Reproduction can be sexual via haploid gametes or asexual via fragmentation, fission, and parthenogenesis. The human male reproductive system consists of testes (which produce testosterone and sperm in seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells), epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, and the bulbourethral glands. The female reproductive system contains ovaries, fallopian tubes, endometrium, uterus, cilia, cervix, and mammary glands. Sperm are produced through the process of spermatogenesis using meiosis, while eggs are produced through oogenesis, a discontinuous process that halts in prophase I of meiosis until that egg matures for ovulation. This is governed by the ovulation and uterine cycles. Key hormones include oxytocin, prolactin, estrogen, LH, and GnRH in females and GnRH, LH, FSH and Testosterone in males. Fertilization results in a diploid zygote.
seminiferous tubules within the testes are the site of sperm
is the process of sperm production. One primary spermatocyte yields
discontinuous, with development arrested during prophase I and again
in meiosis II. One primary oocyte yields one ovum plus polar bodies.
The first half
of the menstrual cycle is the follicular phase. Under the influence
of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a primary oocyte matures
within the follicle.
follicles produce estrogen, which stimulate the proliferation of the
An LH surge
precedes ovulation. At ovulation the follicle ruptures, releasing an
The second half
of the cycle is the luteal phase. The ruptured follicle develops
into a corpus luteum under the influence of luteinizing hormone
(LH). The corpus luteum produces progesterone.
maintains the endometrium and stimulates the development of glands
within the endometrium. In the absence of pregnancy, the corpus
luteum atrophies and the uterine lining is shed.
In males, FSH
stimulates Sertoli cells, which play a role in sperm development. LH
stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.