Metabolism is the process of extracting nutrients from food. Catabolism breaks down molecules and releases energy, while anabolism synthesizes new molecules, which requires energy in the form of ATP. Nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, and minerals. Aerobic Respiration breaks down carbohydrates and other compounds to produce necessary molecules using ATP, which is most efficiently produced using oxygen. Glycolysis breaks down sugars while the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) contributes to the production of ATP. Oxidative Phosphorylation finishes the production of ATP. If oxygen is unavailable, anaerobic respiration can take place via glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation, which produces a small amount of ATP. This lecture also covers the breakdown of lipids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, as well as balanced diets and nutrition facts.
Metabolism is determined by catabolism (breakdown of organic compounds) and anabolism (building up of organic compounds)
Nutrients include carbohydrates (sugars), lipids (triglycerides), proteins, nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), vitamins, and minerals
Carbohydrate structural terms: ring form, linear form, monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, glycosidic linkages, dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, water soluble
Carbohydrates are a quick energy source for all bodily cells
Aerobic respiration (most of which takes place in mitochondria) is the breakdown of sugars with the us of oxygen gas and involves: glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain and chemiosmosis)
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the main energy molecule of the cell and it works by a phosphate group breaking off of ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
Anaerobic respiration is the breakdown of sugars without oxygen gas, and after glycolysis it transitions to lactic acid fermentation in the human body (which results in no additional ATP)
Glucogenesis is the production of glucose molecules from other types of organic compounds
Lipids (traditionally triglycerides) are composed of a glycerol molecule with three fatty acid chains attached to it
Saturated fats (less healthy) have fatty acid chains with no double bonds and tend to be solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fats (more healthy) have double bonds in their fatty acid chains and tend to be liquid at room temperature
Lipids are used for an energy source, energy storage, insulation, and hormone production
Proteins are made of amino acids and they have numerous functions: support, movement, transport, buffering, enzymatic action, hormone synthesis, and defense
The four levels of protein structure are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
Vitamins (like A, B, C, D, E, K, and folate) are required in limited amounts to keep a body healthy
Minerals are electrolyte components that are required to maintain homeostasis
A balanced diet would contain the proper amounts of grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meat (unless a person is vegetarian or vegan)
Nutrition fact labels have many important components: calories, serving size, fat content, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, proteins
Did you know…
Q: I’ve heard that women and vegans are more likely to be anemic than other people…is that true?
A: Statistically, yes, it is true. Anemia results from have inadequate red blood cells moving oxygen around your body, or the RBCs that you do have are not doing a very good job of shuttling oxygen around. Hemoglobin is the crucial protein involved in attaching oxygen gas to the cell, and to make “heme” you need iron. Iron is very plentiful in meat, especially red meat. Vegans need to find adequate sources of iron outside of meats, which is not an easy task. Of course, red meat does have its disadvantages (like high fat content), but its iron content is undeniable. Women tend to bind slightly less oxygen gas molecules to their hemoglobin than men (on average), so a change in RBC number or capability tends to impact them slightly more.
Metabolism & Nutrition
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book is the ninth edition of the top-selling Human Anatomy & Physiology text and the authors have produced the most accessible, comprehensive, up-to-date and visually stunning anatomy & physiology textbook on the market.. It presents information in smaller and more digestible bites, making it easier to read and navigate.
This book has a superb balance between structure and function and continue to emphasize the correlations between normal physiology and pathophysiology, normal anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and homeostatic imbalances. The acclaimed illustration program continues to be refined and is unsurpassed in the market. The thirteenth edition is fully integrated with a host of innovative electronic media, including WileyPlus 5.0 (access purchased separately.) No other text and package offers a teaching and learning environment as rich and complete.
This book includes updated examples, references, and dozens of illustrations. Readers of the new edition will come to understand the meanings of terms in anatomy and physiology, get to know the body's anatomical structures, and gain insight into how the structures and systems function in sickness and health. It also features updated information on how systems function in illness and in health.