In this lesson our instructor talks about vertebrates. First she discusses the phylum chordata, invertebrate chordates, vertebrate chordates, and chondrichthyes. Second, she talks about osteichthyes, tetrapods, amphibians, reptiles, and order of reptiles. Third she talks about birds, mammals monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians. Lastly, she lectures on primates and their characteristics. Four complete example videos round up this lesson.
Vertebrates are animals with a
backbone and spinal cord. They are members of Phylum Chordata.
Chordates possess a notochord,
a dorsal, hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal clefts and arches as well
as a post-anal tail at some point in their development.
Several groups of chordates are
invertebrates. These include lancelets, tunicates (sea squirts) and
Major classes of vertebrates
Chondrichthyes - Chondricthyans
have skeletons made primarily of cartilage and are ectothermic.
Members of this class include sharks and rays.
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) –The
bony fishes have skeletons composed of mineralized bone and include
both the ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes.
Amphibians - Amphibians undergo
metamorphosis and live part of their life cycle on land and part in
water. They have moist skin that plays a role in gas exchange.
Reptiles -Reptiles are amniotes
with keratinized scales that prevent them from drying out and eggs
that are protected by shells.
Aves –In addition to their
wings and feathers, birds have light bones as well as other
structural and physiological adaptations to allow flight. Birds are
sometimes included in the same class as reptiles.
Mammals - Mammals are
endothermic, have hair and produce milk to nourish their young. They
have a four-chambered heart and teeth with specialized functions.
Monotremes, marsupials and eutherians are all groups of mammals.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include three full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book has a great topic-by topic breakdown of the 14 must-know principles with sample questions and answers for each of the subjects. Laboratory Review includes a focused review of all 12 AP laboratory exercises. Included in this is 2 full length practice tests that stimulate the actual test along with answers and complete explanations.
This book includes a comprehensive biology test topic review, covering everything from photosynthesis to genetics to evolution. Cracking the AP Biology also includes testing strategies for the grid-in and essay section, great guidance on writing a high-scoring essay, and two full length practice exams with detailed explanations.