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For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology
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Lecture Comments (18)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sat May 23, 2015 6:33 PM

Post by R Abdullah on May 23, 2015

Hi Mr. Cardella

I was wondering if you can recommend a textbook or your personal liking or one that follows your course.

Thank you,


1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Mar 4, 2015 12:50 AM

Post by Anhtuan Tran on March 3, 2015

Does membrane belong to organ level of organization ?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Jun 26, 2014 1:56 AM

Post by ye Chaoran on June 25, 2014

hi, Sir:
I love your lessons very much! and I just pay $300 for it. please let me know how to download your lessons so that I can use it in my iPod.
thank you very much!
your sincerely Isaiah Ye Chaoran

0 answers

Post by Laura Mejia on May 31, 2014

Your lessons are brilliant! Best biology teacher I have ever had.
Your teaching has given me so much confidence in biology and has inspired
me to keep on learning more. It made a huge impact on my decision to go to med school :)
Thank you!

0 answers

Post by Joel Fredin on March 30, 2014

Thanks so much for this course Bryan, i don't think you know how much this helps me :)

Regards Joel

2 answers

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Dec 2, 2013 7:04 PM

Post by Adam Main on November 30, 2013

hi Bryan, great lectures and a huge thanks for that! Are there any lectures on what a cell needs to survive? Thanks for your time.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Oct 28, 2013 12:45 PM

Post by saman mayeli on October 28, 2013

Is there any lecture slides for this module?

4 answers

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Oct 6, 2013 12:28 PM

Post by Jason Dryden on September 27, 2013

What subheading can I find the glycocalyx and its function?

Related Articles:

Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

  • Anatomy is the study of the location and makeup of body parts, while Physiology is the study of the functions of the various parts and the processes involved with them
  • The building blocks of matter (from atom to organism) are important for understanding how the parts of the body are built and how they work
  • Relative position terms are necessary for demonstrating how body parts are arranged with respect to other parts
  • The 3 body planes (coronal, sagittal, transverse) correspond to the 3 dimensions in space and pertain to internal views or cuts through bodily organs
  • The abdominopelvic region can be broken up into 4 quadrants or 9 regions named after their location/organs contained within
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Is the heart posterior to the to the breastbone (sternum) or deep to it?
    • A: Both. Either one of those relative position terms is applicable to the heart and its location compared to the sternum. “Posterior” tends to be used with any organ that is closer to the back, while “deep” is used usually as a layering term. For instance, it would be more accurate to use “deep” when comparing the rib cage to the lungs. The lungs are deep to the rib cage (you wouldn’t use posterior there because when you view a transverse cross section of the rib cage it becomes clear that they are closer to the surface of the body, rather than being “in front” or “behind” the lungs)

Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Anatomy vs. Physiology 0:06
    • Anatomy
    • Pericardium
    • Physiology
  • Organization of Matter 1:38
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
    • Macromolecules
    • Organelles
    • Cells
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ Systems
    • Organisms
  • Relative Positions 8:41
    • Anterior vs. Posterior
    • Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
    • Superior vs. Inferior
    • Examples
    • Medial vs. Lateral
    • Examples
    • Proximal vs. Distal
    • Examples
    • Superficial Vs. Deep
    • Examples
  • Body Planes 16:07
    • Coronal (Frontal) Plane
    • Sagittal Plane
    • Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
  • Abdominopelvic Regions 18:37
    • 4 Quadrants
    • Right Upper Quadrant
    • Left Upper Quadrant
    • Right Lower Quadrant
    • Left Lower Quadrant
    • 9 Regions
    • Right Hypochondriac
    • Left Hypochondriac
    • Epicastric Region
    • Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
    • Umbilical Region
    • Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
    • Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region

Transcription: Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Hi and welcome to

This is the lesson on Anatomy and Physiology intro.0002

We talk about Anatomy and Physiology as subjects, they go together.0005

You could take them separately in school but they belong together.0012

Here is why.0015

Anatomy is the study of the form, structure, and location of bodily parts.0017

Let us take the pericardium for instance.0022

Pericardium, cardium means heart.0026

Peri means around, surrounding, this is the sac that surrounds the heart.0035

It is made up of connective tissue, in terms of the volume that it contains it is bigger than the heart itself because it is wrapped around it.0042

It is located right here.0049

These are anatomical facts about the pericardial sac and the pericardium.0051

The physiology of it is a little about what it is doing.0056

The study of the function of the bodily parts and the processes involved with them.0061

How is it everything about it connected?0065

What is that organ doing in respect with the other one?0067

What is the function of these different parts?0069

The pericardium if you consider the fact that inside of that sac there is a fluid layer adjacent to be outside of the heart.0071

That fluid is the lubrication for the beating heart and protective.0080

Think about of it like moving engine parts.0084

You need oil in your engine in order to function properly and the pericardial sac is about lubricating the heart and protecting it.0086

When it comes to the parts of the body and what is in it you have to know about the building blocks of matter.0097

What are the molecules made up of in the body?0104

What are all the tissues made up of when it comes down to atoms?0106

All molecules are composed of atoms occasionally in this course you will see sub atomic particles like protons and electrons.0110

When I am talking about those two, but more often it is atoms in bigger in this particular course.0118

We talk about the different kinds of atoms on planet Earth and it comes down into different elements.0123

Remember the periodic table of elements from the Chemistry course, every single element its smallest functional unit is an atom.0129

Let us take the big 3 in the human body, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen.0137

Those 3 are the most plentiful atoms in the human body.0154

You are also going to see nitrogen, calcium, sodium, and etc.0158

We could list them all.0163

Those are the atoms but if you remember on the chemistry course the inside of the atom is the nucleus, protons, and neutrons, with electrons spinning around the outside.0164

If we put atoms together we are going to get molecules.0173

Some kind of molecules that we can find in the human body are h2o (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide), O2 (oxygen).0179

The oxygen down here are the gas that we are breathing in using respiration.0195

As a gas, it is usually two atoms linked together with a covalent bond.0201

If we take a lot more atoms and put them together, we are going to get macro molecules.0207

Macro means big.0213

We are talking about bug molecules here.0215

These are also known as typically organic compounds because they are carbon based and have to do with life.0217

Carbohydrates also known as sugars, protein are very important one, and also DNA, RNA.0224

These are all very big and have lots of atoms and these are the building blocks of life.0241

When we put carbohydrates, protein, fats, DNA, together in a very functional form we can get organelles.0247

Organelles are pretty much the organs of microscopic cells, all those working parts that allows cell to stay alive.0255

Most people prefer the nucleus, brain, cell, where DNA is stored and the materials expressed the ribosome.0264

Ribosome is made up of protein and pieces of RNA which is similar to DNA but the ribosome are the protein factory of the cell and also the mitochondria.0274

When I say mitochondrion that is singular and mitochondria is the plural.0292

This is the part of the cell that is also for making energy for the cell to function.0297

The bunch of organelles is arranged properly you will get cells.0301

Cells are the basis of the biology class and anatomy and physiology is a branch of that so we are going to talk about cells.0305

You can have RBC, you will actually make at least a million per second and lose by 90 per second.0313

That is amazing, the cycling of RBC inside the body.0323

Also neurons, they are the building blocks of the nervous system.0327

Your brain, spinal cord, they have nerves around.0334

Let us go with microphages.0338

Microphages are cells that hang out in your tissue and they swallow up foreign invaders.0341

They wrap their plasma membranes around and swallow up bacteria and viruses that does not belong to your body.0350

When you put a bunch of cells together in an organized and correct fashion and have a purpose together you can call that a tissue.0358

One example of tissue in the body is your epidermis.0366

It is the outer layer of the skin or your Integumentary system.0369

It is mostly dead cells and you lose them constantly.0376

I am losing thousands by doing this.0379

Let us say cerebral cortex that is another example of a tissue.0382

That is the outermost, superficial layer of the brain.0389

You have a lot of action going in this few milliliters thick layer on the outside of the brain.0397

It is very well developed in humans compared to animals.0404

That is the cerebral cortex.0408

How about mucosa?0410

Mucosa is the inside of the organs that are secreting fluid that helps in digesting.0412

It is the layer that has a bunch of glands is called the mucosa.0426

The inner most lining of the stomach is the mucosa.0430

Stomach is made up of a bunch of tissues that helps your digestive system so the stomach is an organ.0434

The heart is that an organ?0443

That is well known.0449

The thymus is an organ the helps with your immune system.0450

It is located behind the breast bone and the sternum.0457

It is very close to your heart.0459

Another organ system is the respiratory.0462

All of those organs together are associated with getting air in and out of your body, getting oxygen in your blood stream, getting CO2 out so that you can exhale it.0467

The endocrine system which has to deal with hormones not just sex hormones.0475

Hormones usually help regulate all kinds of organs in your body in what they are doing and how much they are doing.0483

How about cardiovascular?0490

The cardiovascular are the heart, blood vessels, how they pump blood around your body.0494

You and me, are organisms made up of cooperating organ systems and all the stuffs in these is very important.0504

The relative positions that are very important when we are talking about Anatomy and Physiology.0520

It is saying that thing is to the left or it is above it.0526

You must be very specific about how items are related and how tissues are related to each other in side of the body.0531

If I do a hand stand and all of a sudden my heart is below my stomach, even though my body is upside down we can still use 0537

the same relative position based on where the heart is related to my stomach and my body regardless of how my body is oriented.0545

The first one we will talk about is anterior versus posterior, ventral versus dorsal, the same thing in the human body.0553

These are all relative terms meaning we cannot just say that the heart is anterior, anterior to what?0559

Or if I said the brain is posterior, posterior to what?0568

It is all relative.0573

It is all relating one part of the body to another.0574

Anterior always means towards the front, like the front of my body and posterior means toward the back.0577

In ventral versus dorsal, ventral is the front side and dorsal is towards the back side.0585

Let me draw some quick human body for you and this is for the sake of labeling these stuffs.0593

Anterior versus posterior, we are talking anterior is definitely towards that side and posterior is towards the back end.0618

For instance we could say, the heart is posterior to the sternum because the heart is towards the back of that bone.0635

We can flip those two subjects or parts and use the term anterior and say the sternum or breast bone is anterior to the heart because it moves toward the front.0649

I mention that in the human body this is the same.0660

This is why I have specified that is because for example a dog, is his head pointed a little bit different than ours in respect of the spine.0663

If I drew a dog’s body here, you would see that anterior on a dog is more towards the face not necessarily towards the chest region 0673

because the dog’s chest when it is standing up would be oriented towards the ground and the head would be that or that way.0682

You can see how dorsal on a dog is different in posterior.0690

Dorsal on a dog we mean towards his back side where dorsal be and posterior be the buttocks region or the tail.0693

Because of our posture it is the same in the human body.0701

You can change these interchangeably.0704

Anterior is the ventral as posterior is to dorsal.0705

It is the same thing.0709

Superior versus inferior, this is about what is above or below. 0711

Superior moves towards the head and inferior more towards the bottom of the body.0715

Here is an example.0731

Earlier I have mentioned the heart and stomach.0733

The heart is here and the stomach is just down here.0735

We can say that the heart is superior to the stomach.0738

In other terms you can say that the stomach is inferior to the heart.0741

Like I have mention if I do a hand stand, it is the same thing.0745

Another example let us say the eyes are superior to the mouth.0748

The mouth is inferior to the eyes.0754

Medial versus lateral, medial is like the median or the middle, or the closer to the middle of the body, you are going to call that medial relative to whatever is lateral to it.0757

Lateral means towards either side.0774

Let us take the spleen.0778

The spleen is tucked under here on the left side next to the stomach and the liver is much more in the center.0783

We could say that the stomach is medial to the spleen which is more towards the side.0791

The spleen is lateral to the stomach.0799

More towards this way is lateral and more towards this way is medial.0802

Proximal and distal, these terms always have to do with the limbs which are the arms and legs.0815

It is a better term than using superior and inferior.0829

For instance when we are talking about the arm, I could say that my finger bones also called phalanges are distal to my humerus which is the upper arm bone.0832

Distal means farther away from the trunk of the body.0844

Regardless of where I put my arms that is the truth, my fingers here are the farthest away from the trunk compared to anything else on the arms or legs.0849

Proximal is the opposite.0856

I could say that my humerus is proximal to my phalanges.0859

That is those words.0864

We could say with the legs too that the knee cap or patella is distal to the femur which is the thigh bone and also the biggest bone in the body.0866

Let us do it here on the leg.0878

Distal means away from the trunk and proximal.0881

Finally, superficial and deep, superficial means more towards the surface.0896

The epidermis around the outside of the body is the most superficial structure.0907

Deep means below, further inside the body.0912

I have mentioned the word mucosa in the previous slide.0916

Mucosa is the inner most set of tissues in the stomach.0920

You can say that the mucosa is deep to the serosa which is the outer layer of the stomach.0924

When we go back to skin we can say that the dermis which is below the epidermis is deep to the epidermis and vice versa.0933

The epidermis on the outside is superficial to the dermis.0940

I am just going to high light a superficial part in yellow so the outside of the person’s body is superficial.0944

Just to remind you what that specifically means.0956

Those are the relative positions.0960

They are going to come up a lot when we talk about organs and tissues in future lessons.0962

Body planes are very important in terms of the study of the human body, taking views or nice pictures of the insides of the organs and how tissues are related to each other.0966

If we took the heart and it is oriented just like this in my body and cut it like this, you could see through the most interior.0976

The ventral layer of the inside of the heart is called the coronal or frontal cut.0992

You could see that in blue here this plane that is going right through the middle of the body of this person that is a coronal or frontal cross section or plane.0997

If we took the heart and cut it right through this way that is the frontal section.1011

We could do the same thing with the face.1015

There are interesting images of the part of the skull where the nasal bones are the deep ones are just back there and you could see all the twist and turns of your nasal passages.1018

You will these visions of the skull with the frontal cut.1030

Sagittal is this particular direction.1034

If this is the x axis you could call this the y axis.1044

The mid sagittal cross section means straight through the middle.1049

This is also a sagittal one as long as it is oriented this way in terms of how the organ is cut.1054

Let us take the heart again.1062

A sagittal cross section would separate the left and right sides of the heart.1064

Finally, the third dimension is the transverse or also called the horizontal planes or sections which are anything like this.1070

A good view inside the abdominal cavity in terms of how the organs are positioned relative to each other or what is deep.1082

What is lateral compared to other structures that is how you would do that.1088

You would take a transverse or horizontal section straight through the abdomen like this.1094

If we did it with the heart you would be able to look down on inside of the ventricles or the lower chambers and the atria which are superior to that.1098

These body planes are very important for cutting through organs or getting a good view of the insides of your body.1109

These are abdominal pelvic regions.1115

This is applying some of the terms we have gone already through these lesson to specific terminology with the parts of the body.1121

They usually come from Latin terms like the word inguinal with having to do with the groin or the term gastric having to do with the stomach.1130

We label some of these regions and there are few ways you could split up this part of the body in terms of regions.1138

The two main ways we are going to start with 4 quadrants.1145

We could take this whole section here and split it up right to where the navel is that is right on top of the navel and that is the cross section of these 4 quadrants.1149

Since they are called quadrants we know they have to be 4.1164

We are looking at this person’s body, the right and left side is relative to him or her not relative to the viewer.1166

If you are looking at my heart, your right is actually the left side of my heart, the left atrium and left ventricle and vice versa.1174

Even though this is on your left, this is called the right upper quadrant (RUQ).1185

Next here would be left upper quadrant.1196

It makes sense.1203

You can probably guess what is inferior to that or below it, is the right lower quadrant and the left lower quadrant.1204

The right lower quadrant comes up in emergency rooms now and then because of appendicitis.1221

If you ever experienced a sharp pain in your RLQ go to the ER.1230

We are talking about sharp unbearable pain just down here below your small intestine.1239

The appendix is a little worm like looking pouch coming off at the beginning of your large intestine and if that gets infected and not removed it could kill a person.1246

It is better to be safe than sorry.1257

If you have appendicitis like pain get yourself to the ER and that would be just down here in the RLQ.1258

We move on to this particular one here.1267

We can give you up to regions and let us use blue for that.1271

Those are the 9 regions.1276

Let us start with the superior parts.1291

Right here remember it is the right side even though to us looking at it is the left.1294

This is the right hypochondriac region.1299

What hypochondriac does that means somebody who is getting sick all the time?1309

Yes that is one translation of the word but hypochondriac in Latin also could mean below bone or under bone.1314

In this part of the abdominal pelvic region, you have the inferior parts of your rib or thoracic cage here.1323

The organs hidden under here are the liver, gall bladder, a portion of this kidney here, under the right hypochondriac region.1332

The other side is the left hypochondriac region and you could see that not much is located over here you do have a portion of the stomach, pancreas, part of left kidney.1341

The central or medial to those regions you would say that this is the epigastric region which means over the stomach or above the stomach.1358

We look at this part here you could see the L3, L4, L5, and L2 is covered by that line. 1376

The same thing over here, these regions you can call the lumbar regions because they are located right next to the lumbar portions of the spine.1385

L3 is lumbar 3, it is the 3rd lumbar vertebrae and the same with this.1392

We will talk about those in the future lessons.1398

This is the right lumbar and this is the left lumbar.1400

Here you can call this the umbilical region because of that navel or belly button.1410

Finally we have 3 left. 1417

This one down here you can call the hypogastric or pubic region.1425

It is below or inferior to where the stomach is and most of your digestive organs are in the hypogastric or you can also it the pubic region.1432

Here and here those are couple of names as well.1446

You can call this the right inguinal region and left inguinal region which means right and left of the groin area.1453

Have you ever heard of an inguinal hernia that is where the area it would be located in.1461

The other one we can also say is the iliac region and I will explain why.1473

This is right and left iliac because the hip bones or your pelvis bones, each one of them is actually two that fit together or known as ilia.1483

One of them is the ilium and the other one is the left ilium.1496

The crest or the peak of that hip bone that we fell below would be right here and here.1501

The lower parts of them and parts of the crest is found in this area and called the iliac crest.1511

The whole thing that makes up the majority of the pelvis is called ilia.1521

You could also use these terms the iliac regions.1527

Thank you for watching 1531