Skin is a key part of survival and homeostasis. It protects organisms from bacteria and viruses as well as sunlight. It can secrete liquid to keep the body cool as well as eliminate waste products. The integumentary system is composed of the epidermis (outer layer), dermis, and subcutaneous layer (hypodermis). There are many types of cells in the skin, including melanocytes, keratinocytes, stratum basale (helps form fingerprints). The dermis contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands (eccrine and apocrine), arrector pili muscles, nails, and cutaneous receptors. The subcutaneous layer stores lipids and contains lymph and blood vessels. When skin is damaged, repair takes place according to three steps: inflammation, migration, proliferation, and maturation. Skin conditions and disorders include scars, moles, freckles, melanoma, acne, warts, wrinkles, psoriasis, and eczema.
The functions of skin include protection, absorption, secretion, heat regulation, and aesthetics
Major layers of skin include the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
The epidermis (most superficial layers) contains keratin-producing cells and melanin-producing cells, separated from the dermis by the stratum basale
The dermis (middle layers of skin) has blood flow, hair (follicles/shafts), glands (sebaceous, eccrine, apocrine), arrector pili muscles, nails, and nerve endings
The subcutaneous layer (deepest part) contains fat storage and arteries and veins that supply blood flow to the layers superficial to it
Cuts are healed through a 4-step process (inflammation, migration, proliferation, and maturation)
Burns are caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or friction and they can be as minor as 1st degree, or 2nd, 3rd, or 4th degree at the worst
The Rule of Nines helps emergency medical personnel communicate quickly about how extensive burns are to a person’s body
Skin conditions/disorders include scars, moles, freckles, melanomas and carcinomas
Did you know…
Q: My friend sweats a lot more than the average person…and in the oddest places too. She sweats from her lower legs even when her body heat is not that extreme. Is there a way to correct this or a surgery that will turn off these glands?
A: Yes, laser surgery can actually disable sweat glands. These would be done sparingly because turning off too many sweat glands would cause massive overheating in the body. In places like the lower legs where the average person does not sweat that much (compared to the forehead, armpits, or upper back) sweat glands could be disabled to make a person feel more comfortable and less self-conscious about profuse sweating.
Integumentary System (Skin)
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book is the ninth edition of the top-selling Human Anatomy & Physiology text and the authors have produced the most accessible, comprehensive, up-to-date and visually stunning anatomy & physiology textbook on the market.. It presents information in smaller and more digestible bites, making it easier to read and navigate.
This book has a superb balance between structure and function and continue to emphasize the correlations between normal physiology and pathophysiology, normal anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and homeostatic imbalances. The acclaimed illustration program continues to be refined and is unsurpassed in the market. The thirteenth edition is fully integrated with a host of innovative electronic media, including WileyPlus 5.0 (access purchased separately.) No other text and package offers a teaching and learning environment as rich and complete.
This book includes updated examples, references, and dozens of illustrations. Readers of the new edition will come to understand the meanings of terms in anatomy and physiology, get to know the body's anatomical structures, and gain insight into how the structures and systems function in sickness and health. It also features updated information on how systems function in illness and in health.