerobes do not have a choice. The only type of respiration they can do is anaerobic.1621

Facultative can do either.1626

Alright, anaerobic respiration, the first step is glycolysis. The second step is fermentation.1629

Continuing on with this overview, when cellular respiration is anaerobic, we need the second step in order to regenerate NAD+.1639

Because you could look at anaerobic respiration and say "OK, we did glycolysis, got the two ATP, let's just stop, why even do fermentation?".1652

Well, remember that in steps 6 of glycolysis, NAD is required, and it is reduced to NADH.1661

The cell does not just keep creating new NAD+ from scratch.1672

In fact, NAD+ forms NADH and then, plus the hydrogen ion.1676

NADH can be recycled back to NAD+, and then it is reused.1686

Without regenerating NAD+, the cell would just stop doing glycolysis.1694

There has to be a way to regenerate NAD+, and that is the purpose of fermentation.1700

Here is glycolysis: started out with our glucose, ended up with pyruvate, ATP and NADH + H+.1707

Now, how do we get this back? Well there is two ways.1716

One is alcohol fermentation. The second is called lactic fermentation.1719

Alcohol fermentation is actually a two-step process.1725

In the first step, carbon dioxide/CO2, is removed from the pyruvate molecule to yield acetaldehyde, an intermediate.1730

You do not have to memorize all this, but it is helpful to just, kind of, know overall what happens.1746

A CO2 is released, and acetaldehyde is formed.1751

Then, a hydrogen is added to acetaldehyde to form ethanol, so the product is ethanol.1756

Where does this hydrogen come from? Well, it comes from NAD.1763

The acetaldehyde is reduced, which oxidizes NADH back to NAD+.1767

Fermentation has accomplished its goal. NAD+ has been formed.1774

And notice I have a two in front of everything, and that is because I am discussing this as per glucose molecule.1779

For each glucose molecule, two pyruvates are generated.1786

Therefore, two pyruvates would enter the fermentation cycle yielding two NAD+s and two ethanols.1789

A second type of fermentation is called lactic acid fermentation. This is a one-step process, and some types of bacteria perform alcohol fermentation1800

Other types perform lactic acid fermentation.1813

Many yeast, fungi, perform lactic acid fermentation, and we actually perform this in our muscle cells as well.1816

When you are exercising hard, you use up the oxygen in your muscle cells. The muscle cells use a lot of ATP.1825

They are forced to go to anaerobic respiration, and the product here, lactic acid is one reason why when you are exercising, your muscles burn; and that is because of this production.1831

OK, in lactic acid formation, again, two pyruvates enter the cycle.1843

Two NADHs are used, and the product is lactic acid along with NAD+, so either method regenerates NAD+.1851

Let's go ahead and review the concepts we have learned through some examples.1864

Example one: indicate on the figure below, during which steps of glycolysis substrate level phosphorylation occurs.1868

During which steps is energy is invested? What is the net number of ATP produced?1878

Alright, taking these one at a time, which steps of glycolysis substrate level phosphorylation occurs?1884

Substrate level phosphorylation is the formation of ATP through the transfer of a phosphate group to ADP.1892

And the origin of that phosphate group is an organic substrate rather than inorganic phosphate.1900

I want to look for ATP being generated, and I see that that happens here and here.1908

This is step 1, step 2, step 3, step 4. Step 5 is the isomerization of G3P and the other product of step 4, step 6, step 7, step 8, step 9 and step 10.1915

Substrate level phosphorylation occurs during step 7 and steps 10.1938

ATP is formed by transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate.1945

During which steps is energy invested? Well, energy is invested in the form of ATP.1950

ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP during two steps: step 1 and step 3.1955

Remember that this is called the energy investment phase, and this is the energy payoff phase.1963

What is the net number of ATP produced? Well, one, two are used, and this is occurring twice, so I have an ATP here, an ATP here, an ATP here and an ATP here, 1, 2, 3, 4- 4 produced.1980

I had four ATP minus two gives me a net of two ATP produced.2000

The first answer: substrate level phosphorylation during steps 7 and 10.2009

Energy is invested in steps 1 and 3, and there is a net of two ATP produced.2015

Example two: what would happen if glycolysis was not followed by fermentation in a cell that was undergoing anaerobic respiration and why?2025

Remember that the purpose of fermentation is to regenerate NAD.2035

Fermentation regenerates, and it does that by oxidizing NADH resulting in products of either lactic acid or ethanol.2041

NAD+ is necessary for glycolysis.2066

If no NAD+ will be generated, glycolysis would stop. Without NAD, glycolysis would stop.2076

They would grind to a halt once the NAD is used up.2090

If glycolysis stops, no ATP would be produced. The cell could not carry out its functions, and eventually the cell would die.2094

It would not have the energy for cellular processes.2107

Fermentation, if it did not occur, NAD would not be recycled.2111

Glycolysis would stop. No ATP will be produced, and the cell will probably die.2118

Why are many more ATP produced per glucose molecule metabolized by aerobic respiration than for anaerobic respiration?2127

Remember, there is as many as 36 more ATP molecules produced in aerobic respiration compared with anaerobic respiration. Why is that?2133

Well, much of the energy from the glucose molecule is not harnessed in anaerobic respiration.2145

In anaerobic respiration, glucose is broken down to pyruvate, and things pretty much end there.2151

Fermentation occurs, but it does not yield anymore energy.2162

Glucose is broken down to two pyruvate molecules.2170

In aerobic respiration, glucose is broken down to two pyruvate molecules, but that is followed by the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.2172

And during those processes, the energy is still stored in the pyruvate is harnessed.2186

Pyruvate is further broken down in the citric acid cycle, and that energy is harnessed to make more ATP. This can only occur in the presence of oxygen, though.2192

Is glycolysis an exergonic reaction or an endergonic reaction? Give support for your response.2203

Remember that in an exergonic reaction, energy is released, and this occurs during the breakdown of reactants.2209

A molecule such as glucose that is being broken down, the energy stored in those chemical bonds is released.2225

An endergonic reaction is one in which energy is required.2233

It must be input for the reaction to occur, and that would be an anabolic process such as creating a macromolecule like proteins from its building blocks like amino acids.2238

Glycolysis is a breakdown, a reaction, which something is being broken down. Glucose is being broken down.2252

and therefore, it is an exergonic reaction, and we also know that because ATP is formed as a result of glycolysis because energy is being released.2261

That concludes this lecture on glycolysis and anaerobic respiration.2274

Thanks for visiting Educator.com2279

I. Chemistry of Life
  Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds 56:18
   Intro 0:00 
   Elements 0:09 
    Elements 0:48 
    Matter 0:55 
    Naturally Occurring Elements 1:12 
    Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 2:39 
   Compounds 3:06 
    Molecule 3:07 
    Compounds 3:14 
    Examples 3:20 
   Atoms 4:53 
    Atoms 4:56 
    Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons 5:29 
    Isotopes 10:42 
   Energy Levels of Electrons 13:01 
    Electron Shells 13:13 
    Valence Shell 13:22 
    Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy 13:28 
   Covalent Bonds 19:52 
    Covalent Bonds 19:54 
    Examples 20:03 
   Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 23:54 
    Polar Bond 24:07 
    Nonpolar Bonds 24:17 
    Examples 24:25 
   Ionic Bonds 29:04 
    Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions 29:19 
    Example: NaCl 29:30 
   Hydrogen Bond 33:18 
    Hydrogen Bond 33:20 
   Chemical Reactions 35:36 
    Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions 35:45 
   Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration 38:45 
    Avogadro's Number and Mol 39:12 
    Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity 42:10 
   Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons 47:05 
   Example 2: Reactants and Products 49:35 
   Example 3: Bonding 52:39 
   Example 4: Mass 53:59 
  Properties of Water 50:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Molecular Structure of Water 0:21 
    Molecular Structure of Water 0:27 
   Properties of Water 4:30 
    Cohesive 4:55 
    Transpiration 5:29 
    Adhesion 6:20 
    Surface Tension 7:17 
   Properties of Water, cont. 9:14 
    Specific Heat 9:25 
    High Heat Capacity 13:24 
    High Heat of Evaporation 16:42 
   Water as a Solvent 21:13 
    Solution 21:28 
    Solvent 21:48 
    Example: Water as a Solvent 22:22 
   Acids and Bases 25:40 
    Example 25:41 
   pH 36:30 
    pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic 36:35 
   Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water 41:18 
   Example 2: Special Properties of Water 42:53 
   Example 3: pH Scale 44:46 
   Example 4: Acids and Bases 46:19 
  Organic Compounds 53:54
   Intro 0:00 
   Organic Compounds 0:09 
    Organic Compounds 0:11 
    Inorganic Compounds 0:15 
    Examples: Organic Compounds 1:15 
   Isomers 5:52 
    Isomers 5:55 
    Structural Isomers 6:23 
    Geometric Isomers 8:14 
    Enantiomers 9:55 
   Functional Groups 12:46 
    Examples: Functional Groups 12:59 
    Amino Group 13:51 
    Carboxyl Group 14:38 
    Hydroxyl Group 15:22 
    Methyl Group 16:14 
    Carbonyl Group 16:30 
    Phosphate Group 17:51 
   Carbohydrates 18:26 
    Carbohydrates 19:07 
    Example: Monosaccharides 21:12 
   Carbohydrates, cont. 24:11 
    Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples 24:21 
   Lipids 35:52 
    Examples of Lipids 36:04 
    Saturated and Unsaturated 38:57 
   Phospholipids 43:26 
    Phospholipids 43:29 
    Example 43:34 
   Steroids 46:24 
    Cholesterol 46:28 
   Example 1: Isomers 48:11 
   Example 2: Functional Groups 50:45 
   Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar 52:24 
   Example 4: Class of Molecules 53:06 
  Nucleic Acids and Proteins 37:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Nucleic Acids 0:09 
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) 0:29 
   Nucleic Acids, cont. 2:56 
    Purines 3:10 
    Pyrimidines 3:32 
   Double Helix 4:59 
    Double Helix and Example 5:01 
   Proteins 12:33 
    Amino Acids and Polypeptides 12:39 
    Examples: Amino Acid 13:25 
   Polypeptide Formation 18:09 
    Peptide Bonds 18:14 
    Primary Structure 18:35 
   Protein Structure 23:19 
    Secondary Structure 23:22 
    Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets 23:34 
   Protein Structure 25:43 
    Tertiary Structure 25:44 
    5 Types of Interaction 26:56 
   Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand 31:45 
   Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA 33:19 
   Example 3: Amino Acids 34:32 
   Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein 35:46 
II. Cell Structure and Function
  Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic) 45:50
   Intro 0:00 
   Cell Theory and Cell Types 0:12 
    Cell Theory 0:13 
    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 0:36 
    Endosymbiotic Theory 1:13 
   Study of Cells 4:07 
    Tools and Techniques 4:08 
    Light Microscopes 5:08 
    Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification 5:18 
    Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution 6:26 
    Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens 7:53 
    Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning 8:28 
    Cell Fractionation 10:01 
    Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization 10:33 
    Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin 11:24 
    Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation 11:53 
   Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 14:12 
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains 14:43 
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane 15:40 
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls 16:15 
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials 16:38 
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures 17:28 
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular 18:19 
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size 18:31 
    Plasmids 18:52 
   Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells 19:22 
    Nucleus 19:24 
    Organelles 19:48 
    Cytoskeleton 20:02 
    Cell Wall 20:35 
    Ribosomes 20:57 
    Size 21:37 
   Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells 22:15 
    Plasma Membrane 22:55 
    Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls 23:12 
    Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole 25:08 
    Animal Cells Only: Centrioles 26:40 
    Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes 27:43 
   Plant vs. Animal Cells 29:16 
    Overview of Plant and Animal Cells 29:17 
   Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory 30:52 
    Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 30:54 
   Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells 35:44 
   Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence 38:38 
   Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells 41:49 
   Example 4: Cell Fractionation 43:44 
  Subcellular Structure 59:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Prokaryotic Cells 0:09 
    Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells 0:22 
    Cell Wall 1:19 
    Capsule 3:23 
    Pili/Fimbria 3:54 
    Flagella 4:35 
    Nucleoid 6:16 
    Plasmid 6:37 
    Ribosomes 7:09 
   Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure) 8:01 
    Plasma Membrane 8:13 
    Microvilli 8:48 
    Nucleus 9:47 
    Nucleolus 11:06 
    Ribosomes: Free and Bound 12:26 
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) 13:43 
   Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont. 14:51 
    Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough 15:08 
    Golgi Apparatus 17:55 
    Vacuole 20:43 
    Lysosome 22:01 
    Mitochondria 25:40 
    Peroxisomes 28:18 
   Cytoskeleton 30:41 
    Cytoplasm and Cytosol 30:53 
    Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia 32:06 
    Microfilaments 36:39 
    Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin 38:52 
   Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure) 40:08 
    Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall 40:30 
    Middle Lamella 43:21 
    Central Cauole 44:12 
    Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts 45:35 
    Chloroplasts 47:06 
   Example 1: Structures and Functions 48:46 
   Example 2: Cell Walls 51:19 
   Example 3: Cytoskeleton 52:53 
   Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory 56:55 
  Cell Membranes and Transport 53:10
   Intro 0:00 
   Cell Membrane Structure 0:09 
    Phospholipids Bilayer 0:11 
    Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids 0:25 
   Cell Membrane Proteins 2:44 
    Fluid Mosaic Model 2:45 
    Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins 3:19 
    Transmembrane Proteins 4:34 
    Cholesterol 4:48 
    Functions of Membrane Proteins 6:39 
   Transport Across Cell Membranes 9:52 
    Transport Across Cell Membranes 9:53 
   Methods of Passive Transport 12:07 
    Passive and Active Transport 12:08 
    Simple Diffusion 12:45 
    Facilitated Diffusion 15:20 
   Osmosis 17:17 
    Definition and Example of Osmosis 17:18 
    Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic 21:47 
   Active Transport 27:57 
    Active Transport 28:17 
    Sodium and Potassium Pump 29:45 
    Cotransport 34:38 
    2 Types of Active Transport 37:09 
   Endocytosis and Exocytosis 37:38 
    Endocytosis and Exocytosis 37:51 
    Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis 40:39 
    Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis 41:02 
   Receptor Mediated Endocytosis 41:27 
    Receptor Mediated Endocytosis 41:28 
   Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances 43:59 
   Example 2: Osmosis 45:20 
   Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion 47:36 
   Example 4: Match Terms with Definition 50:55 
  Cellular Communication 57:09
   Intro 0:00 
   Extracellular Matrix 0:28 
    The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) 0:29 
    ECM in Animal Cells 0:55 
    Fibronectin and Integrins 1:34 
   Intercellular Communication in Plants 2:48 
    Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata 2:50 
   Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells 3:39 
    Cell Junctions 3:42 
    Desmosomes 3:54 
    Tight Junctions 5:07 
    Gap Junctions 7:00 
   Cell Signaling 8:17 
    Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway 8:18 
    Direct Contact 8:48 
    Over Distances Contact and Hormones 10:09 
   Stages of Cell Signaling 11:53 
    Reception Phase 11:54 
    Transduction Phase 13:49 
    Response Phase 14:45 
   Cell Membrane Receptors 15:37 
    G-Protein Coupled Receptor 15:38 
   Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont. 21:37 
    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) 21:38 
    Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer 22:57 
   Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont. 27:01 
    Ligand-Gated Ion Channels 27:02 
   Intracellular Receptors 29:43 
    Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex 29:44 
   Signal Transduction 32:57 
    Signal Transduction Pathways 32:58 
    Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP 35:53 
   Second Messengers 39:18 
     cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol 39:20 
   Cell Response 45:15 
    Cell Response 45:16 
    Apoptosis 46:57 
   Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction 48:29 
   Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling 51:48 
   Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone 54:03 
   Example 4: Signal Transduction 56:06 
III. Cell Division
  The Cell Cycle 37:49
   Intro 0:00 
   Functions of Cell Division 0:09 
    Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair 0:11 
    Important Term: Daughter Cells 2:25 
   Chromosome Structure 3:36 
    Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere 3:37 
    Chromosome Structure: Chromatin 4:31 
    Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids 5:25 
    Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm 6:49 
   Mitosis and Meiosis 7:00 
    Mitosis 7:41 
    Meiosis 8:40 
   The Cell Cycle 10:43 
    Mitotic Phase and Interphase 10:44 
   Cytokinesis 15:51 
    Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow 15:52 
    Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate 17:28 
   Control of the Cell Cycle 18:28 
    Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints 18:29 
   Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases 21:18 
    Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs) 21:20 
    MPF 23:17 
    Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle 24:00 
    External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle 24:53 
    Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent 25:53 
   Cancer and the Cell Cycle 27:42 
    Cancer Cells 27:46 
   Example1: Parts of the Chromosome 30:15 
   Example 2: Cell Cycle 31:50 
   Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle 33:32 
   Example 4: Cancer and the Cell 35:01 
  Mitosis 35:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Review of the Cell Cycle 0:09 
    Interphase: G1 Phase 0:34 
    Interphase: S Phase 0:56 
    Interphase: G2 Phase 1:31 
    M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 1:47 
   Overview of Mitosis 3:08 
    What is Mitosis? 3:10 
    Overview of Mitosis 3:17 
    Diploid and Haploid 5:37 
    Homologous Chromosomes 6:04 
   The Spindle Apparatus 11:57 
    The Spindle Apparatus 12:00 
    Centrosomes and Centrioles 12:40 
    Microtubule Organizing Center 13:03 
    Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules 13:23 
    Kinetochores 14:06 
    Asters 15:45 
   Prophase 16:47 
    First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase 16:54 
   Metaphase 20:05 
    Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase 20:10 
   Anaphase 22:52 
    Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase 22:53 
   Telophase and Cytokinesis 24:34 
    Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis 24:35 
   Summary of Mitosis 27:46 
    Summary of Mitosis 27:47 
   Example 1: Spindle Apparatus 28:50 
   Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis 30:39 
   Example 3: Prophase 32:41 
   Example 4: Identify the Phase 33:52 
  Meiosis 1:00:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Haploid and Diploid Cells 0:09 
    Diploid and Somatic Cells 0:29 
    Haploid and Gametes 1:20 
    Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes 1:41 
    Sex Chromosomes 6:00 
   Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis 10:42 
    Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division 10:59 
    Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells 12:31 
    Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes 13:40 
   Mitosis and Meiosis 14:21 
    Process of Mitosis 14:27 
    Process of Meiosis 16:12 
   Synapsis and Crossing Over 19:14 
    Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over 19:15 
    Chiasmata 22:33 
   Meiosis I 25:49 
    Prophase I: Crossing Over 25:50 
    Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up 26:00 
    Anaphase I: Homologs Separate 28:16 
    Telophase I and Cytokinesis 29:15 
    Independent Assortment 30:58 
   Meiosis II 32:17 
    Propphase II 33:50 
    Metaphase II 34:06 
    Anaphase II 34:50 
    Telophase II 36:09 
    Cytokinesis 37:00 
   Summary of Meiosis 38:15 
    Summary of Meiosis 38:16 
    Cell Division Mechanism in Plants 41:57 
   Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis 46:15 
   Example 2: Phases of Meiosis 50:22 
   Example 3: Label the Figure 54:29 
   Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis 56:37 
IV. Cellular Energetics
  Enzymes 51:03
   Intro 0:00 
   Law of Thermodynamics 0:08 
    Thermodynamics 0:09 
    The First Law of Thermodynamics 0:37 
    The Second Law of Thermodynamics 1:24 
    Entropy 1:35 
   The Gibbs Free Energy Equation 3:07 
    The Gibbs Free Energy Equation 3:08 
   ATP 8:23 
    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) 8:24 
    Cellular Respiration 11:32 
    Catabolic Pathways 12:28 
    Anabolic Pathways 12:54 
   Enzymes 14:31 
    Enzymes 14:32 
    Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction 14:40 
    Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction 16:36 
   Enzyme Specificity 21:29 
    Substrate 21:41 
    Induced Fit 23:04 
   Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity 25:55 
    Substrate Concentration 26:07 
    pH 27:10 
    Temperature 29:14 
    Presence of Cofactors 29:57 
   Regulation of Enzyme Activity 31:12 
    Competitive Inhibitors 32:13 
    Noncompetitive Inhibitors 33:52 
    Feedback Inhibition 35:22 
   Allosteric Interactions 36:56 
    Allosteric Regulators 37:00 
   Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive? 40:49 
   Example 2: Thermophiles 44:18 
   Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic 46:09 
   Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph 48:47 
  Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration 38:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Cellular Respiration Overview 0:13 
    Cellular Respiration 0:14 
    Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration 3:50 
   Glycolysis Overview 4:48 
    Overview of Glycolysis 4:50 
   Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction 7:02 
    Redox Reaction 7:04 
   Glycolysis 15:04 
    Important Facts About Glycolysis 15:07 
    Energy Invested Phase 16:12 
    Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase 17:50 
    Substrate Level Phophorylation 22:12 
   Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration 23:57 
    Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration 23:58 
   Cellular Respiration Overview 27:15 
    When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic 27:17 
    Glycolysis 28:26 
    Alcohol Fermentation 28:45 
    Lactic Acid Fermentation 29:58 
   Example 1: Glycolysis 31:04 
   Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration 33:44 
   Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration 35:25 
   Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction 36:42 
  Aerobic Respiration 51:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration 0:06 
    Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison 0:07 
   Review of Glycolysis 1:48 
    Overview of Glycolysis 2:06 
    Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase 2:25 
    Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase 2:58 
   Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA 4:55 
    Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA 4:56 
    Energy Formation 8:06 
   Mitochondrial Structure 8:58 
    Endosymbiosis Theory 9:23 
    Matrix 10:00 
    Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space 10:43 
    Cristae 11:47 
   The Citric Acid Cycle 12:11 
    The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle) 12:12 
    Substrate Level Phosphorylation 18:47 
   Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production 23:13 
    Process: Glycolysis 23:28 
    Process: Acetyl CoA Production 23:36 
    Process: Citric Acid Cycle 23:52 
   The Electron Transport Chain 24:24 
    Oxidative Phosphorylation 24:28 
    The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase 25:20 
    Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes 27:18 
    Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN) 28:05 
   Chemiosmosis 32:46 
    The Process of Chemiosmosis 32:47 
   Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration 38:24 
    ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration 38:27 
   Example 1: Aerobic Respiration 43:38 
   Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure 45:08 
   Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain 47:06 
   Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane 48:38 
  Photosynthesis 1:02:52
   Intro 0:00 
   Photosynthesis 0:09 
    Introduction to Photosynthesis 0:10 
    Autotrophs and Heterotrophs 0:25 
    Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction 1:05 
   Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure 2:54 
    Chloroplast 2:55 
    Cuticle 3:16 
    Upper Epidermis 3:27 
    Mesophyll 3:40 
    Stomates 4:00 
    Guard Cells 4:45 
    Transpiration 5:01 
    Vascular Bundle 5:20 
    Stroma and Double Membrane 6:20 
    Grana 7:17 
    Thylakoids 7:30 
    Dark Reaction and Light Reaction 7:46 
   Light Reactions 8:43 
    Light Reactions 8:47 
    Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids 9:19 
    Wave and Particle 12:10 
    Photon 12:34 
   Photosystems 13:24 
    Photosystems 13:28 
    Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes 14:01 
   Noncyclic Photophosphorylation 17:46 
    Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview 17:47 
    What is Photophosphorylation? 18:25 
    Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process 19:07 
    Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation 21:33 
   Cyclic Photophosphorylation 31:45 
    Cyclic Photophosphorylation 31:46 
   Light Independent Reactions 34:34 
    The Calvin Cycle 34:35 
   C3 Plants and Photorespiration 40:31 
    C3 Plants and Photorespiration 40:32 
   C4 Plants 45:32 
    C4 Plants: Structures and Functions 45:33 
   CAM Plants 50:25 
    CAM Plants: Structures and Functions 50:35 
   Example 1: Calvin Cycle 54:34 
   Example 2: C4 Plant 55:48 
   Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration 58:35 
   Example 4: CAM Plants 60:41 
V. Molecular Genetics
  DNA Synthesis 38:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Review of DNA Structure 0:09 
    DNA Molecules 0:10 
    Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines 1:25 
   DNA Double Helix 3:03 
    Complementary Strands of DNA 3:12 
    5' to 3' & Antiparallel 4:55 
   Overview of DNA Replication 7:10 
    DNA Replication & Semiconservative 7:11 
   DNA Replication 10:26 
    Origin of Replication 10:28 
    Helicase 11:10 
    Single-Strand Binding Protein 12:05 
    Topoisomerases 13:14 
    DNA Polymerase 14:26 
    Primase 15:55 
   Leading and Lagging Strands 16:51 
    Leading Strand and Lagging Strand 16:52 
    Okazaki Fragments 18:10 
    DNA Polymerase I 20:11 
    Ligase 21:12 
   Proofreading and Mismatch Repair 22:18 
    Proofreading 22:19 
    Mismatch 23:33 
   Telomeres 24:58 
    Telomeres 24:59 
   Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis 28:09 
   Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence 31:42 
   Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand 32:38 
   Example 4: Telomeres 35:40 
  Transcription and Translation 1:17:01
   Intro 0:00 
   Transcription and Translation Overview 0:07 
    From DNA to RNA to Protein 0:09 
   Structure and Types of RNA 3:14 
    Structure and Types of RNA 3:33 
    mRNA 6:19 
    rRNA 7:02 
    tRNA 7:28 
   Transcription 7:54 
    Initiation Phase 8:11 
    Elongation Phase 12:12 
    Termination Phase 14:51 
   RNA Processing 16:11 
    Types of RNA Processing 16:12 
    Exons and Introns 16:35 
    Splicing & Spliceosomes 18:27 
    Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail 20:41 
    Alternative Splicing 21:43 
   Translation 23:41 
    Nucleotide Triplets or Codons 23:42 
    Start Codon 25:24 
    Stop Codons 25:38 
    Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position 25:57 
   Translation Cont. 28:29 
    Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions 28:30 
   Ribosomes 35:15 
    Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site 35:23 
   Steps of Translation 36:58 
    Initiation Phase 37:12 
    Elongation Phase 43:12 
    Termination Phase 45:28 
   Mutations 49:43 
    Types of Mutations 49:44 
    Substitutions: Silent 51:11 
    Substitutions: Missense 55:27 
    Substitutions: Nonsense 59:37 
    Insertions and Deletions 61:10 
   Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA 66:53 
   Example 2: The Process of Translation 69:10 
   Example 3: Transcription 72:04 
   Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations 74:09 
  Viral Structure and Genetics 43:12
   Intro 0:00 
   Structure of Viruses 0:09 
    Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope 0:10 
    Bacteriophage 1:48 
    Other Viruses 2:28 
   Overview of Viral Reproduction 3:15 
    Host Range 3:48 
    Step 1: Bind to Host Cell 4:39 
    Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell 5:15 
    Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized 5:54 
    Step 4: Virus Assembles 6:34 
    Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell 6:55 
   The Lytic Cycle 7:37 
    Steps in the Lytic Cycle 7:38 
   The Lysogenic Cycle 11:27 
    Temperate Phage 11:34 
    Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle 12:09 
   RNA Viruses 16:57 
    Types of RNA Viruses 17:15 
    Positive Sense 18:16 
    Negative Sense 18:48 
    Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses 19:32 
   Retroviruses 25:48 
    Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase 25:49 
    Life Cycle of a Retrovirus 28:22 
   Prions 32:42 
    Prions: Definition and Examples 32:45 
    Viroids 34:46 
   Example 1: The Lytic Cycle 35:37 
   Example 2: Retrovirus 38:03 
   Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA 39:10 
   Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle 40:42 
  Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation 49:45
   Intro 0:00 
   Bacterial Genomes 0:09 
    Structure of Bacterial Genomes 0:16 
   Transformation 1:22 
    Transformation 1:23 
    Vector 2:49 
   Transduction 3:32 
    Process of Transduction 3:38 
   Conjugation 8:06 
    Conjugation & F factor 8:07 
   Operons 14:02 
    Definition and Example of Operon 14:52 
    Structural Genes 16:23 
    Promoter Region 17:04 
    Regulatory Protein & Operators 17:53 
   The lac Operon 20:09 
    The lac Operon: Inducible System 20:10 
   The trp Operon 28:02 
    The trp Operon: Repressible System 28:03 
    Corepressor 31:37 
    Anabolic & Catabolic 33:12 
   Positive Regulation of the lac Operon 34:39 
    Positive Regulation of the lac Operon 34:40 
   Example 1: The Process of Transformation 39:07 
   Example 2: Operon & Terms 43:29 
   Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon 45:15 
   Example 4: lac Operon 47:10 
  Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements 54:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Mechanism of Gene Regulation 0:11 
    Differential Gene Expression 0:13 
    Levels of Regulation 2:24 
   Chromatin Structure and Modification 4:35 
    Chromatin Structure 4:36 
    Levels of Packing 5:50 
    Euchromatin and Heterochromatin 8:58 
    Modification of Chromatin Structure 9:58 
    Epigenetic 12:49 
   Regulation of Transcription 14:20 
    Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron 14:26 
    Enhancers: Control Element 15:31 
    Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein 17:25 
    Coordinate Control 21:23 
    Silencers 23:01 
   Post-Transcriptional Regulation 24:05 
    Post-Transcriptional Regulation 24:07 
    Alternative Splicing 27:19 
    Differences in mRNA Stability 28:02 
    Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA 30:01 
   Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications 32:31 
    Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications 32:55 
    Ubiquitin 35:21 
    Proteosomes 36:04 
   Transposons 37:50 
    Mobile Genetic Elements 37:56 
    Barbara McClintock 38:37 
    Transposons & Retrotransposons 40:38 
    Insertion Sequences 43:14 
    Complex Transposons 43:58 
   Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein 45:13 
   Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression 49:09 
   Example 3: Primary Transcript 50:41 
   Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons 52:11 
  Biotechnology 49:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Definition of Biotechnology 0:08 
    Biotechnology 0:09 
    Genetic Engineering 1:05 
    Example: Golden Corn 1:57 
   Recombinant DNA 2:41 
    Recombinant DNA 2:42 
    Transformation 3:24 
    Transduction 4:24 
    Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase 5:32 
   Gene Cloning 13:48 
    Plasmids 14:20 
    Gene Cloning: Step 1 17:35 
    Gene Cloning: Step 2 17:57 
    Gene Cloning: Step 3 18:53 
    Gene Cloning: Step 4 19:46 
   Gel Electrophoresis 27:25 
    What is Gel Electrophoresis? 27:26 
    Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1 28:13 
    Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2 28:24 
    Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4 28:39 
    Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5 29:55 
    Southern Blotting 31:25 
   Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 32:11 
    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 32:12 
    Denaturing Phase 35:40 
    Annealing Phase 36:07 
    Elongation/ Extension Phase 37:06 
   DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project 39:19 
    DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project 39:20 
   Example 1: Gene Cloning 40:40 
   Example 2: Recombinant DNA 43:04 
   Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions 45:43 
   Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction 47:36 
VI. Heredity
  Mendelian Genetics 1:32:08
   Intro 0:00 
   Background 0:40 
    Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law 0:41 
    Blending Hypothesis 1:04 
    Particulate Inheritance 2:08 
   Terminology 2:55 
    Gene 3:05 
    Locus 3:57 
    Allele 4:37 
    Dominant Allele 5:48 
    Recessive Allele 7:38 
    Genotype 9:22 
    Phenotype 10:01 
    Homozygous 10:44 
    Heterozygous 11:39 
    Penetrance 11:57 
    Expressivity 14:15 
   Mendel's Experiments 15:31 
    Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants 15:32 
   The Law of Segregation 21:16 
    Mendel's Conclusions 21:17 
    The Law of Segregation 22:57 
   Punnett Squares 28:27 
    Using Punnet Squares 28:30 
   The Law of Independent Assortment 32:35 
    Monohybrid 32:38 
    Dihybrid 33:29 
    The Law of Independent Assortment 34:00 
   The Law of Independent Assortment, cont. 38:13 
    The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares 38:29 
   Meiosis and Mendel's Laws 43:38 
    Meiosis and Mendel's Laws 43:39 
   Test Crosses 49:07 
    Test Crosses Example 49:08 
   Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule 53:39 
    Probability Overview 53:40 
    Independent Events & Multiplication Rule 55:40 
    Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule 60:25 
   Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles 62:55 
    Incomplete Dominance 62:56 
   Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles 67:06 
    Codominance and Multiple Alleles 67:08 
   Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy 70:19 
    Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy 70:26 
   Epistasis 72:51 
    Example of Epistasis 72:52 
   Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height 77:39 
   Example 2: Blood Type 81:57 
   Example 3: Pea Plants 85:09 
   Example 4: Coat Color 88:34 
  Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance 39:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Review of the Law of Independent Assortment 0:14 
    Review of the Law of Independent Assortment 0:24 
   Linked Genes 6:06 
    Linked Genes 6:07 
    Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants 8:00 
   Crossing Over and Recombination 15:17 
    Crossing Over and Recombination 15:18 
   Extranuclear Genes 20:50 
    Extranuclear Genes 20:51 
    Cytoplasmic Genes 21:31 
   Genomic Imprinting 23:45 
    Genomic Imprinting 23:58 
    Methylation 24:43 
   Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map 27:07 
   Example 2: Linked Genes 28:39 
   Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions 36:46 
   Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy 38:40 
  Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis 43:39
   Intro 0:00 
   Sex-Linked Traits 0:09 
    Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX 0:10 
    Thomas Morgan's Drosophila 1:44 
   X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies 14:48 
    X-Inactivation Overview 14:49 
    Calico Cats Example 17:04 
   Pedigrees 19:24 
    Definition and Example of Pedigree 19:25 
   Autosomal Dominant Inheritance 20:51 
    Example: Huntington's Disease 20:52 
   Autosomal Recessive Inheritance 23:04 
    Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria 23:05 
   X-Linked Recessive Inheritance 27:06 
    Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess 27:07 
   Example 1: Colorblind 29:48 
   Example 2: Pedigree 37:07 
   Example 3: Inheritance Pattern 39:54 
   Example 4: X-inactivation 41:17 
VII. Evolution
  Natural Selection 1:03:28
   Intro 0:00 
   Background 0:09 
    Work of Other Scientists 0:15 
    Aristotle 0:43 
    Carl Linnaeus 1:32 
    George Cuvier 2:47 
    James Hutton 4:10 
    Thomas Malthus 5:05 
    Jean-Baptiste Lamark 5:45 
   Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection 7:50 
    Evolution 8:00 
    Natural Selection 8:43 
    Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands 10:20 
   Genetic Variation 20:37 
    Mutations 20:38 
    Independent Assortment 21:04 
    Crossing Over 24:40 
    Random Fertilization 25:26 
   Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth 26:37 
    Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth 26:38 
   Types of Natural Selection 29:52 
    Directional Selection 29:55 
    Stabilizing Selection 32:43 
    Disruptive Selection 34:21 
   Sexual Selection 36:18 
    Sexual Dimorphism 37:30 
    Intersexual Selection 37:57 
    Intrasexual Selection 39:20 
   Evidence for Evolution 40:55 
    Paleontology: Fossil Record 41:30 
    Biogeography 45:35 
    Continental Drift 46:06 
    Pangaea 46:28 
    Marsupials 47:11 
   Homologous and Analogous Structure 50:10 
    Homologous Structure 50:12 
    Analogous Structure 53:21 
   Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection 56:15 
   Example 2: Types of Natural Selection 58:07 
   Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population 60:12 
   Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures 61:28 
  Population Genetic and Evolution 53:22
   Intro 0:00 
   Review of Natural Selection 0:12 
    Review of Natural Selection 0:13 
   Genetic Drift and Gene Flow 4:40 
    Definition of Genetic Drift 4:41 
    Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic 5:15 
    Genetic Drift: Founder Effect 7:28 
    Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect 10:27 
    Gene Flow 13:00 
   Quantifying Genetic Variation 14:32 
    Average Heterozygosity 15:08 
    Nucleotide Variation 17:05 
   Maintaining Genetic Variation 18:12 
    Heterozygote Advantage 19:45 
    Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia 20:21 
    Diploidy 23:44 
    Geographic Variation 26:54 
    Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding 28:15 
    Neutral Traits 30:55 
   The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 31:11 
    The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 31:49 
    The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions 32:42 
    The Hardy-Weinberg Equation 34:05 
    The Hardy-Weinberg Example 36:33 
   Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions 42:28 
   Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 44:31 
   Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 49:10 
   Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation 51:30 
  Speciation and Patterns of Evolution 51:02
   Intro 0:00 
   Early Life on Earth 0:08 
    Early Earth 0:09 
    1920's Oparin & Haldane 0:58 
    Abiogenesis 2:15 
    1950's Miller & Urey 2:45 
    Ribozymes 5:34 
    3.5 Billion Years Ago 6:39 
    2.5 Billion Years Ago 7:14 
    1.5 Billion Years Ago 7:41 
    Endosymbiosis 8:00 
    540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion 9:57 
   Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium 11:46 
    Gradualism 11:47 
    Punctuated Equilibrium 12:45 
   Adaptive Radiation 15:08 
    Adaptive Radiation 15:09 
    Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands 17:11 
   Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution 18:30 
    Convergent Evolution 18:39 
    Divergent Evolution 21:30 
    Coevolution 23:49 
   Speciation 26:27 
    Definition and Example of Species 26:29 
    Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive 27:49 
    Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic 29:28 
   Allopatric Speciation 30:21 
    Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation 30:28 
    Genetic Drift 31:31 
   Sympatric Speciation 34:10 
    Sympatric Speciation 34:11 
    Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy 35:12 
    Habitat Isolation 39:17 
    Temporal Isolation 41:27 
    Selection Selection 41:40 
   Example 1: Pattern of Evolution 42:53 
   Example 2: Sympatric Speciation 45:16 
   Example 3: Patterns of Evolution 48:08 
   Example 4: Patterns of Evolution 49:27 
VIII. Diversity of Life
  Classification 1:00:51
   Intro 0:00 
   Systems of Classification 0:07 
    Taxonomy 0:08 
    Phylogeny 1:04 
    Phylogenetics Tree 1:44 
    Cladistics 3:37 
   Classification of Organisms 5:31 
    Example of Carl Linnaeus System 5:32 
   Domains 9:26 
    Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia 9:27 
    Monera 10:06 
    Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea 11:58 
    Domain Eukarya 12:50 
   Domain Bacteria 15:43 
    Domain Bacteria 15:46 
    Pathogens 16:41 
    Decomposers 18:00 
   Domain Archaea 19:43 
    Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles 19:44 
    Methanogens 20:58 
   Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs 24:40 
    Phototrophs and Chemotrophs 25:02 
    Autotrophs and Heterotrophs 26:54 
    Photoautotrophs 28:50 
    Photoheterotrophs 29:28 
    Chemoautotrophs 30:06 
    Chemoheterotrophs 31:37 
   Domain Eukarya 32:40 
    Domain Eukarya 32:43 
    Plant Kingdom 34:28 
    Protists 35:48 
    Fungi Kingdom 37:06 
    Animal Kingdom 38:35 
   Body Symmetry 39:25 
    Lack Symetry 39:40 
    Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome 40:15 
    Bilateral Symmetry 41:55 
    Cephalization 43:29 
   Germ Layers 44:54 
    Diploblastic Animals 45:18 
    Triploblastic Animals 45:25 
    Ectoderm 45:36 
    Endoderm 46:07 
    Mesoderm 46:41 
   Coelomates 47:14 
    Coelom 47:15 
    Acoelomate 48:22 
    Pseudocoelomate 48:59 
    Coelomate 49:31 
    Protosomes 50:46 
    Deuterosomes 51:20 
   Example 1: Domains 53:01 
   Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions 56:00 
   Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea 57:50 
   Example 4: System of Classification 59:37 
  Bacteria 36:46
   Intro 0:00 
   Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria 0:08 
    Overview of Archaea and Bacteria 0:09 
    Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material 1:45 
    Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls 2:20 
    Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol 2:29 
    Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids 2:53 
    Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns 3:33 
    Bacteria: Pathogen 4:03 
    Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen 5:18 
    Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes 6:02 
   Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs 7:14 
    Phototrophs and Chemotrophs 7:50 
    Autotrophs and Heterotrophs 8:53 
    Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs 10:15 
    Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs 11:07 
   Structure of Bacteria 12:21 
    Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes 12:26 
    Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall 14:23 
    Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament 15:30 
    Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament 16:36 
    Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome 18:00 
    Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram - 18:50 
   Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction 21:14 
    Bacterial Genomes 21:21 
    Reproduction of Bacteria 22:13 
    Transformation 23:26 
    Vector 24:34 
    Competent 25:15 
   Conjugation 25:53 
    Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids 25:55 
   Example 1: Species 29:41 
   Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material 32:31 
   Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms 33:48 
   Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea 34:53 
  Protists 1:18:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Classification of Protists 0:08 
    Classification of Protists 0:09 
    'Plant-like' Protists 2:06 
    'Animal-like' Protists 3:19 
    'Fungus-like' Protists 3:57 
   Serial Endosymbiosis Theory 5:15 
    Endosymbiosis Theory 5:33 
    Photosynthetic Protists 7:33 
   Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult 13:35 
    Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult 13:56 
   Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult 15:31 
    Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult 15:32 
   Alternation of Generations 17:22 
    Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase 17:23 
   Plant-Like Protists 19:58 
    Euglenids 20:43 
    Dino Flagellates 22:57 
    Diatoms 26:07 
   Plant-Like Protists 28:44 
    Golden Algae 28:45 
    Brown Algeas 30:05 
   Plant-Like Protists 33:38 
    Red Algae 33:39 
    Green Algae 35:36 
    Green Algae: Chlamydomonus 37:44 
   Animal-Like Protists 40:04 
    Animal-Like Protists Overview 40:05 
    Sporozoans (Apicomplexans) 40:32 
    Alveolates 41:41 
    Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria 42:59 
   Animal-Like Protists 48:44 
    Kinetoplastids 48:50 
    Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness 49:30 
    Ciliate 50:42 
   Conjugation 53:16 
    Conjugation 53:26 
   Animal-Like Protists 57:08 
    Parabasilids 57:31 
    Diplomonads 59:06 
    Rhizopods 60:13 
    Forams 62:25 
    Radiolarians 63:28 
   Fungus-Like Protists 64:25 
    Fungus-Like Protists Overview 64:26 
    Slime Molds 65:15 
    Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage 69:21 
    Oomycetes 71:15 
   Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles 73:05 
   Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions 74:12 
   Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility 76:22 
   Example 4: Paramecium 77:04 
  Fungi 35:24
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Fungi 0:09 
    Introduction to Fungi 0:10 
    Mycologist 0:34 
    Examples of Fungi 0:45 
    Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi 2:26 
    Ancestral Protists 5:00 
   Role of Fungi in the Environment 5:35 
    Fungi as Decomposers 5:36 
    Mycorrrhiza 6:19 
    Lichen 8:52 
   Life Cycle of Fungi 11:32 
    Asexual Reproduction 11:33 
    Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell 13:16 
   Chytridiomycota 18:12 
    Phylum Chytridiomycota 18:17 
    Zoospores 18:50 
   Zygomycota 19:07 
    Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle 19:08 
   Basidiomycota 24:27 
    Basidiomycota Overview 24:28 
    Basidiomycota Life Cycle 26:11 
   Ascomycota 28:00 
    Ascomycota Overview 28:01 
    Ascomycota Reproduction 28:50 
   Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank 31:02 
   Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment 32:09 
   Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell 33:42 
   Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic 34:36 
  Invertebrates 1:03:03
   Intro 0:00 
   Porifera (Sponges) 0:33 
    Chordata 0:56 
    Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders 1:24 
    Amoebocytes Cell 4:47 
    Choanocytes Cell 5:56 
    Sexual Reproduction 6:28 
   Cnidaria 8:05 
    Cnidaria Overview 8:06 
    Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity 8:29 
    Cnidocytes 9:42 
    Anthozoa 10:40 
    Cubozoa 11:23 
    Hydrozoa 11:53 
    Scyphoza 13:25 
   Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 13:58 
    Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization 13:59 
    GI System 15:33 
    Excretory System 16:07 
    Nervous System 17:00 
    Turbellarians 17:36 
    Trematodes 18:42 
    Monageneans 21:32 
    Cestoda 21:55 
   Rotifera (Rotifers) 23:45 
    Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures 23:46 
    Reproduction: Parthenogenesis 25:33 
   Nematoda (Roundworms) 26:44 
    Nematoda (Roundworms) 26:45 
    Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms 27:26 
   Annelida 28:36 
    Annelida Overview 28:37 
    Open Circulatory 29:21 
    Closed Circulatory 30:18 
    Nervous System 31:19 
    Excretory System 31:43 
    Oligochaete 32:07 
    Leeches 33:22 
    Polychaetes 34:42 
   Mollusca 35:26 
    Mollusca Features 35:27 
    Major Part 1: Visceral Mass 36:21 
    Major Part 2: Head-foot Region 36:49 
    Major Part 3: Mantle 37:13 
    Radula 37:49 
    Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System 38:14 
   Major Classes of Molluscs 39:12 
    Gastropoda 39:17 
    Polyplacophora 40:15 
    Bivales 40:41 
    Cephalopods 41:42 
   Arthropoda 43:35 
    Arthropoda Overview 43:36 
    Segmented Bodies 44:14 
    Exoskeleton 44:52 
    Jointed Appendages 45:28 
    Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System 45:41 
    Myriapoda & Centipedes 47:15 
    Cheliceriforms 48:20 
    Crustcea 49:31 
    Herapoda 50:03 
   Echinodermata 52:59 
    Echinodermata 53:00 
    Watrer Vascular System 54:20 
   Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates 57:11 
    Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates 57:12 
   Example 1: Phylum Description 58:43 
   Example 2: Complex Animals 59:50 
   Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum 61:03 
   Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda 62:01 
  Vertebrates 1:00:07
   Intro 0:00 
   Phylum Chordata 0:06 
    Chordates Overview 0:07 
    Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord 1:24 
    Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail 3:41 
   Invertebrate Chordates 6:48 
    Lancelets 7:13 
    Tunicates 8:02 
    Hagfishes: Craniates 8:55 
   Vertebrate Chordates 10:41 
    Veterbrates Overview 10:42 
    Lampreys 11:00 
    Gnathostomes 12:20 
    Six Major Classes of Vertebrates 12:53 
   chondrichthyes 14:23 
    Chondrichthyes Overview 14:24 
    Ectothermic and Endothermic 14:42 
    Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills 15:27 
    Oviparous and Viviparous 17:23 
   Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes) 18:12 
    Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview 18:13 
    Operculum 19:05 
    Swim Bladder 19:53 
    Ray-Finned Fishes 20:34 
    Lobe-Finned Fishes 20:58 
   Tetrapods 22:36 
    Tetrapods: Definition and Examples 22:37 
   Amphibians 23:53 
    Amphibians Overview 23:54 
    Order Urodela 25:51 
    Order Apoda 27:03 
    Order Anura 27:55 
   Reptiles 30:19 
    Reptiles Overview 30:20 
    Amniotes 30:37 
    Examples of Reptiles 32:46 
    Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart 33:40 
   Orders of Reptiles 34:17 
    Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia 34:21 
   Birds 36:09 
    Birds and Dinosaurs 36:18 
    Theropods 38:00 
    Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart 39:04 
    Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers 40:15 
   Mammals 42:33 
    Mammals Overview 42:35 
    Diaphragm and Heart 42:57 
    Diphydont 43:44 
    Synapsids 44:41 
   Monotremes 46:36 
    Monotremes 46:37 
   Marsupials 47:12 
    Marsupials: Definition and Examples 47:16 
    Convergent Evolution 48:09 
   Eutherians (Placental Mammals) 49:42 
    Placenta 49:43 
    Order Carnivora 50:48 
    Order Raodentia 51:00 
    Order Cetaceans 51:14 
   Primates 51:41 
    Primates Overview 51:42 
    Nails and Hands 51:58 
    Vision 52:51 
    Social Care for Young 53:28 
    Brain 53:43 
   Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates 54:33 
   Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term 55:56 
   Example 3: Bird's Anatomy 57:38 
   Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic 59:14 
IX. Plants
  Seedless Plants 34:31
   Intro 0:00 
   Origin and Classification of Plants 0:06 
    Origin and Classification of Plants 0:07 
    Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants 1:29 
    Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants 2:28 
    Angiosperms & Gymnosperms 2:50 
   Alternation of Generations 3:54 
    Alternation of Generations 3:55 
   Bryophytes 7:58 
    Overview of Bryrophytes 7:59 
    Example: Moss Gametophyte 9:29 
    Example: Moss Sporophyte 9:50 
   Moss Life Cycle 10:12 
    Moss Life Cycle 10:13 
   Seedless Vascular Plants 13:23 
    Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin 13:24 
    Homosporous 17:11 
    Heterosporous 17:48 
   Adaptations to Life on land 21:10 
    Adaptation 1: Cell Walls 21:38 
    Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants 21:59 
    Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem 22:31 
    Adaptation 4: Seeds 23:07 
    Adaptation 5: Pollen 23:35 
    Adaptation 6: Stomata 24:45 
    Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation 25:32 
   Example 1: Bryophytes 26:39 
   Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium 28:34 
   Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land 29:47 
   Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant 32:06 
  Plant Structure 1:01:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Plant Tissue 0:05 
    Dermal Tissue 0:15 
    Vascular Tissue 0:39 
    Ground Tissue 1:31 
   Cell Types in Plants 2:14 
    Parenchyma Cells 2:24 
    Collenchyma Cells 3:21 
    Sclerenchyma Cells 3:59 
   Xylem 5:04 
    Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements 6:12 
    Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms 7:53 
   Phloem 8:37 
    Phloem: Structures and Function 8:38 
    Sieve-Tube Elements 8:45 
    Companion Cells & Sieve Plates 9:11 
   Roots 10:08 
    Taproots & Fibrous 10:09 
    Aerial Roots & Prop Roots 11:41 
    Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot 13:00 
    Pericyle 16:57 
   The Nitrogen Cylce 18:05 
    The Nitrogen Cycle 18:06 
   Mycorrhizae 24:20 
    Mycorrhizae 24:23 
    Ectomycorrhiza 26:03 
    Endomycorrhiza 26:25 
   Stems 26:53 
    Stems 26:54 
    Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots 28:18 
   Leaves 29:48 
    Blade & Petiole 30:13 
    Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle 30:39 
    Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll 31:35 
    Stomata Pores 33:23 
    Guard Cells 34:15 
    Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath 34:46 
   Stomata 36:12 
    Stomata & Gas Exchange 36:16 
    Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid 36:43 
    Water Potential 38:03 
    Factors for Opening Stoma 40:35 
    Factors Causing Stoma to Close 42:44 
   Overview of Plant Growth 44:23 
    Overview of Plant Growth 44:24 
   Primary Plant Growth 46:19 
    Apical Meristems 46:25 
    Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division 46:44 
    Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation 47:35 
    Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation 47:55 
    Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia 48:16 
   Secondary Plant Growth 48:48 
    Secondary Plant Growth Overview 48:59 
    Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem 49:38 
    Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels 51:10 
   Example 1: Leaf Structures 53:30 
   Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions 55:13 
   Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata? 56:58 
   Example 4: Plant Growth 59:18 
  Gymnosperms and Angiosperms 1:01:51
   Intro 0:00 
   Seed Plants 0:22 
    Sporopollenin 0:58 
    Heterosporous: Megasporangia 2:49 
    Heterosporous: Microsporangia 3:19 
   Gymnosperms 5:20 
    Gymnosperms 5:21 
   Gymnosperm Life Cycle 7:30 
    Gymnosperm Life Cycle 7:31 
   Flower Structure 15:15 
    Petal & Pollination 15:48 
    Sepal 16:52 
    Stamen: Anther, Filament 17:05 
    Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary 17:55 
    Complete Flowers 20:14 
   Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation 20:47 
    Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis 20:57 
    Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis 24:22 
   Double Fertilization 25:43 
    Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm 25:44 
   Angiosperm Life Cycle 29:43 
    Angiosperm Life Cycle 29:48 
   Seed Structure and Development 33:37 
    Seed Structure and Development 33:38 
   Pollen Dispersal 37:53 
    Abiotic 38:28 
    Biotic 39:30 
   Prevention of Self-Pollination 40:48 
    Mechanism 1 41:08 
    Mechanism 2: Dioecious 41:37 
    Mechanism 3 42:32 
    Self-Incompatibility 43:08 
    Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility 44:38 
    Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility 46:50 
   Asexual Reproduction 48:33 
    Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation 48:34 
    Graftiry 50:19 
   Monocots and Dicots 51:34 
    Monocots vs.Dicots 51:35 
   Example 1: Double Fertilization 54:43 
   Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization 56:02 
   Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots 58:11 
   Example 4: Flower Structures 60:11 
  Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants 40:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Review of Plant Cell Structure 0:14 
    Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm 0:15 
    Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole 3:24 
   Water Absorption by Plants 4:28 
    Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae 4:30 
    Osmosis and Water Potential 5:41 
   Apoplast and Symplast Pathways 10:01 
    Apoplast and Symplast Pathways 10:02 
   Xylem Structure 21:02 
    Tracheids and Vessel Elements 21:03 
   Bulk Flow 23:00 
    Transpiration 23:26 
    Cohesion 25:10 
    Adhesion 26:10 
   Phloem Structure 27:25 
    Pholem 27:26 
    Sieve-Tube Elements 27:48 
    Companion Cells 28:17 
   Translocation 28:42 
    Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview 28:43 
    Example of Sugar Sink 30:01 
    Example of Sugar Source 30:48 
   Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description 33:17 
   Example 2: Water Potential 34:58 
   Example 3: Bulk Flow 36:56 
   Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source 38:33 
  Plant Hormones and Tropisms 48:10
   Intro 0:00 
   Plant Cell Signaling 0:17 
    Plant Cell Signaling Overview 0:18 
    Step 1: Reception 1:03 
    Step 2: Transduction 2:32 
    Step 3: Response 2:58 
    Second Messengers 3:52 
    Protein Kinases 4:42 
   Auxins 6:14 
    Auxins 6:18 
    Indoleacetic Acid (IAA) 7:23 
   Cytokinins and Gibberellins 11:10 
    Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging 11:16 
    Gibberellins: 'Bolting' 13:51 
   Ethylene 15:33 
    Ethylene 15:34 
    Positive Feedback 15:46 
    Leaf Abscission 18:05 
    Mechanical Stress: Triple Response 19:36 
   Abscisic Acid 21:10 
    Abscisic Acid 21:15 
   Tropisms 23:11 
    Positive Tropism 23:50 
    Negative Tropism 24:07 
    Statoliths 26:21 
   Phytochromes and Photoperiodism 27:48 
    Phytochromes: PR and PFR 27:56 
    Circadian Rhythms 32:06 
    Photoperiod 33:13 
    Photoperiodism 33:38 
    Gerner & Allard 34:35 
    Short-Day Plant 35:22 
    Long-Day Plant 37:00 
   Example 1: Plant Hormones 41:28 
   Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins 43:00 
   Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description 44:46 
   Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response 46:14 
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
  The Respiratory System 48:14
   Intro 0:00 
   Gas Exchange in Animals 0:17 
    Respiration 0:19 
    Ventilation 1:09 
    Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces 1:53 
   Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals 3:05 
    Simple Aquatic Animals 3:06 
    Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals 3:49 
    Countercurrent Exchange 6:12 
   Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals 13:46 
    Earthworms 14:07 
    Internal Respiratory 15:35 
    Insects 16:55 
    Circulatory Fluid 19:06 
   The Human Respiratory System 21:21 
    Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis 21:50 
    Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli 23:38 
    Pulmonary Surfactants 28:05 
    Circulatory System: Hemoglobin 29:13 
   Ventilation 30:28 
    Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen 30:33 
    Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH 34:34 
   Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects 39:08 
   Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange 42:09 
   Example 3: Respiratory System 44:10 
   Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing 45:31 
  The Circulatory System 1:20:21
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Circulatory Systems 0:07 
    Circulatory System Overview 0:08 
    Open Circulatory System 3:19 
    Closed Circulatory System 5:58 
   Blood Vessels 7:51 
    Arteries 8:16 
    Veins 10:01 
    Capillaries 12:35 
   Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation 13:10 
    Vasoconstriction 13:11 
    Vasodilation 13:47 
    Thermoregulation 14:32 
   Blood 15:53 
    Plasma 15:54 
    Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells 17:41 
    Cellular Component: White Blood Cells 20:18 
    Platelets 21:14 
    Blood Types 21:35 
   Clotting 27:04 
    Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting 27:05 
    Hemophilia 30:26 
   The Heart 31:09 
    Structures and Functions of the Heart 31:19 
   Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation 40:20 
    Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit 40:21 
   The Cardiac Cycle 42:35 
    The Cardiac Cycle 42:36 
    Autonomic Nervous System 50:00 
   Hemoglobin 51:25 
    Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin 51:26 
   Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve 55:30 
    Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve 55:44 
   Transport of Carbon Dioxide 66:31 
    Transport of Carbon Dioxide 66:37 
   Example 1: Pathway of Blood 72:48 
   Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting 75:24 
   Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction 76:19 
   Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve 78:13 
  The Digestive System 56:11
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Digestion 0:07 
    Digestive Process 0:08 
    Intracellular Digestion 0:45 
    Extracellular Digestion 1:44 
   Types of Digestive Tracts 2:08 
    Gastrovascular Cavity 2:09 
    Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal) 3:54 
    'Crop' 4:43 
   The Human Digestive System 5:41 
    Structures of the Human Digestive System 5:47 
   The Oral Cavity and Esophagus 7:47 
    Mechanical & Chemical Digestion 7:48 
    Salivary Glands 8:55 
    Pharynx and Epigloltis 9:43 
    Peristalsis 11:35 
   The Stomach 12:57 
    Lower Esophageal Sphincter 13:00 
    Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin 14:32 
    Mucus Cell 15:48 
    Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter 17:32 
   The Pancreas 18:31 
    Endocrine and Exocrine 19:03 
    Amylase 20:05 
    Proteases 20:51 
    Lipases 22:20 
   The Liver 23:08 
    The Liver & Production of Bile 23:09 
   The Small Intestine 24:37 
    The Small Intestine 24:38 
    Duodenum 27:44 
    Intestinal Enzymes 28:41 
   Digestive Enzyme 33:30 
    Site of Production: Mouth 33:43 
    Site of Production: Stomach 34:03 
    Site of Production: Pancreas 34:16 
    Site of Production: Small Intestine 36:18 
   Absorption of Nutrients 37:51 
    Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum 37:52 
   The Large Intestine 44:52 
    The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum 44:53 
   Regulation of Digestion by Hormones 46:55 
    Gastrin 47:21 
    Secretin 47:50 
    Cholecystokinin (CCK) 48:00 
   Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats 48:29 
   Example 2: Matching 51:06 
   Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch 52:18 
   Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids 54:52 
  The Excretory System 1:12:14
   Intro 0:00 
   Nitrogenous Wastes 0:08 
    Nitrogenous Wastes Overview 0:09 
    NH3 0:39 
    Urea 2:43 
    Uric Acid 3:31 
   Osmoregulation 4:56 
    Osmoregulation 5:05 
    Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish 8:58 
   Types of Excretory Systems 13:42 
    Protonephridia 13:50 
    Metanephridia 16:15 
    Malpighian Tubule 19:05 
   The Human Excretory System 20:45 
    Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex 20:53 
   Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion 22:53 
    Filtration 22:54 
    Reabsorption 24:16 
    Secretion 25:20 
   The Nephron 26:23 
    The Nephron 26:24 
   The Nephron, cont. 41:45 
    Descending Loop of Henle 41:46 
    Ascending Loop of Henle 45:45 
   Antidiuretic Hormone 54:30 
    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) 54:31 
   Aldosterone 58:58 
    Aldosterone 58:59 
   Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal 64:21 
   Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish 66:36 
   Example 3: Nephron 69:14 
   Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection 70:41 
  The Endocrine System 51:12
   Intro 0:00 
   The Endocrine System Overview 0:07 
    Thyroid 0:08 
    Exocrine 1:56 
    Pancreas 2:44 
    Paracrine Signaling 4:06 
    Pheromones 5:15 
   Mechanisms of Hormone Action 6:06 
    Reception, Transduction, and Response 7:06 
    Classes of Hormone 10:05 
    Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example 12:16 
   The Pancreas 15:11 
    The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan 15:12 
    Insulin 16:02 
    Glucagon 17:28 
   The Anterior Pituitary 19:25 
    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone 20:24 
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone 21:16 
    Follide Stimulating Hormone 22:04 
    Luteinizing Hormone 22:45 
    Growth Hormone 23:45 
    Prolactin 24:24 
    Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone 24:55 
   The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary 25:45 
    Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary 25:46 
   The Adrenal Glands 31:20 
    Adrenal Cortex 31:56 
    Adrenal Medulla 34:29 
   The Thyroid 35:54 
    Thyroxine 36:09 
    Calcitonin 40:27 
   The Parathyroids 41:44 
    Parathyroids Hormone (PTH) 41:45 
   The Ovaries and Testes 43:32 
    Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone 43:33 
   Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions 45:38 
   Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ 47:06 
   Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon 48:28 
   Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood 50:25 
  The Nervous System 1:10:38
   Intro 0:00 
   Types of Nervous Systems 0:28 
    Nerve Net 0:37 
    Flatworm 1:07 
    Cephalization 1:52 
    Arthropods 2:44 
    Echinoderms 3:11 
   Nervous System Organization 3:40 
    Nervous System Organization Overview 3:41 
    Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic 4:42 
   Neuron Structure 6:57 
    Cell Body & Dendrites 7:16 
    Axon & Axon Hillock 8:20 
    Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier 9:01 
   Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells 10:16 
    Pre-synaptic Cells 10:17 
    Post-synaptic Cells 11:05 
   Types of Neurons 11:50 
    Sensory Neurons 11:54 
    Motor Neurons 13:12 
    Interneurons 14:24 
   Resting Potential 15:14 
    Membrane Potential 15:25 
    Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient 16:06 
    Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient 19:18 
   Gated Ion Channels 24:40 
    Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels 24:48 
   Action Potential 30:09 
    Action Potential Overview 30:10 
    Step 1 32:07 
    Step 2 32:17 
    Step 3 33:12 
    Step 4 35:14 
    Step 5 36:39 
   Action Potential Transmission 39:04 
    Action Potential Transmission 39:05 
    Speed of Conduction 41:19 
    Saltatory Conduction 42:58 
   The Synapse 44:17 
    The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell 44:31 
    Examples of Neurotransmitters 50:05 
   Brain Structure 51:57 
    Meniges 52:19 
    Cerebrum 52:56 
    Corpus Callosum 53:13 
    Gray & White Matter 53:38 
    Cerebral Lobes 55:35 
    Cerebellum 56:00 
    Brainstem 56:30 
    Medulla 56:51 
    Pons 57:22 
    Midbrain 57:55 
    Thalamus 58:25 
    Hypothalamus 58:58 
    Ventricles 59:51 
   The Spinal Cord 60:29 
    Sensory Stimuli 60:30 
    Reflex Arc 61:41 
   Example 1: Automatic Nervous System 64:38 
   Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters 66:22 
   Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels 68:00 
   Example 4: Neuron Structure 69:26 
  Musculoskeletal System 39:29
   Intro 0:00 
   Skeletal System Types and Function 0:30 
    Skeletal System 0:31 
    Exoskeleton 1:34 
    Endoskeleton 2:32 
   Skeletal System Components 2:55 
    Bone 3:06 
    Cartilage 5:04 
    Tendons 6:18 
    Ligaments 6:34 
   Skeletal Muscle 6:52 
    Skeletal Muscle 7:24 
    Sarcomere 9:50 
   The Sliding Filament Theory 13:12 
    The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction 13:13 
   The Neuromuscular Junction 17:24 
    The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber 17:26 
    Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic 21:54 
    Tropomyosin & Troponin 23:35 
   Summation and Tetanus 25:26 
    Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus 25:27 
   Smooth Muscle 28:50 
    Smooth Muscle 28:58 
   Cardiac Muscle 30:40 
    Cardiac Muscle 30:42 
   Summary of Muscle Types 32:07 
    Summary of Muscle Types 32:08 
   Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle 33:15 
   Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle 36:23 
   Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue 37:31 
   Example 4: Sarcomere 38:17 
  The Immune System 1:24:28
   Intro 0:00 
   The Lymphatic System 0:16 
    The Lymphatic System Overview 0:17 
    Function 1 1:23 
    Function 2 2:27 
   Barrier Defenses 3:41 
    Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses 3:42 
    Barrier Defenses 5:12 
   Nonspecific Cellular Defenses 7:50 
    Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview 7:53 
    Phagocytes 9:29 
    Neutrophils 11:43 
    Macrophages 12:15 
    Natural Killer Cells 12:55 
    Inflammatory Response 14:19 
    Complement 18:16 
    Interferons 18:40 
   Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity 20:12 
    T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes 20:13 
   B Cells 23:35 
    B Cells & Humoral Immunity 23:41 
   Clonal Selection 29:50 
    Clonal Selection 29:51 
    Primary Immune Response 34:28 
    Secondary Immune Response 35:31 
    Cytotoxic T Cells 38:41 
    Helper T Cells 39:20 
   Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules 40:44 
    Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules 40:55 
   Helper T Cells 52:36 
    Helper T Cells 52:37 
   Mechanisms of Antibody Action 59:00 
    Mechanisms of Antibody Action 59:01 
    Opsonization 60:01 
    Complement System 61:57 
   Classes of Antibodies 62:45 
    IgM 63:01 
    IgA 63:17 
    IgG 63:53 
    IgE 64:10 
   Passive and Active Immunity 65:00 
    Passive Immunity 65:01 
    Active Immunity 67:49 
   Recognition of Self and Non-Self 69:32 
    Recognition of Self and Non-Self 69:33 
    Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases 70:50 
   Immunodeficiency 73:27 
    Immunodeficiency 73:28 
    Chemotherapy 73:56 
    AID 74:27 
   Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions 75:26 
   Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity 77:59 
   Example 3: Immunodeficient 81:19 
   Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases 83:07 
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
  Reproduction 1:01:41
   Intro 0:00 
   Asexual Reproduction 0:17 
    Fragmentation 0:53 
    Fission 1:54 
    Parthenogenesis 2:38 
   Sexual Reproduction 4:00 
    Sexual Reproduction 4:01 
    Hermaphrodite 8:08 
   The Male Reproduction System 8:54 
    Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells 8:55 
    Epididymis 9:48 
    Seminal Vesicle 11:19 
    Bulbourethral 12:37 
   The Female Reproductive System 13:25 
    Ovaries 13:28 
    Fallopian 14:50 
    Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix 15:03 
    Mammary Glands 16:44 
   Spermatogenesis 17:08 
    Spermatogenesis 17:09 
   Oogenesis 21:01 
    Oogenesis 21:02 
   The Menstrual Cycle 27:56 
    The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle 27:57 
   Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles 42:54 
    Ovarian 42:55 
    Uterine 44:51 
   Oxytocin and Prolactin 46:33 
    Oxytocin 46:34 
    Prolactin 47:00 
   Regulation of the Male Reproductive System 47:28 
    Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone 47:29 
   Fertilization 50:11 
    Fertilization 50:12 
    Structures of Egg 50:28 
    Acrosomal Reaction 51:36 
    Cortical Reaction 53:09 
   Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis 55:36 
   Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions 57:34 
   Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle 58:44 
   Example 4: Hormone 60:43 
  Development 50:05
   Intro 0:00 
   Cleavage 0:31 
    Cleavage 0:32 
    Meroblastic 2:06 
    Holoblastic Cleavage 3:23 
    Protostomes 4:34 
    Deuterostomes 5:13 
    Totipotent 5:52 
   Blastula Formation 6:42 
    Blastula 6:46 
   Gastrula Formation 8:12 
    Deuterostomes 11:02 
    Protostome 11:44 
    Ectoderm 12:17 
    Mesoderm 12:55 
    Endoderm 13:40 
   Cytoplasmic Determinants 15:19 
    Cytoplasmic Determinants 15:23 
   The Bird Embryo 22:52 
    Cleavage 23:35 
    Blastoderm 23:55 
    Primitive Streak 25:38 
    Migration and Differentiation 27:09 
   Extraembryonic Membranes 28:33 
    Extraembryonic Membranes 28:34 
    Chorion 30:02 
    Yolk Sac 30:36 
    Allantois 31:04 
   The Mammalian Embryo 32:18 
    Cleavage 32:28 
    Blastocyst 32:44 
    Trophoblast 34:37 
    Following Implantation 35:48 
   Organogenesis 37:04 
    Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube 37:05 
   Induction 40:15 
    Induction 40:39 
    Fate Mapping 41:40 
   Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development 42:49 
   Example 2: Transplanted Cells 44:33 
   Example 3: Germ Layer 46:41 
   Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes 47:28 
XII. Animal Behavior
  Animal Behavior 47:48
   Intro 0:00 
   Introduction to Animal Behavior 0:05 
    Introduction to Animal Behavior 0:06 
    Ethology 1:04 
    Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause 1:46 
   Fixed Action Pattern 3:07 
    Sign Stimulus 3:40 
    Releases and Example 3:55 
    Exploitation and Example 7:23 
   Learning 8:56 
    Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting 8:57 
   Habituation 10:03 
    Habituation: Definition and Example 10:04 
   Associative Learning 11:47 
    Classical 12:19 
    Operant Conditioning 13:40 
    Positive & Negative Reinforcement 14:59 
    Positive & Negative Punishment 16:13 
    Extinction 17:28 
   Imprinting 17:47 
    Imprinting: Definition and Example 17:48 
   Social Behavior 20:12 
    Cooperation 20:38 
    Agonistic 21:37 
    Dorminance Heirarchies 23:23 
    Territoriality 24:08 
    Altruism 24:55 
   Communication 26:56 
    Communication 26:57 
   Mating 32:38 
    Mating Overview 32:40 
    Promiscuous 33:13 
    Monogamous 33:32 
    Polygamous 33:48 
    Intrasexual 34:22 
    Intersexual Selection 35:08 
   Foraging 36:08 
    Optimal Foraging Model 36:39 
    Foraging 37:47 
   Movement 39:12 
    Kinesis 39:20 
    Taxis 40:17 
    Migration 40:54 
   Lunar Cycles 42:02 
    Lunar Cycles 42:08 
   Example 1: Types of Conditioning 43:19 
   Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions 44:12 
   Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior 45:47 
   Example 4: Learning 46:54 
XIII. Ecology
  Biomes 58:49
   Intro 0:00 
   Ecology 0:08 
    Ecology 0:14 
    Environment 0:22 
    Integrates 1:41 
    Environment Impacts 2:20 
   Population and Distribution 3:20 
    Population 3:21 
    Range 4:50 
    Potential Range 5:10 
    Abiotic 5:46 
    Biotic 6:22 
   Climate 7:55 
    Temperature 8:40 
    Precipitation 10:00 
    Wind 10:37 
    Sunlight 10:54 
    Macroclimates & Microclimates 11:31 
   Other Abiotic Factors 12:20 
    Geography 12:28 
    Water 13:17 
    Soil and Rocks 13:48 
   Sunlight 14:42 
    Sunlight 14:43 
   Seasons 15:43 
    June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox 15:44 
    Tropics 19:00 
    Seasonability 19:39 
   Wind and Weather Patterns 20:44 
    Vertical Circulation 20:51 
    Surface Wind Patterns 25:18 
   Local Climate Effects 26:51 
    Local Climate Effects 26:52 
   Terrestrial Biomes 30:04 
    Biome 30:05 
    Forest 31:02 
   Tropical Forest 32:00 
    Tropical Forest 32:01 
   Temperate Broadleaf Forest 32:55 
    Temperate Broadleaf Forest 32:56 
   Coniferous/Taiga Forest 34:10 
    Coniferous/Taiga Forest 34:11 
   Desert 36:05 
    Desert 36:06 
   Grassland 37:45 
    Grassland 37:46 
   Tundra 40:09 
    Tundra 40:10 
   Freshwater Biomes 42:25 
    Freshwater Biomes: Zones 42:27 
    Eutrophic Lakes 44:24 
    Oligotrophic Lakes 45:01 
    Lakes Turnover 46:03 
    Rivers 46:51 
    Wetlands 47:40 
    Estuary 48:11 
   Marine Biomes 48:45 
    Marine Biomes: Zones 48:46 
   Example 1: Diversity of Life 52:18 
   Example 2: Marine Biome 53:08 
   Example 3: Season 54:20 
   Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic 55:54 
  Population 41:16
   Intro 0:00 
   Population 0:07 
    Size 'N' 0:16 
    Density 0:41 
    Dispersion 1:01 
    Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure 2:26 
   Mortality 7:29 
    Mortality and Survivorship 7:30 
   Age Structure Diagrams 11:52 
    Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable 11:58 
   Population Growth 15:39 
    Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth 15:43 
   Logistic Population Growth 19:07 
    Carrying Capacity (K) 19:18 
    Limiting Factors 20:55 
   Logistic Model and Oscillation 22:55 
    Logistic Model and Oscillation 22:56 
   Changes to the Carrying Capacity 24:36 
    Changes to the Carrying Capacity 24:37 
   Growth Strategies 26:07 
    'r-selected' or 'r-strategist' 26:23 
    'K-selected' or 'K-strategist' 27:47 
   Human Population 30:15 
    Human Population and Exponential Growth 30:21 
   Case Study - Lynx and Hare 31:54 
    Case Study - Lynx and Hare 31:55 
   Example 1: Estimating Population Size 34:35 
   Example 2: Population Growth 36:45 
   Example 3: Carrying Capacity 38:17 
   Example 4: Types of Dispersion 40:15 
  Communities 1:06:26
   Intro 0:00 
   Community 0:07 
    Ecosystem 0:40 
    Interspecific Interactions 1:14 
   Competition 2:45 
    Competition Overview 2:46 
    Competitive Exclusion 3:57 
    Resource Partitioning 4:45 
    Character Displacement 6:22 
   Predation 7:46 
    Predation 7:47 
    True Predation 8:05 
    Grazing/ Herbivory 8:39 
   Predator Adaptation 10:13 
    Predator Strategies 10:22 
    Physical Features 11:02 
   Prey Adaptation 12:14 
    Prey Adaptation 12:23 
    Aposematic Coloration 13:35 
    Batesian Mimicry 14:32 
    Size 15:42 
   Parasitism 16:48 
    Symbiotic Relationship 16:54 
    Ectoparasites 18:31 
    Endoparasites 18:53 
    Hyperparisitism 19:21 
    Vector 20:08 
    Parasitoids 20:54 
   Mutualism 21:23 
    Resource - Resource mutualism 21:34 
    Service - Resource Mutualism 23:31 
    Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative 24:23 
   Commensalism 26:01 
    Commensalism 26:03 
    Symbiosis 27:31 
   Trophic Structure 28:35 
    Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs 28:36 
   Food Chain 33:26 
    Producer & Consumers 33:38 
   Food Web 39:01 
    Food Web 39:06 
   Significant Species within Communities 41:42 
    Dominant Species 41:50 
    Keystone Species 42:44 
    Foundation Species 43:41 
   Community Dynamics and Disturbances 44:31 
    Disturbances 44:33 
    Duration 47:01 
    Areal Coverage 47:22 
    Frequency 47:48 
    Intensity 48:04 
    Intermediate Level of Disturbance 48:20 
   Ecological Succession 50:29 
    Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession 50:30 
   Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome 57:18 
   Example 2: Food Chains 60:08 
   Example 3: Ecological Units 62:44 
   Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community 64:30 
  Energy and Ecosystems 57:42
   Intro 0:00 
   Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components 0:15 
    First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow 0:40 
    Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) 3:52 
    Net Primary Productivity (NPP) 4:50 
   Biogeochemical Cycles 7:16 
    Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles 7:17 
   Water Cycle 10:55 
    Water Cycle 10:57 
   Carbon Cycle 17:52 
    Carbon Cycle 17:53 
   Nitrogen Cycle 22:40 
    Nitrogen Cycle 22:41 
   Phosphorous Cycle 29:34 
    Phosphorous Cycle 29:35 
   Climate Change 33:20 
    Climate Change 33:21 
   Eutrophication 39:38 
    Nitrogen 40:34 
    Phosphorous 41:29 
    Eutrophication 42:55 
   Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems 45:28 
   Example 2: Atmospheric CO2 48:44 
   Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle 51:22 
   Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland 53:20 
XIV. Laboratory Review
  Laboratory Review 2:04:30
   Intro 0:00 
   Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis 0:09 
    Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis 0:10 
   Lab 1: Water Potential 11:55 
    Lab 1: Water Potential 11:56 
   Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis 18:30 
    Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis 18:31 
   Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis 27:40 
    Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis 27:41 
   Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis 31:50 
    Ascomycota Life Cycle 31:51 
   Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis 40:36 
    Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis 40:37 
   Lab 5: Cell Respiration 49:56 
    Lab 5: Cell Respiration 49:57 
   Lab 6: Molecular Biology 55:06 
    Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part 55:07 
   Lab 6: Molecular Biology 61:16 
    Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part 61:17 
   Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms 67:32 
    Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms 67:33 
   Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis 73:00 
    Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis 73:03 
   Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution 80:41 
    Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution 80:42 
   Lab 9: Transpiration 84:02 
    Lab 9: Transpiration 84:03 
   Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System 91:05 
    Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System 91:06 
   Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms 98:25 
    Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms 98:30 
   Lab 11: Animal Behavior 100:52 
    Lab 11: Animal Behavior 100:53 
   Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity 105:36 
    Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity 105:37 
   Lab 12: Primary Productivity 109:06 
    Lab 12: Primary Productivity 109:07 
   Example 1: Chi-square Analysis 116:31 
   Example 2: Mitosis 119:28 
   Example 3: Transpiration of Plants 120:27 
   Example 4: Population Genetic 121:16 
XV. The AP Biology Test
  Understanding the Basics 13:02
   Intro 0:00 
   AP Biology Structure 0:18 
    Section I 0:31 
    Section II 1:16 
   Scoring 2:04 
   The Four 'Big Ideas' 3:51 
    Process of Evolution 4:37 
    Biological Systems Utilize 4:44 
    Living Systems 4:55 
    Biological Systems Interact 5:03 
   Items to Bring to the Test 7:56 
   Test Taking Tips 9:53 
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
  AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31 1:04:29
   Intro 0:00 
   AP Biology Practice Exam 0:14 
   Multiple Choice 1 0:40 
   Multiple Choice 2 2:27 
   Multiple Choice 3 4:30 
   Multiple Choice 4 6:43 
   Multiple Choice 5 9:27 
   Multiple Choice 6 11:32 
   Multiple Choice 7 12:54 
   Multiple Choice 8 14:42 
   Multiple Choice 9 17:06 
   Multiple Choice 10 18:42 
   Multiple Choice 11 20:49 
   Multiple Choice 12 23:23 
   Multiple Choice 13 26:20 
   Multiple Choice 14 27:52 
   Multiple Choice 15 28:44 
   Multiple Choice 16 33:07 
   Multiple Choice 17 35:31 
   Multiple Choice 18 39:43 
   Multiple Choice 19 40:37 
   Multiple Choice 20 42:47 
   Multiple Choice 21 45:58 
   Multiple Choice 22 49:49 
   Multiple Choice 23 53:44 
   Multiple Choice 24 55:12 
   Multiple Choice 25 55:59 
   Multiple Choice 26 56:50 
   Multiple Choice 27 58:08 
   Multiple Choice 28 59:54 
   Multiple Choice 29 61:36 
   Multiple Choice 30 62:31 
   Multiple Choice 31 63:50 
  AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63 50:44
   Intro 0:00 
   AP Biology Practice Exam 0:14 
   Multiple Choice 32 0:27 
   Multiple Choice 33 4:14 
   Multiple Choice 34 5:12 
   Multiple Choice 35 6:51 
   Multiple Choice 36 10:46 
   Multiple Choice 37 11:27 
   Multiple Choice 38 12:17 
   Multiple Choice 39 13:49 
   Multiple Choice 40 17:02 
   Multiple Choice 41 18:27 
   Multiple Choice 42 19:35 
   Multiple Choice 43 21:10 
   Multiple Choice 44 23:35 
   Multiple Choice 45 25:00 
   Multiple Choice 46 26:20 
   Multiple Choice 47 28:40 
   Multiple Choice 48 30:14 
   Multiple Choice 49 31:24 
   Multiple Choice 50 32:45 
   Multiple Choice 51 33:41 
   Multiple Choice 52 34:40 
   Multiple Choice 53 36:12 
   Multiple Choice 54 38:06 
   Multiple Choice 55 38:37 
   Multiple Choice 56 40:00 
   Multiple Choice 57 41:18 
   Multiple Choice 58 43:12 
   Multiple Choice 59 44:25 
   Multiple Choice 60 45:02 
   Multiple Choice 61 46:10 
   Multiple Choice 62 47:54 
   Multiple Choice 63 49:01 
  AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In 21:52
   Intro 0:00 
   AP Biology Practice Exam 0:17 
   Grid In Question 1 0:29 
   Grid In Question 2 3:49 
   Grid In Question 3 11:04 
   Grid In Question 4 13:18 
   Grid In Question 5 17:01 
   Grid In Question 6 19:30 
  AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions 31:22
   Intro 0:00 
   AP Biology Practice Exam 0:18 
   Free Response 1 0:29 
   Free Response 2 20:47 
  AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions 24:41
   Intro 0:00 
   AP Biology Practice Exam 0:15 
   Free Response 3 0:26 
   Free Response 4 5:21 
   Free Response 5 8:25 
   Free Response 6 11:38 
   Free Response 7 14:48 
   Free Response 8 22:14