Animal behavior is based on a complex interplay between physiology, natural selection, and environmental stimuli based on both proximate (immediate) causes and ultimate causes. Fixed action patterns are innate and stereotypic, such as responses to particular colors or noises, even if they are not caused by predators. Learned behaviors (habituated, associative, or imprinted) can be modified through conditioning. Social behaviors are interactions between members of a species, like cooperation, agonistic behavior, dominance hierarchies, territoriality, and altruism. These can be facilitated by communication, which is a form of stimulus via signal. Mating rituals typically encourage diversity and stronger genetics. Species can be promiscuous, monogamous, or polygamous, and intrasexual or intersexual selection may dominate. Other important behaviors are foraging and movement, and some behaviors depend on environmental stimuli like lunar cycles.
Ethology is the
scientific study of animal behavior.
A fixed action
pattern (FAP) is an innate, highly stereotypic behavior pattern. The
behavior is performed in response to an external stimulus and
continued to completion.
Learning is the
process by which an animals behavior and response to stimuli are
modified as a result of experience.
a reduction in response by an animal to repeated exposure to a
learning occurs when a certain stimulus becomes associated with
another stimulus or outcome through experience. Classical
conditioning and operant conditioning are types of associative
learning that occurs during a particular age or stage of life that
causes a behavior that is independent of the outcome.
Social behavior is the interaction among two or more individuals of
the same species. Types of social learning include cooperation,
agnostic behavior, dominance hierarchies, territoriality and
transmitted from one individual to another is a signal. The
exchange of signals is communication.
food-obtaining behavior and includes finding, storing and hunting
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.