Female external genitalia contains the mons pubis, vulva, vagina, vestibule, clitoris, prepruse, labia minora, labia majora, urethra, and vestibular glands. Internal reproductive organs include the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The vagina allows the elimination of menstrual fluids, the delivery of a baby, and some types of sexual intercourse. The uterus protects developing embryos as well as providing nutrition and eliminating waste. It contains the cervix, perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium. The fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus and contain the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus. The ovaries produce oocytes and secrete sex hormones that regulate the menstrual and ovarian cycles. Ovum develop in utero and then halt development until puberty. This lecture explains egg development, menstruation, the ovarian cycle, menopause, the mammary glands, and various conditions and disorders.
The vagina is an elastic muscular tube that is a passageway for menstrual fluids, the site of penis insertion for sexual intercourse, and the inferior portion of the passageway for the fetus during labor/birth
The uterus (womb) contains a fundus, body, and cervix
The uterine layers are the perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium (which develops and is shed through menstruation)
The Fallopian tubes (or oviducts, uterine tubes) move oocytes from the ovaries to aid in the process of fertilization
Peristalsis moves oocytes (fertilized or unfertilized) through the oviducts and into the uterus
Ovaries produce and release eggs and secrete sex hormones
Oogonia undergo meiosis before birth and they finish the meiosis process after the oocyte is fertilized
Polar bodies are generated as a result of oogenesis
The ovarian and menstrual cycle are regulated through hormone secretion
Menarche is the 1st menstruation for a women and menopause is when menstruation gradually comes to an end
Mammary glands are responsible for the production and secretion of milk for a baby
***NOTE: The phrase “it just takes one sperm” is technically not true. Yes, only one sperm is required for the actual act of fertilization, but the acrosome of one sperm is not enough to penetrate the corona radiata…many sperm heads contribute to the disruption of that outermost layer of cells. After that, a single sperm can be the one that penetrates the zona pellucida.
Did you know…
Q: Since there are 2 ovaries, is there a predictable pattern for when each one will do ovulation in a given month?
A: Ovulation can happen from either ovary. In some women, the ovaries do alternate consistently, but there is no predictable pattern in women in general. Sometimes, both ovaries will ovulate and that can result in fraternal twins if both eggs are fertilized by separate sperm.
Female Reproductive System
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
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