There are several kinds of blood vessels, including arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. Vessels have many layers. The tunica externa connective tissue sheath sits on the outside above the tunica media. The tunica interna is the innermost layer and is composed of smooth endothelium. Artery walls are thicker than veins while veins have valves to prevent backflow since blood pressure is lower in veins. Blood travels from the heart to the arteries, and then to capillaries, veins, and venules. Capillary beds are the networks of tiny blood vessels that perform gas and nutrient exchange with tissue. This lecture also covers blood distribution, blood pressure, return of blood to the heart, the pulse, and blood vessel conditions and disorders such as hyper and hypotension, arterosclerosis, atherosclerosis, edema, and angiogenesis.
Blood vessel types: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
There are 3 main layers inside of major blood vessels: tunica externa (adventitia), tunica media, and tunica interna (intima)
Artery walls are generally thicker than in veins, and veins have one-way valves but arteries do not
Sequence of blood flow: elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles, continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, venules, medium-sized veins, large veins
Capillary beds are networks of capillaries that give and receive nutrients with respect to adjacent tissues, and they are regulated by precapillary sphincters
Blood pressure is calculated by multiplying cardiac output and peripheral resistance, and it is written as systolic (max pressure) over diastolic (min pressure)
Blood is assisted in its return to the heart through skeletal muscle contractions and one-way valve function in veins
Blood vessel width/pressure is affected by baroreceptors, ADH, angiotensin II, and EPO
Major artery examples: aorta, carotid, brachial, radial arteries
Major vein examples: vena cava, jugular, hepatic veins
Pulse sounds are most detectable at the carotid, radial, and femoral sites
Blood vessel conditions/disorders include hypertension, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and hemorrhaging
Did you know…
Q: Which blood vessel would bleed out the fastest if cut, the aorta or carotid?
A: Definitely the aorta. It’s closer to the contracting left ventricle. The carotid artery has high blood pressure running through it, but not nearly as much as the aorta.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
You can take your blood pressure in one instance sitting down and it can be 124/78 and then you can feel like you have done nothing in that change in behavior then 5 minutes later it can be 132/86.1203
Your blood pressure does fluctuate based on your needs at those moments throughout the day.1218
Typically when you stand up, when you do more, your blood vessels are going to constrict a bit to help rocket blood a little faster to the skeletal muscles.1223
That certainly depends on the person and depends on what you are doing.1232
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