Joints can be completely immovable (synarthrosis); slightly movable (amphiarthrosis); or freely movable (synovial or diarthrosis). Immovable joints connect the parts of the skull at the sutures and connect the teeth to the jaw at the gomphoses. Partially movable joints include the connections between the ribs that allow for expansion when breathing. Types of slightly movable amphiarthroses include syndesmosis and symphysis. Synovial joints include elbows, knees, and knuckles. They contain articular cartilage, joint capsules, synovial membranes, bursae, spongy/compact bone, and a periosteum. Synovial joint movement can be described as flexion/extension as well as abduction/adduction, supination/pronation, depression/elevation, retraction/protraction, and circumduction. Types of synovial joints include hinges, pivots, gliding, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball and socket. Joint disorders include arthritis, bunions, bursitis, dislocations, and hyperextensions. This lecture also includes the anatomy of the knee.
Articulations, or joints, are either a synarthrosis (immovable), amphiarthrosis (slightly moveable), or synovial (free-moving)
The immovable joints include sutures, gomphoses, synchondroses, and synostoses
The slightly moveable joints includes syndesmoses and symphyses
The free-moving joints (synovial joints) typically contain articular cartilage, a joint capsule, synovial membrane, bursa, spongy and compact bone, and the periosteum
Synovial joint movements include flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, supination, and pronation
Synovial joints can be classified by type according to movement via the terms hinge, pivot, gliding, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball & socket
The knee joint is the most complex in the human body and it includes numerous ligaments and menici in the joint capsule
Joint conditions/disorders include arthritis, bursitis, bunions, dislocations, and hyperextensions
Did you know…
Q: What actually happens when you crack your knuckles? (or other joints?)
A: Cracking a joint usually involves the squeezing out of gas from the joint capsule (bursa). The reason why some people can’t continuously crack the same knuckle over and over is that it takes some time for the gas to build up again before being able to make that noise. Also, it is possible that a cracking sound could be generated by a ligament or tendon snapping back into place (some people can make this noise over and over repeatedly.)
Q: What makes someone double-jointed?
A: “Double-jointed” is a misnomer (not an accurate term based on what it literally means). At the site where someone can bend past the normal distance there is actually just one joint. They simply have abnormally flexible ligaments connecting the bones to each other. There have to be some genetic factors associated with this elasticity because practicing it over time does not mean that your joints will get to be “double jointed”.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
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