The heart is surrounded by the pericardium and a layer of protective fat. The surface of the heart (epicardium) surrounds the heart muscle (myocardium). The endocardium is the smooth inner layer of heart tissue. The heart contains four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) connected by valves. The coronary arteries feed the heart muscle with blood, oxygen, and nutrition. When returning from the rest of the body, blood flows into the vena cava and then into the heart. It flows out of the pulmonary arteries to the lungs, where gases are exchanged. It then flows back through the heart and out through the aorta. This lecture also covers blood pressure, the cardiac cycle, the cardiac conduction system, how EKGs work, and various heart conditions and treatments.
Heart anatomy includes the pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, endocardium, atria, ventricles, coronary arteries, arteries/veins, and fat
The sequence of blood flow (beginning with blood returning to the heart from the body): vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, body
The heart beat sounds (lubb-dubb) correspond to the atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves closing simultaneously
Systole is contraction, diastole is relaxation, and cardiac output is calculated by multiplying stroke volume times heart rate (beats per minute)
Cardiac conduction system works via the sinoatrial (SA) node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, the AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers
Electrocardiograms (how the electricity within a heart is measured) involve P waves, QRS complexes, and T waves to diagnose arrhythmias
Heart conditions/disorders include myocardial infarctions (heart attacks), angina pectoris, fibrillation, and heart murmurs
Did you know…
Q: Are heart murmurs always deadly?
A: No, the severity of a heart murmur varies. Severe ones can be fixed surgically to replace a defective valve with a cadaver valve or pig valve. Other people have minor murmurs and only feel negative effects (fatigue, fainting) when their heart rate is very high.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book is the ninth edition of the top-selling Human Anatomy & Physiology text and the authors have produced the most accessible, comprehensive, up-to-date and visually stunning anatomy & physiology textbook on the market.. It presents information in smaller and more digestible bites, making it easier to read and navigate.
This book has a superb balance between structure and function and continue to emphasize the correlations between normal physiology and pathophysiology, normal anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and homeostatic imbalances. The acclaimed illustration program continues to be refined and is unsurpassed in the market. The thirteenth edition is fully integrated with a host of innovative electronic media, including WileyPlus 5.0 (access purchased separately.) No other text and package offers a teaching and learning environment as rich and complete.
This book includes updated examples, references, and dozens of illustrations. Readers of the new edition will come to understand the meanings of terms in anatomy and physiology, get to know the body's anatomical structures, and gain insight into how the structures and systems function in sickness and health. It also features updated information on how systems function in illness and in health.