Blood transports nutrients and gases like oxygen around the body and collects waste from cells. It also helps regulate body temperature and pH, restricts the loss of fluid during injury, and defends against pathogens. Blood is comprised of red blood cells, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, leukocytes, and plasma. Red blood cells are produced by erythropoiesis and are shaped like disks that are concave on both sides. They do not contain nuclei, but they do contain the protein hemoglobin, which transports oxygen throughout the body, and blood cells are broken down in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow through hemolysis. This lecture also covers blood types, transfusions, white blood cells, and hemostasis (the stoppage of bleeding). Blood conditions and disorders include hemorrhage, embolism, anemia, sickle cell disease, hemophilia, and leukemia.
Blood functions: transportation of nutrients/gases/wastes/hormones, regulation of pH, restriction of fluid loss during injury, defense against pathogens/toxins, and regulation of body temperature
Blood components are erythrocytes (red blood cells), thrombocytes (platelets), leukocytes (white blood cells), and plasma (water with dissolved solutes)
All major blood cells are generated from a single type of stem cell, called hemocytoblasts, in bone marrow
Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs and they contain a protein called hemoglobin, which is meant to transport oxygen gas
Red blood cells are constantly broken down in the liver and spleen (resulting in bilirubin), and they are generated through erythropoiesis to replace old/damaged ones
Major blood types include A, B, AB, and O; the Rh factor adds the “+” or “-” designation
O type blood (specifically O negative) is the universal donor and AB type blood (specifically AB positive) is the universal recipient
The various types of leukocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, Natural killer cells)
Platelets help seal off damaged blood vessels to prevent loss of blood and they are crucial to the clotting process
Blood conditions/disorders include anemia, hemophilia, and leukemia
Did you know…
Q: Why is there a weight minimum for donating blood?
A: Usually the same amount of blood is taken from every blood donation at a blood drive. One unit of blood is 1 pint (0.5 liters.) Since the average person has about 10 pints (5 liters), then each blood donation takes away 10% of your blood volume. In a person who weighs significantly less than the average person (such as someone who is only 100 lbs., or 45 kg.) that percentage is much greater and the withdrawal of that blood will be more likely to make them anemic!
Q: Are there other blood types out there than just the ones in the ABO blood typing system?
A: Yes, genetic mutations have created some other extremely rare blood types. All it takes is modification of the genes that determine antigens/antibodies in blood, and you have a new blood type (that may or may not be able to receive/donate blood through transfusions)
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book is the ninth edition of the top-selling Human Anatomy & Physiology text and the authors have produced the most accessible, comprehensive, up-to-date and visually stunning anatomy & physiology textbook on the market.. It presents information in smaller and more digestible bites, making it easier to read and navigate.
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This book includes updated examples, references, and dozens of illustrations. Readers of the new edition will come to understand the meanings of terms in anatomy and physiology, get to know the body's anatomical structures, and gain insight into how the structures and systems function in sickness and health. It also features updated information on how systems function in illness and in health.