DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are the two kinds of nucleic acids. They contain genetic information and the codes for proteins. Nucleic acids have a sugar (ribose or ribose without an oxygen, deoxyribose), a nitrogenous space, and a phosphate group. There are five nitrogenous bases, including adenine and guanine (designated A and G; both are purines) as well as cytosine (C), thiamine (T), and uracil (pyrimidines). These join together to form polynucleotides that build up to a double helix shape. Proteins are built of polypeptides, which are made up of amino acids. There are twenty common amino acids, and they join together with peptide bonds. Proteins have primary, secondary (alpha helices and beta pleated sheets), and tertiary structures (involving bending and folding of proteins).
acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are polymers composed of
consist of a nitrogenous base, a pentose (5 carbon sugar) and a
phosphate group. The sugar found in RNA is ribose, the sugar found
in DNA is deoxyribose.
are two groups of nitrogenous bases: pyrimidines - cytosine (C),
thymine (T) and uracil (U) and purines adenine (A) and guanine
(G). RNA contains uracil whereas DNA contains thymine.
complementary strands of DNA pair up to form a double helix.
acids are the building blocks for proteins. Each has an asymmetric
carbon atom bonded to an amino group (NH2)
a carboxyl group (-COOH) a hydrogen atom and a side chain called an
acids join together through the formation of peptide bonds to form
polypeptides.The primary structure of a protein is the amino acid
sequence in its polypeptide chain.
secondary structure of a protein is a result of hydrogen bonding
between different regions of a polypeptide chain. Alpha helices and
beta pleated sheets are the two major types of secondary structure.
tertiary structure is the overall three dimensional shape of the
protein. Quaternary structure refers to the structure formed when
multiple polypeptide chains interact to form a single protein.
Nucleic Acids and Proteins
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.