The endocrine system produces hormones in response to stimuli, preserving the bodys equilibrium or homeostasis. Hormones enable communication between tissues via the bloodstream and come in three types: amino acid derivatives, peptides, and lipid derivatives. Most hormone production is controlled by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, which synthesizes thyroid stimulating hormone, oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone, and others. The thyroid glands impact metabolism, oxygen levels, and energy consumption. The adrenal glands secrete cortisol and epinephrine which coordinates fight-or-flight physiology. The kidneys, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus, and gonads also produce endocrine hormones. Some endocrine disorders and conditions include diabetes, Addisons disease, cretinism, and pituitary gigantism/dwarfism.
Hormones are the chemical signal molecules for the body and they travel through the blood stream to stimulate (or turn off) physiological activities in target cells
Hormones are either amino acid derivatives, peptide hormones, or lipid derivatives
Negative feedback and positive feedback deal with how hormone release is regulated
The hypothalamus secretes regulatory hormones to control the pituitary gland and other endocrine glands
The anterior pituitary gland secretes prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (FSH and LH), and growth hormone (GH)
The pituitary gland secretes anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
The thyroid gland secretes T3 and T4, which regulate metabolism
The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) for calcium ion regulation
The adrenal glands are located on the superior end of the kidneys and they contain a cortex and medulla
The adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens
The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
The kidneys secrete calcitriol, erythropoietin (EPO), and renin
The pancreas secretes insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin for the regulation of blood sugar levels
The pineal gland secretes melatonin for circadian rhythm regulation (sleep cycle)
The thymus secretes thymosins to aid in T-cell maturation and development
Gonad hormones include: estrogen/progesterone in the ovaries and androgens in the testes
Endocrine conditions/disorder examples: Diabetes mellitus Type I and II, Diabetes insipidus, Addison disease, hyperthroidism, goiter, and pituitary gigantism
Did you know…
Q: I’ve read about norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter, but it’s listed as a hormone in this lesson. Which one is it?
A: Both, depending on where it is in the body. Neurotransmitters exist in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. They are the signals that move across synapses for neuronal signaling. Hormones are the chemical messengers contained within the blood stream that affect target cells. The same molecule can be both a neurotransmitter and hormone.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book is the ninth edition of the top-selling Human Anatomy & Physiology text and the authors have produced the most accessible, comprehensive, up-to-date and visually stunning anatomy & physiology textbook on the market.. It presents information in smaller and more digestible bites, making it easier to read and navigate.
This book has a superb balance between structure and function and continue to emphasize the correlations between normal physiology and pathophysiology, normal anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and homeostatic imbalances. The acclaimed illustration program continues to be refined and is unsurpassed in the market. The thirteenth edition is fully integrated with a host of innovative electronic media, including WileyPlus 5.0 (access purchased separately.) No other text and package offers a teaching and learning environment as rich and complete.
This book includes updated examples, references, and dozens of illustrations. Readers of the new edition will come to understand the meanings of terms in anatomy and physiology, get to know the body's anatomical structures, and gain insight into how the structures and systems function in sickness and health. It also features updated information on how systems function in illness and in health.