Phylum chordate is very diverse, but all chordates contain a notochord (flexible rod dorsal to the GI tube), dorsal hollow nerve chord (differentiates into central nervous system), pharyngeal clefts and arches, and a tail at some point in their development. Pharyngeal clefts and arches develop into openings between the outside world and the pharynx, which can take the form of a mouth, gills, siphon, filtration slits, or parts of the ear. Invertebrate chordates include the lancelets, tunicates, and hagfishes, which are craniates. Vertebrate chordates include lampreys and gnathostomes (which have jaws). Six major groups including amphibians (includes frogs), chondrichthyes (includes sharks), osteichthyes (bony fishes), reptiles (lizards, snakes, turtles, etc.), mammals (produce milk to nourish young), and sometimes aves (birds, which can be classified as reptiles based on common ancestry).
Vertebrates are animals with a
backbone and spinal cord. They are members of Phylum Chordata.
Chordates possess a notochord,
a dorsal, hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal clefts and arches as well
as a post-anal tail at some point in their development.
Several groups of chordates are
invertebrates. These include lancelets, tunicates (sea squirts) and
Major classes of vertebrates
Chondrichthyes - Chondricthyans
have skeletons made primarily of cartilage and are ectothermic.
Members of this class include sharks and rays.
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) –The
bony fishes have skeletons composed of mineralized bone and include
both the ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes.
Amphibians - Amphibians undergo
metamorphosis and live part of their life cycle on land and part in
water. They have moist skin that plays a role in gas exchange.
Reptiles -Reptiles are amniotes
with keratinized scales that prevent them from drying out and eggs
that are protected by shells.
Aves –In addition to their
wings and feathers, birds have light bones as well as other
structural and physiological adaptations to allow flight. Birds are
sometimes included in the same class as reptiles.
Mammals - Mammals are
endothermic, have hair and produce milk to nourish their young. They
have a four-chambered heart and teeth with specialized functions.
Monotremes, marsupials and eutherians are all groups of mammals.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.