The urinary system (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra) removes metabolic wastes from the bloodstream and regulates blood volume, blood pressure, and pH. The kidneys can detect how much blood is passing through them and secrete hormones to regulate fluid and electrolyte levels. The kidneys are partially covered by the rib cage and contain a renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pyramid, major/minor calyx, renal pelvis, and hilum. They receive blood through the renal arteries. The nephrons (made up of the glomerulus, Bowmans capsule, Proximal Convoluted Tubule [PCT], loop of Henle, and Distal Convoluted Tubule [DCT]) filter blood and produce urine. Urine is generally between 93% and 97% water. The remaining part contains urea, creatinine, uric acid, and urobilin. Urine is typically sterile except in cases of infection.
The kidneys contain nephrons, which are microscopic filtering units for blood
Nephron function begins with filtration of blood from a glomerulus (capillary bundle) into the Bowman’s capsule
Fluids travel down the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) where nutrients, ions, and water can be reabsorbed out of the tube
The loop of Henle pumps out excess sodium and chloride ions and helps concentrate the fluid
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) does active secretion and selective reabsorption
The fluid traveling through the collecting system (collecting ducts and papillary ducts) becomes finalized urine
Urine is usually 95% water and the rest contains: urea, creatinine, uric acid, urobilin, and other solutes
Urine pours into minor calyxes, which lead to major calyxes and into the renal pelvis
Urine travels down the ureters through peristalsis and into the urinary bladder
The urethra takes urine out of the body by relaxing the urethra sphincters
Urinary conditions/disorders include urinary tract infections (UTI), kidney stones, incontinence, and renal failure
Did you know…
Q: If urine is a very bright/deep yellow what does that mean?
A: Not enough water in your system resulting in very concentrated urine. Drink more water throughout the day. If you drink soda, juice, coffee, tea, etc. replace a few glasses of those with pure water and you will probably notice a difference. See a doctor if nothing changes (or if it gets worse.)
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book is the ninth edition of the top-selling Human Anatomy & Physiology text and the authors have produced the most accessible, comprehensive, up-to-date and visually stunning anatomy & physiology textbook on the market.. It presents information in smaller and more digestible bites, making it easier to read and navigate.
This book has a superb balance between structure and function and continue to emphasize the correlations between normal physiology and pathophysiology, normal anatomy and pathology, and homeostasis and homeostatic imbalances. The acclaimed illustration program continues to be refined and is unsurpassed in the market. The thirteenth edition is fully integrated with a host of innovative electronic media, including WileyPlus 5.0 (access purchased separately.) No other text and package offers a teaching and learning environment as rich and complete.
This book includes updated examples, references, and dozens of illustrations. Readers of the new edition will come to understand the meanings of terms in anatomy and physiology, get to know the body's anatomical structures, and gain insight into how the structures and systems function in sickness and health. It also features updated information on how systems function in illness and in health.