Sign In | Subscribe
Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!
Loading video...
This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology
  • Discussion

  • Study Guides

  • Download Lecture Slides

  • Table of Contents

  • Transcription

  • Related Books

Bookmark and Share
Lecture Comments (10)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Fri Apr 24, 2015 10:17 AM

Post by Ellen Lowerson on April 24, 2015

I just wanted to say a hge THANK YOU for producing these lectures.
I am studying Human Bioscience in Australia and was really struggling with it until a friend showed me these lectures.  Well worth the money to sign up!

Thank you Bryan, you make it so easy to learn!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sat Mar 21, 2015 1:01 PM

Post by ana stevens on March 19, 2015

Can you go over the mechanisms of ventilation

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Nov 26, 2014 2:55 PM

Post by Chanda Garner on November 25, 2014

Hey! I enjoyed this lesson but had a few questions:
1) What is the correct sequence of air flow through the bronchioles towards the alveoli?
2) Is recoil of lungs the major cause of expiration?
3) What is pleural pressure's relationship to alveolar pressure?
4) What happens when PC02 is increased in the blood, hemoglobin does what?
5) What blood vessel has a PCO2 of 40 mm HG?
Thank you!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Apr 20, 2014 11:07 AM

Post by Kayla Steiner on April 19, 2014

Could you elaborate a little more on decompression sickness? I understand it's a build up of inert gas bubbles in the body, mostly nitrogen, but I guess I don't understand the steps of why it happens.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Mar 27, 2014 2:38 PM

Post by Oscar Alfonso on March 26, 2014

what are the epitheliums from the nasal cavity to the alveolus

Respiratory System

  • Functions of the respiratory system: providing tissue for gas exchange in/out of the body, physically moving air in/out of body, protecting the body from dehydration/temperature changes/pathogen entrance, and producing sounds (vocalization)
  • The upper respiratory tract includes the external nares, vestibule, nasal septum, nasal conchae, nasal mucosa, and pharynx
  • The lower respiratory tract includes the larynx (epiglottis, glottis, hyoid, cartilages, ligaments, vocal cords), trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli of the lungs
  • Sound production involves air being pushed across the vocal folds and is a combination of phonation plus articulation
  • The trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles have a mucosa lining with cilia that are meant for sweeping up mucus generated in the lower parts of the respiratory tree
  • Bronchoconstriction is when the passageways (lumen) in the bronchioles get thinner and bronchodilation is when the passageways in the bronchioles get wider
  • Alveoli (one-cell thick) are microscopic air sacs in the lungs that are responsible for getting oxygen into the blood stream and carbon dioxide out of the bloodstream, through passive transport
  • Without surfactant, alveolar sacs would not be able to stay open and functioning due to surface tension problems
  • The left lung has 2 lobes and the right lung has 3 lobes, separated by deep fissures and wrapped up in pleural membranes
  • The parietal pleura is a protective wrapping on the surface of the lungs, the visceral pleura is the wrapping on the inside of the thoracic cage, and in between the two layers there is fluid for lubrication/protection
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles are the main muscles that allow breathing to occur
  • Respiratory volumes can be chartered to study variations or abnormalities in the breathing of a human
  • Partial pressures of gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc) determine where they move
  • Respiratory conditions/disorders include asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), and pneumonia
  • Did you know…
    • Q: How long can the average person hold their breath?
    • A: Under one minute. Most people let psychological distress prevent them from holding their breath longer (whether they’re in water or not). The more a person can increase their inspiratory volume before holding their breath, the longer they can go. On the reverse end of the spectrum there is an indigenous tribe on an island in the Pacific Ocean that has been catching crustaceans, etc. under water for so many generations that they have been reported to be able to hold their breath for 8-10 minutes!

Respiratory System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Functions of the Respiratory System 0:05
    • Moves Air In and Out of Body
    • Protects the Body from Dehydration
    • Produce Sounds
  • Upper Respiratory Tract #1 2:15
    • External Nares
    • Vestibule
    • Nasal Septum
    • Nasal Conchae
  • Upper Respiratory Tract #2 4:43
    • Nasal Mucosa
    • Pharynx
  • Larynx 8:34
    • Epiglottis
    • Glottis
    • Cartilage
    • Hyoid Bone
    • Ligaments
    • Vocal Cords
  • Sound Production 13:41
    • Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
    • Males Have Longer Cords
    • Speech =Phonation + Articulation
  • Trachea 16:42
    • 'Windpipe'
    • Respiratory Epithelium
  • Bronchi and Bronchioles 20:56
    • Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
    • Smooth Muscles
    • Bronchioles
    • Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
  • Alveoli 24:30
    • Air Sacks Within the Lungs
    • Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
    • Surfactant
  • Lungs 30:40
    • Lobes
    • Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
    • Spongy Appearance
    • Surrounded by Membrane
  • Pleura 32:52
    • Parietal Pleura
    • Visceral Pleura
  • Breathing Mechanism 35:27
    • Diaphragm
    • Intercostal Muscles
    • Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
    • Forced Breathing
  • Respiratory Volumes 41:33
  • Partial Pressures of Gases 46:02
    • Major Atmospheric Gases
    • Diffusion
    • Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
  • Respiratory Conditions / Disorders 51:21
    • Asthma
    • Emphysema
    • Lung Cancer
    • Laryngitis / Bronchitis
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    • Decompression Sickness
    • Tuberculosis
    • SIDS
    • Pneumonia
    • Pneumothorax
    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Transcription: Respiratory System

Hi and welcome back to

This is the lesson on the respiratory system.0002

The function of the respiratory system includes providing tissues for gas exchange between the air and the bloodstream.0004

Every animal needs gases to help them do aerobic respiration and we are definitely one of them.0014

We need oxygen and gas being supplied to our tissues all throughout our life.0020

Specially ones that are working really hard like our muscles and our brain.0024

Having that tissue for getting gas into the body effectively and getting rid of the gases waste that is important.0028

Along with that, the action of moving air in, the inhalation or inspiration and moving air out of the body exhalation or expiration.0037

That is very important as well.0047

It is a part of it.0049

The lungs protect the body from dehydration, temperature fluctuations, the entrance of pathogens.0050

It is not of course just the lungs it is a lot of the upper respiratory parts.0057

In addition to the lower respiratory parts are participating in this.0062

Dehydration is the losing of fluids.0065

It just does not happen through sweat, you can lose fluids out of this passageway.0068

After all there is an entrance and exit in the body.0072

The temperature fluctuations you do not want to have cold air come in.0075

Let us say you were in a very cold part of the earth.0082

You are in the arctic and you are breathing in air that is the below freezing.0084

That would be harmful to your body.0090

Every time you breathe in air, your respiratory tract is warming and moistening that air so it is not as harsh to your body.0093

And of course the entrance of pathogens.0100

You do not want bacteria and viruses that you are inhaling to constantly invade your cells.0103

Majority of the stuff that the average person inhales is not going to attack the tissues because the respiratory tract 0109

and respiratory system is defending your body and producing sounds.0116

Mobilization I am doing it right now.0121

When I expel air across my vocal chords and I manipulate them in addition to my mouth, tongue, etc. You are going to hear speech.0123

When it comes to the breakdown of what is in the respiratory tract we can look at the upper respiratory tract and in the lower respiratory tract.0133

The upper respiratory tract is going to include everything from the nose down to the throat.0144

If we start with our first slide here we are going to the external nares.0150

That is a fancy term for nostrils.0156

These are my external nares.0159

The hole that actually leads into that opening into your respiratory tract we can call them vestibule.0161

Vestibule basically means like entrance or a doorway and there are other parts of body where the term vestibule is used.0168

Here would be the actual holes in my nostrils that entrance is called the vestibule.0174

The nasal septum, septum is a term used to other parts of bodies as well like there is a septum in your heart that separates the two ventricles from each other.0180

In this case the nasal septum is separating the two sides of your nasal cavity where your nostrils are and the nasal conchae.0189

The nasal septum is partially cartilaginous.0198

Right here in blue this is soft bone.0201

This is cartilage of your nasal septum and then a little bit further back a little on the posterior / slightly superior you can see that this is bony.0205

It is the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.0216

That is a good portion of your bony nasal septum straight back here.0219

Just inferior to that is the vomer bone and then the palatine bone is another part of it.0225

A few different bones make up the bony nasal septum.0231

This particular image is great form Grey’s anatomy.0234

It is a perfect sagittal cross section straight through the middle of this nasal region and the nasal conchae.0237

If we look at the other parts on the sides or lateral to this septum, the nasal conchae or those twist and turns of mostly the ethmoid bone.0246

There are a couple of bones involved but the ethmoid bone is the majority of that twisty turny passageways leading air into the body.0256

Along that you are going to have the production of lots of mucus.0265

The mucus serves many purposes.0270

One of them is catching dirt, catching bad stuff before it gets deeper and causing infections.0272

When you are sick you are going to produce a lot more mucus and that makes sense.0278

Upper respiratory tract, number 2.0283

If we keep looking at this area, the upper part of the respiratory system, the nasal mucosa is mainly in the nasal conchae region.0286

The reason I'm listing it here is as you breathe air in and ends up going down into the throat or the pharynx.0298

The nasal mucosa not only is catching bad stuff, bacteria, virus, etc. that you are breathing in but it also warms the air and moistens the air.0305

It is very important so it is not as harsh to your lungs.0315

When you think about it, the air in this room right here and possibly we are at on Celsius scale is probably low twenties, 20-22° F scale or 70 below 70.0318

That is room temperature.0331

Your body temperature is Fahrenheit 98. something.0333

Some people say 98.6 or 98.2.0338

That is a big difference.0341

When you breathe in air it warms us a little bit.0343

It gets close to your body temperature so it is not harsh to your lungs.0346

The moistening of air is very important too.0350

You can say that the nasal mucosa humidifies the air, adds moisture to it as you are breathing it in.0353

The pharynx also known as the throat, we can separate into 3 different parts.0358

Here they are from top to bottom, superior and inferior.0363

The nasal pharynx is the part of the throat that adjacent to that nasal cavity, your nasal conchae that you can see in here.0366

Here are those parts of those twist and turns in terms of the ethmoid bone.0374

That nasal pharynx region is the connection where every time you swallow you are going to get a little bit of mucus strands.0378

I know it is nasty but that mucus strand is going to go down your throat.0386

That is great in terms of protecting your body.0390

If you are catching bacteria and viruses in the mucus of your nasal cavity, a great way to kill it is when you swallow it 0392

and it goes down your throat, down your esophagus and in your stomach.0401

The acidity of your stomach is usually enough to destroy those things.0404

The oropharynx, oro coming from oris or mouth, that is the area of the pharynx that is adjacent to the tongue.0408

This is the tongue and it is kind of a weird looking tongue but that is how it looks when you have a sagittal cross section and it is inside the mouth.0417

That is what the tongue looks like.0424

Right here that is called the soft palate, the most posterior or dorsal part of the palate is actually soft compared to the hard palate.0426

The part of the throat that is adjacent to there as you are eating something small or something, that is going to be passing through there.0436

You also can breathe through the mouth but really your nose is meant for that.0443

If you have done a lot of mouth breathing you have come into notice that it does the dry up the mouth overtime.0449

You are also not going to get that really good humidifying of the air that you get with breathing into the nasal regions.0455

That is the oropharynx.0463

Finally the most inferior part is the laryngeal pharynx because the larynx is right there.0464

Here we have like a fork in the road.0471

The posterior passageway here that is the esophagus.0474

When you do drink fluids, swallow like I just did, swallow food for instance, it is going to go down the esophagus.0479

This is the larynx and here is the epiglottis.0488

That is a flap that is going to close on top of this passageway so that when you do swallow you do not want fluid in and food going down into your lungs.0491

That causes you to aspirate and cause you to stop breathing and kill a person.0502

The laryngeal pharynx is that lowest part of the throat that is adjacent to the larynx.0506

When we look at the larynx there are several parts involved.0512

That is this part right here.0518

We say voice box we are talking larynx but there is more to it than that.0521

If we start at the most superior part of larynx like I have mentioned in the previous slide, the epiglottis which is right above the glottis that is what epi means.0524

Every time you swallow the epiglottis flaps down.0533

It is a flap that closes on top of the glottis.0539

The glottis is the opening into the larynx passageway.0543

Every time you swallow that epiglottis I supposed to flap down and the glottis supposed to close so that fluid 0547

and solids are not going into the larynx and trachea, your windpipe leading to the lungs.0554

We will talk more about the glottis in a bit with respect to the vocal folds or vocal chords.0560

There is a lot of cartilage involved with the larynx.0565

Before we move on, the epiglottis is the structure right here.0569

This is a sagittal cross section of larynx like we are looking from the side view.0575

This is the epiglottis when it is not close.0583

Every time you swallow it does close.0586

To this person is not swallowing currently.0588

You cannot see the epiglottis in this shot but if it were raised you would see it poking out next to what is called the hyoid bone right there.0590

That would be where the epiglottis is.0601

The glottis is just inferior to it.0602

You will see a picture on the next slide of it.0608

That is right in this region here.0610

The cartilage, there is a lot of cartilage going around.0613

Soft bone that is protecting your throat, protecting your airway.0616

The thyroid cartilage is the most prominent one.0621

The Adam's apple if you have heard of that term referring to what is called the thyroid cartilage.0625

We will do that in red.0630

Here is the thyroid cartilage and from that side view if you were to take a cross section through it we are seeing a part of a thyroid cartilage right here.0632

That is the typical looking Adam's apple that everyone has not just men.0647

People say that men have Adam’s apple and a woman typically does not.0652

A woman has all the structures as well but an adult female because of differences in sex hormones it is typically not as invisible.0656

As a male goes to puberty the size of the vocal folds in the larynx in general is going to become more visible.0664

The vocal folds specially are going to get broader and larger and that is going to have effect on your voice.0673

Your voice tends to drop when you age or go to through puberty.0680

Female voice changes a little bit too but not as dramatically in terms of the octave shift.0684

That thyroid cartilage is major component protecting the larynx and that part that is most obvious right here that sticking out, that is called the laryngeal prominence. 0689

It is a very prominent part of the larynx.0700

The cricoid cartilage is just inferior to that, that is number 7 here.0703

Here is the cricoid cartilage.0708

Here it is in this view and between those 2 cartilages there is a ligament.0711

Those little ligament right here this is actually the laryngeal hyoid ligament because it is connecting this part of the larynx to the hyoid bone which I will mention next.0716

The hyoid bone is an interesting bone because to my knowledge it is the only bone I can think of that does not articulate with any other bones in the body.0727

It is not directly touching any other bones.0743

If you think about how bones work, typically bone is next to bone in a joint whether to fuse immovable joint or movable joint.0745

In this case the hyoid bone is up here.0754

I am touching it right now.0757

It is held to its place by muscles, ligaments, tendons.0758

It is not touching any bones.0762

It is very close to the mandible or lower jaw bone but it is not quite touching it.0764

The purpose of the hyoid bone once again like these other things partially protective but 0768

also it is for anchoring the parts of the throat muscles and the tongue that helps in swallowing.0773

That is the hyoid bone.0780

Ligaments I already have mentioned some of them.0782

There are ligaments here and here. 0785

There are ligaments all over the place.0786

Ligaments connect bone to bone or cartilage to bone.0788

The vocal cords you will see a better view of the vocal cords on the next slide.0791

If you look down into the throat and look at the top of the larynx through a little camera, 0797

as someone is talking you can see there are slight vibrations going on as airs expelled pass the vocal cords.0806

Depending how they vibrate, the structure of those vocal folds that is going to be different pitches and different sounds.0814

Sound production, air passing through the glottis, the open glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces sound waves.0820

This is a great view.0829

This as an actual camera shot looking down and do someone’s top of their larynx and through the pharynx.0831

The glottis is this opening.0838

The epiglottis which you cannot see in this particular image is actually right in front of it and it is currently not down because this person is expelling air.0841

This person is talking.0849

When you swallow the epiglottis does close this opening.0850

Here is the anterior part.0854

This is the front part and the posterior part is actually down this way.0856

Diameter, length, and tension of these vocal folds records change the pitch.0861

Here are the vocal folds right here.0868

If we were comparing the average adult male, average adult female, typically the diameter and length is going to be larger in an adult male compared to female.0871

What we have control over is the tension.0883

Depending on how tense you make them that is going to change pitch.0886

I am actually changing the tense.0890

I am making the vocal folds thinner.0894

If I go, I am making them wider.0896

If you a play a string instrument or play the piano you are familiar with this.0899

On a guitar the particular strings that make the lower pitch notes those are thicker strings and 0902

those other strings that actually do that the higher pitch they are thinner.0910

It is the same with the piano.0916

Pianos, hitting strings, the ones at the far right end they are going to be thinner than the real low sound.0918

That is how it works in terms of making different pitches.0924

In general adult males have thicker, longer cords compared to female.0928

There are exceptions but that is a generalization.0936

Speech, what I'm doing right now is a combination of phonation just making sound and articulation 0939

actually making different types of specific noises and specific manipulations of that sound.0947

Formation is just the process of expelling air as I am exhaling, as I am expelling air pass the vocal folds and the squatous region.0955

But articulation is when you take that sound and do what I am doing right now.0965

Movements of the mouth, lips, and tongue are going to manipulate that sound to make speech that is audible and understandable to somebody.0970

If I do not have my tongue I cannot make a wide variety of noises or letter sounds.0978

T when you make a T sound there is a very specific movement your tongue has to make that T sound.0987

If my tongue was not there I will still have the phonation ability but my articulation will not be there.0995

Trachea, we are now into the lower respiratory tract.1001

Remember that the upper respiratory tract is from the nose to the pharynx.1008

We just started the lower respiratory tract with the larynx and we are definitely in the lower parts here.1012

The trachea if you follow the path to your larynx right here I'm actually touching part of the trachea.1016

If I press in a little bit I can feel little rings here.1026

As I am talking I can actually feel the vibrations, air going up hear and through the vocal cords. Etc.1034

The other parts of the trachea you cannot feel because if those behind the maneubrium, these parts of the sternum.1040

You can touch this part.1047

This is where they do tracheotomy to bypass the upper respiratory tract to help someone breathe.1049

I will talk about it more in a second.1058

The trachea is known also as the windpipe.1060

This is the tubes that getting air into the lungs.1063

It is a tough flexible tube with cartilaginous rings.1066

You can see those rings as I have mentioned a second ago.1068

I can feel it if I rub right here.1070

Those cartilaginous rings are kind of C shaped pointing this way.1073

The posterior or back portion is really not covered with cartilage in the sense that the anterior portion is.1079

The reason behind that is if remember from the previous slide, the esophagus is behind it.1087

The esophagus is that food tube or liquid tube that is posterior to this.1093

Every time you swallow and a chunk or bowls of food is being moved on your esophagus you want slight flexibility for your trachea to kind of accommodate that.1097

There are slightly less cartilage in the posterior portion so that there is a little bit more flexibility when you do swallow something.1108

It is slightly flexible not as much as these more posterior parts in the respiratory tree.1115

We will get to that in a bit.1123

Respiratory epithelium, if you watch the previous lessons on the different types of tissues in the body, what epithelium is.1124

The epithelium is those cells that cover the outer surface of an organ or the innermost surface using where there is a passageway.1131

A lumen for air, liquids, fluids to go through.1140

In this case air is passing through every time you breathe.1144

Every time you exhale air is going back and forth.1148

The respiratory epithelium, if you are to zoom in to what is going on in the innermost part the lumen of the trachea 1151

and the lumen of the entire respiratory tree you would see cells that are filled with cilia.1158

These cilia look like hairs and looks like a shag carpet.1165

My grandmother's house, the house she used to live in have a green shag carpet very 70’.1169

Cilia looks like that.1174

They are constantly brushing up mucus constantly.1176

If you do not have those cilia bringing mucus to generate it from down here up and out, up into the throat, you could drown in the fluids that are produced in the lungs.1180

Every time you hack that is where that spit is coming from.1192

Some of it is saliva but you know we experience that when we have a cough.1198

When we are sick and there is excess mucus production we really do notice what the cilia are doing.1205

People who smoke tend to destroy the cilia lining these passageways and we do not typically regenerate them.1210

When you lose the cilia you do not get them back and that is why somebody who is a chronic smoker, smoking for years is more likely to get pneumonia.1218

An infection associated with basically too much pooling of fluids in the respiratory passageways.1226

A healthy person is able to get those fluids up and out.1234

The mucosa here in the trachea resembles that of the more superior structures.1239

The production of mucus here is very similar to what you are going to see in the mucosa of the nasal passage ways and in the pharynx.1244

When we go a little bit more inferior we get to the bronchi and the bronchioles.1254

Bronchioles basically mean miniature or tiny bronchi.1262

This is plural the word bronchi.1265

A bronchus we replace the i with the us is one of them.1267

Here in this picture is one bronchus and here is the other bronchus.1272

These are actually called the primary bronchi.1276

Primary bronchus on the right and this is the left primary bronchus.1280

There is one for each lung.1285

This is an anterior shot we are looking through the chest of this person.1287

Even though this is on your left this is where the right lung is.1290

This is where the left lung is.1294

Right primary bronchus and left primary bronchus.1296

It goes in sequence from primary, secondary, and tertiary as I said this is the primary one.1299

These in here would be your secondary bronchi and branching off of it.1304

And then you get into your tertiary bronchi.1308

It is like a branching tree that is upside down.1312

They do get smaller in diameters as you move along and they have less and less cartilage.1316

By the time you get to where you call the bronchioles which are branching off of all of these tertiary bronchi you are not going to have any cartilage at all.1320

The purpose of that is as you move through and you get less and less cartilage you are able to expand and contract those passageways more.1330

The cartilage is inhibiting it.1339

That is good in terms of getting more or less air into your lungs when the need is there.1342

Smooth muscles are lining the bronchi and bronchioles.1348

Those smooth muscles especially at the deepest parts, especially at the ends are going to allow for dilation and contraction of these passageways.1352

The bronchioles as I said are like little tinier branches that are coming off of the tertiary bronchi.1365

The tiniest little branches leading to the leaves and the leaves if we are getting to the analogy of a tree would be the alveoli which are coming up in the next slide.1374

With the little drawings I am making here I am not doing just this.1384

There are so many bronchioles.1388

As I have said before the cartilage that you see, these little grayish rings you can see they get reduced and reduced as you get into the tertiary bronchi.1390

When you get into the bronchioles there is no cartilage.1397

And you are having a much thinner tube.1399

You got that respiratory epithelium still in there and you have a greater degree percentage wise of expansion and relaxation or dilation and contraction.1402

When I say expansion and relaxation that is the same thing.1413

It is it is dilation and contraction or constriction.1416

Here are the proper terms, bronchodilation vs. bronchoconstriction.1420

When it comes to manipulating your blood vessels it is not as a vasodilation and vasoconstriction.1425

Here we just replace that prefix was something that corresponds to the lungs.1434

Bronchodilation is the expansion of bronchioles and other passageways in the lungs.1437

Bronchoconstriction is the opposite.1442

Bronchodilation tends to be associated with the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system that came up in nervous system lessons from before.1444

That flight or fight response you want to get more volume of air into your lungs of each breath when you are relaxed.1454

When in rest or digest or parasympathetic mode that is going to be more associated with bronchoconstriction.1460

The alveoli like I have mentioned a moment ago, those are the leaves in a sense on this respiratory tree.1468

The air sacs within the lungs.1478

It is like the final destination for the air flowing through your respiratory tree.1480

These air sacs are a nice animation of what they look like.1485

Here is little alveolar bundle and each of these is an alveolas.1489

This little sphere is alveolas.1494

They are one cell thick so if you take a cross section for one of these microscopic air sacs you would see that that they are all just surrounded by a one cell thick.1497

Here is one cell and here is one cell with a nucleus.1513

That is a single alveolas and inside there that is the lumen.1516

That is the space where air can travel into.1520

This is made of simple squamous epithelium which came up in that tissues lesson from before.1522

Just like capillaries, the smallest blood vessels of your body being one cell think these are also one cell thick.1528

This is very interesting.1535

Here we look at the red and blue that is a capillary network surrounding the alveoli bundles.1535

It is great that air only has to pass through to cells that pass through that cell of the simple squamous epithelium around this alveolas.1542

That goes into the capillary and in the wall of that capillary is also simple squamous epithelium.1552

You have very adequate diffusion.1558

If it was like 10 cells thick it would be harder for air to travel through.1562

It would not happen as quickly as efficiently.1566

Each lung has approximately 115,000,000 alveoli which is about 300,000,000 alveoli in your lungs as a whole.1568

That is amazing to think about.1578

These are very tiny air sacs.1580

People who tend to smoke tend to damage these little borders between the alveoli.1583

They tend to pop in and make the holes bigger, the spaces bigger in their spongy lungs.1591

You might think if they make these spaces bigger they can get more air.1596

It does not work that way.1601

You want to have a large surface area meaning having lots of different tiny bubbles or tiny alveoli is going 1603

to make it more efficient since it is getting a lot of air into your bloodstream rather than having bigger holes.1614

That surface area is very important.1620

I have read that if this is an approximation, if you take all the alveolar parts, all the alveolar membranes and the simple squamous epithelium.1623

If you are take them out of the body and lay them out like little tiles it would cover a tennis court.1633

That is amazing to think about that issue is in your lungs.1639

Every alveolar bundle is surrounded by a capillary network which you see in this picture.1643

That capillary network is getting oxygen into the bloodstream and getting CO2 or carbon dioxide into the alveoli for expiration or exhalation.1649

You also these little green lines, the green parts are the lymphatic vessels, lymphatic tissue with have to do with protecting your body, your immune system.1662

You do have this great kind of security checkpoint so that if viruses and bacteria get through the upper respiratory tract 1675

all the way through down to the bottom of your respiratory tree.1686

You have this last line of defense before something enters your bloodstream to deal and take care of it.1690

Also with this little cross section, if you are looking really closely what is going on there you would see macrophages or giants white blood cells that eat up bacteria and viruses.1695

You would see them patrolling along and sitting there waiting for something to come by and eating it up.1706

People with a strong immune system will be doing a great job with their lymphatic tissues here screening the air and get rid of that bad stuff that is coming in.1713

Surfactant is the last thing I want to mention with respect to this alveolar bundle.1726

Surfactant is a chemical that is a combination of the phospholipids and protein that has to do with reducing the surface tension.1730

If it was not for surfactant, your alveolar sacs would tend to collapse.1744

We do not want that to happen.1750

Surface tension is a good thing because it has to do with getting stuff out of the air into water.1752

We want to get stuff out of the air specifically oxygen into the fluids of the body, into through the alveolar walls or capillaries.1759

If the surface tension is too high these little bubbles you can think of them as being like little bubbles in the air, they would collapse.1768

They would cease to be how they should be.1776

Surfactants is the secretion right next to that liquid part of it that helps keep the alveoli expanded properly so that we can breath air.1777

If you do not have enough surfactant the little air sacs could collapse.1790

One of the many problems with some premature babies is if they are born very early on in the third trimester.1794

Let us say they are 2 ½ or 3 months premature not only are their organs in general underdeveloped and in they are very small weight and tend to lose heat fast.1803

There are a lot of factors that are problem but the amount of surfactants that baby has produced is not merely when it should be when they are born.1813

They actually will supplement their premature body with surfactant so that their lungs can maintain on the alveolar integrity 1822

in terms of them being expanded enough to continue to get air into the body.1834

The lungs as a whole, the spongy organs that have that respiratory tree inside of them.1839

The right lung has 3 lobes that is a bit bigger than the left lung which has two lobes.1848

Once again this is an anterior or ventral shot.1853

Here is this person's right lung vs. left lung and you can see there is a little indent here where the heart should be.1856

That little nuke there is where the heart is nestled.1864

That is why the left lung is a little bit smaller to accommodate the heart.1871

If you count the lobes there are 1, 2, 3 here.1877

There are deep fissures, little bit borders between the lobes right here is a horizontal fissure.1880

Here is an oblique fissure.1889

Here is another oblique fissure.1890

The right lung is a bit broader.1893

The left lung longer ever so slightly.1896

Your right lung is a bit wider.1899

The left lung a bit longer the reason why is if you look where the liver is situated, the liver is more on the right side of your upper abdominal cavity.1903

The left lung does not go down quite as far to accommodate the liver which is right here.1914

Of course the border between the thoracic cavity where the lungs are and abdominal cavity is called diaphragm.1921

I am going to mention more about that in a bit.1928

The spongy appearance and the spongy consistency of the lungs is because of the alveoli.1931

All those microscopic air sacs scattered around adjacent to the ends of the bronchioles is going to make it have that spongy look and feel.1936

The lungs are surrounded by membranes.1947

There are two membranes, each of them are plural membranes.1950

Not plural like more than one but pleura.1953

You have two of them.1956

One of them is directly on the lungs then there is a liquid layer between them and then there is pleura on the inside of your thoracic wall or the thoracic cage where the ribs are.1959

Speaking of pleura, the membranes that surround it protect the lungs.1970

It is two layers.1977

To parietal pleura on this particular image they call it the costal pleura because if you saw the lesson that has ribs and the actual skeleton, the costal term means ribs.1978

The muscles between the ribs it is called the inter costal muscles.1996

There is costal cartilage which is right here.2001

You can use that term too.2005

Whether you call it costal or parietal pleura it is adjacent to the inner thoracic wall in the diaphragm which is the muscle right below the lungs or inferior to lungs.2007

The visceral pleura are the one that is right on the surface of the lung.2017

That is adjacent to be the more superficial part of the lungs we can call that the pulmonary pleura.2022

The word pulmonary this will happen when move over to the heart lessons or blood vessel lessons.2028

Pulmonary always has to do with the lungs.2035

Instead of using the term visceral pleura you might see it called pulmonary pleura in certain textbooks.2037

What is the deal here?2042

Not only is it protecting the lungs but that liquid that is in between.2044

You can see this black region is the cavity that the two pleural membranes forms and overhear it is adjacent to the pericardial, that sac surrounding the heart.2050

What is the purpose?2060

It helps keep the lungs elastic.2062

If the amount of pressure that is inside of this pleural region we are more to be changed.2064

It would change the ability of the lungs to expand and contract adequately.2072

For instance let us say there was a hole, it is called a pneumothorax.2077

If a hole was in one of these membranes and air could leak in or out, you can get a collapsed lung.2081

Even if it is a tiny hole or puncture.2089

I am just going to show you that there is importance to have that elasticity remain adequate.2093

It is also the lubrication.2101

Just like with the fluid that is inside the pericardial sac for the heart, the fluid around the lungs it is like keeping a well oiled machine.2104

You are expanding and relaxing your lungs all throughout the day every day of your life.2113

Not only is it helping to maintain elasticity of the lungs but it is also for lubrication because they are moving constantly.2117

The breathing mechanism, how do we actually physically breathe?2125

The diaphragm has a lot to do with it.2131

It is right under the lungs.2133

Underneath there you are going to have this dome shaped muscle that goes right under the lungs 2135

and curves around and is attached to the most inferior part to the rib cage.2152

It is the border between the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity.2156

It is a thin, tough, dome shaped muscle that separates those two cavities.2161

Contraction expands the thoracic cavities.2165

Think about this way, every time you take a deep breath the diaphragm moves down.2168

Imagine that my hands are the diaphragm, when I go breathe the diaphragm was down like that and when I exhale it moves back up.2173

It takes the pressure inside of here and when you take that gas pressure and you increase the chamber size it will reduce pressure and that draws air in.2181

Its part of the gas laws.2192

If you get a reduction in pressure it is going to move air outside and then conversely when you take that diaphragm 2193

and relax it so that you take the amount of air in the thoracic cavity reduce it that makes the pressure increase.2202

That expels air out of that cavity.2209

There is a cool thing you can do with a water bottle.2212

If you take a sports drink water bottle not one of the thin water bottles but one of the tougher ones, if you cut it halfway 2214

and take a balloon and stick the balloon on the inside of the opening to the water bottle and attach it, it will look like this.2223

Here is the opening, take a balloon and put it on the inside here.2232

You take the lip and blow through and put it on the outside here.2241

And then you take another balloon and cut it so that it is just enough surface area to attach to the bottom here.2246

You have to tape it to the bottom of this cut off water bottle.2253

If you are to grab the bottom balloon part and pull on it that is like a diaphragm.2258

When you pull on the bottom it is going to take the amount of air in here and it is going to reduce the pressure 2264

because you still have the same amount of air in there but now you have given it more space.2271

And that pressure reduction is going to draw air in here.2275

You will see the balloon expand.2278

That is how your lungs work and that is why I mentioned in the previous slide about the importance of the pleura and having that liquid layer.2280

If there was a leak in there your lungs ability to expand and contract is going to be significantly reduced and affected.2288

Do this at home it is a nice demo of how the lungs work.2296

The inter costal muscles are another part of the breathing mechanism.2300

When I'm doing more shallow breathing I am not making as much of a dramatic contraction or relaxation in my diaphragm.2304

There is also all the muscles in between the ribs of my thoracic cage.2311

The contraction of those particular inter costal muscles is going to elevate the ribs and this term so that my breastbone moves up and out and the ribs move up and out.2316

That is going to further increase the space that is inside a thoracic cage and that reduces the pressure within hear and draws air in.2323

The opposite happens when you exhale.2338

Those inter costal muscle is going to relax, bring the rib cage back down and cause air to leave the lungs.2341

Diaphragmatic breathing and costal breathing, if I do take a really deep breath you notice that there is much more of a diaphragm effort there.2349

More shallow breathing like when you sit there and not even thinking about breathing, you do not need to take deep breaths if you are just sitting there in a relaxed mode.2361

You do not need to have that deep kind of breathing and they call that costal breathing.2370

Because just moving your chest a little bit up and down is going to be enough to get air in and out.2375

Forced breathing is another story.2383

Forced breathing is even more significant in this deep diaphragmatic breathing.2385

That could be due to stress over desertion, hyperventilation could accompany this.2390

Forced breathing is where your abdominal muscles and other accessory muscles are going to assist with getting air in and out.2397

Abdominal muscles can if their acting in addition to the upper ones they can force your diaphragm to do more dramatic contractions and relaxations.2404

They are right next door to it.2416

Forced breathing is going to be something that is accompanied by stress, some kind of a problem in terms of the need to have that forced breathing that dramatic breathing.2418

If you ever wondered what causes a hiccup.2431

It has to do with the diaphragm.2433

A hiccup is basically a very short inhalation.2435

If this is the diaphragm it is a spasm in the diaphragm.2442

Normally when you breathe in that is what the diaphragm does.2447

What causes that spasm in the diaphragm?2451

There are a lot of different things.2457

Eating too fast and sucking too much air as you are eating quickly could irritate the diaphragm.2459

I have experienced this you may have to laughing a lot could bring on hiccups.2465

The theory behind that is intense laughing is going to involve a quick contractions and relaxations of your abdominal muscles.2473

Since your abdominal muscles are right next door to where the diaphragm is that could irritate the diaphragm and cause those spasms to hiccups.2482

When it comes to respiratory volumes this describes the different levels of breathing in terms of how big of inhalation you are taking.2491

How big exhalation are you making.2502

If we start over here this line here that is just called total volume.2504

It is like your regular breathing when you are just at rest and on the y axis here it says ml/kg but it is easy to think about just the total volume involved.2508

For the average person this is about half liter 500 ml.2520

I’m going to move my pen all along here and show you what is involved.2525

Here we go, I am taking inhalations and exhalations and just very shallow here.2532

Here comes a big one.2540

There you saw what happened that I went way beyond that typical title volume inhalation 2544

and took in as much air as I could at that moment and that is called aspiratory reserve volume.2563

Your lungs can take a lot more air in and then you normally do with this title volume just 500 ml and 500ml out.2569

Here I went another close to a couple liters and that is when you need it.2577

If you are taking of big breath because you are going to hold your breath or you are getting ready to do something, you are going to need to take a bigger breath there.2585

That is the inspiratory reserve volume which is the amount of volume your lung can go past that title volume.2593

I exhaled so much, I even exhaled past that title volume level and try to exhale as much as I possibly could out of my lungs.2600

Below the title volume they call this expiratory reserve volume.2610

It stops here instead of going all the way down to 0 because you do not want to let every last bit of air out of your lungs or your lungs would collapse.2615

If you take all the air out of your lungs there will be no air pressure or gas pressure it would cause the lungs to deflate.2624

A collapsed lung is not good for breathing.2631

There is typically what is called residual volume.2635

It is a little less than a liter in the average person.2637

A residual volume is the amount of air that tends to stay in your lungs.2642

If you get hit really hard in the abdominal area that could cause someone what is called the wind knocked out of them is another way for that to be expressed.2645

That could cause some of that residual volume to be expelled and this person is going to have trouble breathing.2658

It is good that residual volume is kept in your lungs so that it would do not collapse.2665

Right here this inspiratory reserve volume + title volume this should actually phrase as inspiratory capacity.2671

This is you are total volume for the amount of inhalation that you can take in terms of the amount of air.2679

Inspiratory is like saying the quality of inhaling.2688

Inhalation and inspiration is the same thing.2694

There are synonyms.2697

All of these areas are below title volume.2698

The amount of air that you can exhale below that including the residual volume that is called the functional residual capacity that is ERV + RV.2703

The total amount of air from the total max you can inhale to the total max you can typically exhale is called vital capacity.2715

That is the range you have control over.2727

On so it is a lot.2730

You do not want to get rid of this but if you add together the vital capacity and residual volume that is the total volume of air that you could possibly contain in your lungs.2732

That is known as the total lung capacity.2743

This is variable in terms of the precise measurements.2746

I mention 500 ml earlier for the title volume.2750

Someone that is really petite they will be less.2755

In someone who is large and has large lungs can be a bit more.2758

Partial pressures and gases is what actually get some gas in and out of the alveolar sacs in your lungs and getting it into your lungs for that matter.2761

The major atmosphere gases if you look at the big 4 are nitrogen gas, oxygen gas, water vapor, and carbon dioxide.2774

Nitrogen gas is about 78% of the atmosphere.2783

Oxygen gas is close to 21% and the rest is these 2 and other ones that make up a tiny percentage of the atmosphere like argon.2788

Partial pressure determine how much of each gas will flow into and out of liquid from the air.2799

And it all comes down to diffusion.2807

Yes you are actively expanding the lungs and contracting them in terms of the muscles affect on expanding and contracting the lungs 2809

but the movement of air in and out comes down to diffusion.2819

You are not using active transporter or ATP to drive oxygen in and to drive CO2 out.2823

It is diffusion which is that passive national process.2831

That is why it comes down to pressures.2835

If the pressure is higher here than here, the gases will go that way.2837

That comes down to gas laws that is going to drive gas to where there is less pressure.2842

And of course altitude can have a dramatic effect on pressure.2847

The reason why some people get short of breath when they go high up in the altitude is because if you look at the atmospheric pressure 2851

and impartial pressures of gases, at sea level there is a lot more oxygen in terms of the pressure and the amount of oxygen that is in the atmosphere at sea level.2859

You go up and say 2000m or 4000m.2869

You are going really high in mountains.2875

There is a lot less gas specifically oxygen gas.2877

The partial pressure of oxygen at that altitude is much less.2880

The amount of oxygen that is then going into the liquid layers of the alveoli is going to be less.2884

People having take more inhalations to accommodate to get that oxygen in there.2891

That can lead to shortness of breath, lightheadedness.2899

People are more likely to pass out from having less oxygen entering their lungs.2906

Altitude is a player that makes sense in terms of partial pressures.2910

The reason why oxygen moves out of the alveoli meaning once oxygen comes into the bottom part of the respiratory tree it moves out of the alveoli into your bloodstream.2915

It is because if you look at the amount of oxygen and the capillaries that are going up into the alveolar bundles.2929

The partial pressure oxygen is greater in the alveolar sac than it is in the capillary.2937

And that is why oxygen goes to the capillary.2944

Conversely it is opposite when we look and CO2.2947

If this is an alveolar bundle and here is the capillary going right next to it and here is another capillary one right next to it.2951

CO2 pressure is going to be lower in the alveolus than it is in the capillary.2960

In the capillary CO2 pressures is greater because CO2 is that waste product you get from the cells doing aerobic respiration.2972

You want to go back to the lungs so your capillaries are taking it back in here and because the fact that the partial pressure CO2 is greater in your capillary than it is in here.2984

The CO2 is going to make its way from the capillaries into the alveoli allowing you to exhale it.2990

It is the opposite flow with oxygen because the partial pressure is flip without gas.3000

If you look at this particular graph here it shows you the different parts of the atmosphere in the body.3005

How the partial pressures work.3013

Notice with nitrogen it is almost the same through out in the atmosphere the partial pressure nitrogen is a little greater than within the body.3016

It does not change much in the body.3025

Nitrogen is such a major part of the gas that we inhale and a major part of the gas that is found in the bloodstream.3026

That is not going to change that much.3034

When you look at oxygen, look at the percentage in terms of the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere and how it gradually get some lower.3036

The partial pressure of oxygen can only drive it so far deep within the body.3043

It does get to our cells but the relative amount of oxygen that is in the cells of our body compared with the amount that is in the atmosphere is significantly less.3050

The alveolar gas that is the gas that is in the alveoli here is the partial pressures in arterial blood taking that blood to the body and heart.3060

Venus blood this is the blood going back to the heart this is a partial pressure within cells.3072

And finally some respiratory disorders and conditions.3080

Asthma is chronic bronco constriction.3085

The bronchioles in the lungs if you have problems expanding them that can lead to asthma.3088

The thing is asthma attacks happen when somebody who has that slightly more constricted bronchiole set they do physical exertion.3097

Let us say they play in a soccer game, playing a softball game and the need to get more air into their body 3107

because their hearts beating faster and do more with their muscles that is when the asthma attack can happen.3114

It is not just because of physical exertion, stress can bring on an asthma attack.3119

The treatment for asthma there currently is no cure, is bronchodilators.3123

The inhalers that people use of when they have asthma or the asthma attack those inhalers they chemically causing 3131

dilation of the bronchioles to get more air into the respiratory tree and they get relief from that.3142

One treatment for asthma that I have heard from some people is somebody who lives in a very urban area where the air quality is poor or next to factories, 3148

They live next to where there are a lot of cars are with the exhaust coming out of the pipes.3159

If they move to more rural area, to the countryside, the air quality is a little bit better.3163

That could have positive effect on some people with asthma.3169

Their symptoms are reduced oftentimes when they do that.3173

Emphysema is the gradual deterioration of the alveolar bundles in the lungs.3176

If those little sacs get damaged and there are more spaces in the lungs, the ability to adequately get air into your bloodstream with each breath is reduced.3181

Emphysema happens because of smoking, because of inhaling smoke.3192

Usually it is trauma that is going to cause that or smoke.3196

Overtime as a person gets older you are more likely to experience symptoms of emphysema.3201

In elderly people, emphysema tends to gradually happen at least minor symptoms even if they never smoked.3208

That inevitable damage that happens over the years to lung tissue is more common the older you get.3216

Lung cancer is when you get the development of tumors in the lungs.3225

Emphysema can lead to lung cancer if the emphysema is bad enough.3231

Lung cancer is more likely to happen if you are a smoker but even people who have never smoked a day in their life can get lung cancer.3235

Lung cancer, like many cancers has the ability to spread to the parts of the body especially 3245

because there are so much blood flow in the lungs and lymphatic tissue that you find all throughout the body.3251

The spreading of lung cancer to other organs is going to tend to kill a person.3258

Laryngitis and bronchitis those are irritations or infections of the larynx and the bronchioles.3265

Laryngitis and infection of the larynx is going to make your voice down like this because your voice box or your vocal folds are in the larynx.3272

Infection on that definitely has an effect on your voice or making loose your voice entirely.3284

Bronchitis is an infection a little bit further down the lower respiratory tract that is accompanied with coughing.3289

The thing with sneezing and coughing is sneezing tends to the irritation of the upper respiratory tracts.3298

Getting dust or particles into the nasal region and throat region is going to be causing you to have that sneeze.3304

In case you do not know, sneezes happen in over 100 miles per hour.3313

That is pretty fast.3317

Getting deeper irritations, production of mucus, excessive production of mucus or irritation in the lower respiratory tract is going to cause coughing.3319

That is your body's natural ability to try and get that stuff out.3331

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder.3337

If you took genetics and biology it is autosomal recessive.3340

Cystic fibrosis is when you have a problem with a certain kind of protein channel in your cells that was supposed to shuttle along an ion.3345

If you are not able to do that the accumulation of those ions or those charged atoms tends to attract water because of osmosis.3353

Cystic fibrosis leads to production of excess mucus or collection of excess mucus in organs like the pancreas and the lungs.3364

Cystic fibrosis does affect the lungs.3374

It is one of the main places that you get the negative consequences.3379

Cystic fibrosis there is no cure but there are treatments for this disease.3383

Decompression sickness also called the benz tends to happen because of dramatic altitude changes.3387

Or more commonly if a scuba diver has overly deep and they come up way too quickly to the surface.3394

Because they were down low and they had a highly compressed oxygen tank, getting oxygen in the lungs.3402

If they do not go up gradually and adjust the pressure that their body reacclimate, going up way too fast to the surface 3410

is going to cause a dramatic accumulation of nitrogen gas in parts their bloodstream.3418

It can kill a person.3424

It can be very painful in terms of the accumulation of nitrogen gas in the joints.3426

If you do have somebody who gets decompression sickness or the benz, you want to take them to the hospital nearby 3431

or they are going to have hyperbaric chamber that can cure the benz.3438

Some people happen too quickly too dramatically so it can result in death.3445

Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection in the lungs caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.3450

You do not see as much in first world countries and industrialized nations anymore but it does happen occasionally.3456

If this bacteria gets into the lungs and goes through a binary and the bacteria divides and moves around the lungs you can get the development of these things called tubercuoles.3463

These little sacs of bacteria and as they grow and as these bacterial colonies continue to grow, the tubercuoles can break 3476

and cause bleeding or cause massive lung bleeding and that is when the coughing up of blood is associated with tuberculosis.3488

It is used to be called the red death.3495

If you do not get treatment with antibiotics early on, it can lead to death.3497

There is a test they do where they make little injection in your forearm and there is all puffy bump.3504

You go back a couple days later and if the bumps gone away that means that you have do not antibodies of tuberculosis.3510

You have never been exposed to it meaning you are not sick with it.3517

If that bump does not go away and it means you have been exposed to TB.3519

You have been exposed to tuberculosis that bacterium.3525

Just because you have been exposed to it and it is gone into your body it does not mean you have the infection.3527

To see if they actually have the tuberculosis colonies in there lungs they do a chest xray.3532

The chest xray will reveal whether or not have those little tubercules or those little sacs.3539

They appear in xray and if you have that it means you are sick with tuberculosis.3545

SIDS or sudden infant death syndrome this kills thousands of babies per year in United States alone.3550

All the answers with SIDS are not known but what they do think is that the way you place your baby in the crib 3558

can have an affect on whether or not SIDS can happen but is not foolproof.3568

SIDS it typically happens when a baby has gone to sleep, they stop breathing, they turn blue and passed away.3573

They think that one of the parts of the brain and babies has to do with it is early on in an infant's life.3584

The respiratory centers associated with the medulla oblongata and the lower parts of the brain are still establishing themselves 3592

With how they connect to other parts of the cerebrum and other parts of the brain.3600

And that might have something to do with it.3604

If you do have an infant child talk to the pediatrician about how to maximize the chances that the baby will not die from SIDS.3606

Pneumonia could be viral but typically bacterial infection that causes production of lots of mucus at the base of the lungs or you have those bronchioles and alveolar bundles.3616

Pneumonia can be fatal.3632

It can be cured but it does lead to death of some people.3635

It is going to tend to kill somebody who is much older, who has been a chronic smoker because as I have mentioned earlier lesson, 3639

People who smoke a lot tend to damage the cilia that are meant to sweep up the excess mucus so that you do not drown in your own fluids produced down there.3647

Pneumonia has to do with basically drowning in fluids within the lungs.3657

It can be cured.3663

Pneumothorax is a leakage of air into the space between the pleura and air leaking in there can collapse a lung and that can be fatal as well.3666

Carbon monoxide poisoning or CO poisoning unlike CO2, carbon monoxide is just CO.3680

Carbon monoxide if you look at how it attaches to that hemo group, the hemoglobin molecule on red blood cells is meant to attach oxygen.3688

They want oxygen to be carried by hemo on hemoglobin because red blood cells are like little oxygen raft3699

But when you look at the affinity for CO or carbon monoxide with respect to hemo, it is like more of the magnet.3705

Carbon monoxide will attach to hemo much more efficiently than oxygen gas.3714

If there is a CO leak in someone’s house this is because there is a gas leak in one of their gas appliances or oven, whatever.3720

If all the windows are closed and there is no way for the air to leave the room, the build up of CO can gradually kill a person.3732

CO is odorless, tasteless, colorless.3741

Sometimes a CO leak will be associated with a leak of the chemical that does have a smell it is called-.3745

Fire departments they recommend that everyone gets a CO detector in their house.3752

It is not very expensive, you just plug it in one of your outlets and if there is enough CO in the air the alarm will go off and it means get out of your house and call 911.3761

It is recommended to get a CO detector because it can save lives.3772

Thank you for watching