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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Urinary System

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (5)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sat Dec 31, 2016 12:33 PM

Post by Jemal Mohammed on December 30, 2016

I am so glad to have this website to study a lot. I am comfortable with it, and it is too helpful.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Jul 9, 2015 1:38 PM

Post by Jason Smith on July 8, 2015

When aldosterone signals the body to retain Na+, does this retention happen in the PCT? Or in the DCT? Or at a different spot? Thanks you!

0 answers

Post by ido montia on March 16, 2014

thanks!!!

Urinary System

  • Functions of the urinary system: removing metabolic waste, regulating blood volume/pressure, regulating plasma concentrations of minerals, stabilizing blood pH, and conserving valuable nutrients
  • Kidney anatomy terms: renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pyramid, major/minor calyx, renal pelvis
  • The kidneys contain nephrons, which are microscopic filtering units for blood
  • Nephron function begins with filtration of blood from a glomerulus (capillary bundle) into the Bowman’s capsule
  • Fluids travel down the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) where nutrients, ions, and water can be reabsorbed out of the tube
  • The loop of Henle pumps out excess sodium and chloride ions and helps concentrate the fluid
  • The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) does active secretion and selective reabsorption
  • The fluid traveling through the collecting system (collecting ducts and papillary ducts) becomes finalized urine
  • Urine is usually 95% water and the rest contains: urea, creatinine, uric acid, urobilin, and other solutes
  • Urine pours into minor calyxes, which lead to major calyxes and into the renal pelvis
  • Urine travels down the ureters through peristalsis and into the urinary bladder
  • The urethra takes urine out of the body by relaxing the urethra sphincters
  • Urinary conditions/disorders include urinary tract infections (UTI), kidney stones, incontinence, and renal failure
  • Did you know…
    • Q: If urine is a very bright/deep yellow what does that mean?
    • A: Not enough water in your system resulting in very concentrated urine. Drink more water throughout the day. If you drink soda, juice, coffee, tea, etc. replace a few glasses of those with pure water and you will probably notice a difference. See a doctor if nothing changes (or if it gets worse.)

Urinary System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Functions of the Urinary System
    • Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
    • Kidney Anatomy
    • Blood Flow to Kidneys
    • Nephrons
    • Glomerular Filtration
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
    • Collecting System
    • Summary of Urine Formation
    • Urine
    • Ureters
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Urethra
    • Urinary Conditions / Disorders
    • Intro 0:00
    • Functions of the Urinary System 0:05
      • Removes Metabolic Waste
      • Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
      • Regulates Plasma Concentrations
      • Stabilize Blood pH
      • Conserves Nutrients
    • Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System 1:51
      • Kidneys
      • Ureters
      • Urinary Bladder
      • Urethra
    • Kidney Anatomy 2:47
      • Renal Cortex
      • Renal Medulla
      • Renal Pyramid
      • Major / Minor Calyx
      • Renal Pelvis
      • Hilum
    • Blood Flow to Kidneys 6:41
      • Receive Through Renal Arteries
      • Leaves Through Renal Veins
      • Regulated by Renal Nerves
    • Nephrons 9:27
      • Glomerulus
      • Bowman's Capsule
      • Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
      • Loop of Henle
      • Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
    • Glomerular Filtration 12:40
      • Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
      • Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
      • Important Nutrients
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) 14:25
      • Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
      • Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
    • Loop of Henle 16:28
      • Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
      • Concentrate Tubular Fluid
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) 17:28
      • Differs From the PCT
      • Three Basic Processes
    • Collecting System 18:35
      • Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
      • Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
      • Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
      • Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
    • Summary of Urine Formation 19:35
      • Filtration
      • Reabsorption
      • Secretion
    • Urine 21:15
      • Urea
      • Creatinine
      • Uric Acid
      • Urobilin
      • It's Sterile!
    • Ureters 24:55
      • Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
      • Three Tissue Layers
      • Peristalsis
    • Urinary Bladder 26:08
      • Temporary Reservoir for Urine
      • Rugae
      • Trigone
      • Internal Urethral Sphincter
    • Urethra 27:48
      • Longer in Males than Females
      • External Urethral Sphincter
      • Micturition
    • Urinary Conditions / Disorders 29:47
      • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
      • Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
      • Kidney Dialysis
      • Glomerulonephritis
      • Incontinence

    Transcription: Urinary System

    Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

    This is the lesson on the urinary system.0002

    The function of the urinary system is not just as simple as making urine and getting rid of it.0006

    That is the primary function, it is the removal of metabolic waste that is really what urine contains.0011

    Solid waste of course would be in the fecal matter which is part of the digestive system in terms of getting rid of it.0017

    But here is all about filtering blood and getting rid of metabolic waste out of your bodily fluids.0023

    In addition to that you have the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.0029

    Your kidneys actually secrete hormones in response to how much blood is flowing through them.0034

    The pressure and lack of fluid or too much fluid and that has an effect on your blood pressure and blood volume.0040

    It also regulates plasma concentrations of various electrolytes various minerals like sodium and potassium, chloride etc.0048

    Because it is going to get rid of more of those or less of those through urine depending on how much you have.0056

    It also helps to stabilize blood PH.0063

    In addition getting to rid of stuff like sodium or hang onto it, hanging onto H+ or getting rid of H+ these hydrogen ions that has an effect on PH.0066

    In addition bicarbonate ions which has an effect on the alkaline levels.0078

    If you know about PH hanging onto this would actually make the blood slightly more acidic.0084

    Getting rid of this would make the blood slightly more basic.0091

    The normal PH for blood in the human body is 7.4 on the PH scale that is slightly basic.0094

    It also conserves valuable nutrients.0101

    You want to hang on to certain things in your bloodstream and not get rid of them and that comes down to kidney function.0104

    We look at the different organs and tissues in the urinary system, there are 4 main players.0110

    Here is a little drawing of it.0117

    You got the kidneys of course they look like kidney beans.0118

    This is the left kidney.0121

    This is the right kidney.0122

    The left kidney is ever so slightly higher.0123

    The right kidney is a little bit lower because of the liver can hang down over it.0126

    You know it is normal to be born with 2 kidneys.0131

    There are the ureters which are these tubes that take recently made urine out of the kidneys0135

    to a temporary storage spot known as the urinary bladder.0142

    Just calling it the bladder is not sufficient in anatomy because there is also the gallbladder.0145

    You want to specify that this is the urinary bladder.0150

    And then the urethra is that tube that takes urine out of the body.0154

    It is longer in males and shorter in females.0160

    I will discuss that more later.0164

    When we look at the kidneys, these amazing organs that actually make urine.0167

    You do have two kidneys on either side of the spine between the thoracic vertebrae at the bottom of the thoracic curvature0174

    so number 12 where your last ridge are found and down to about the third lumbar vertebra0183

    which means that their only partially covered by a rib cage.0190

    Just the top portion has some ribs going just posterior to it.0195

    Your kidneys are very much a posterior organ.0201

    There is this term kidney shots when someone hits you right back there right at the rib cage0205

    and that kind of impact can damage kidneys.0210

    It happens in combat sports often.0213

    The left kidney is slightly superior or higher on to the right one.0215

    They are held in place by surrounding connective tissue and that surrounding connective tissue includes the peritoneum.0220

    It is a nice wrapping around abdominal organs that keeps them in place.0229

    There is other neighboring organs that help keep them in place.0235

    The reddish brown, the reddishness of course because of the high blood flow.0241

    There is a lot of blood going to your kidneys every second of the day.0245

    They are about 10 cm long, 5 ½ cm wide and about 3 cm thick with a mass of 150 g each.0249

    Here are the major parts and let us label these.0256

    The renal cortex you see that right here.0260

    As with the adrenal glands or any other organ that has the term cortex that means the superficial outer part of it.0265

    The renal cortex you are going to see a lot going on in the next few slides in terms of how the filtration process gets started.0272

    The renal medulla that is a bit deeper just like with the adrenal medulla.0279

    You can see these little areas that kind of a triangular that is really where most of the medulla is going on0290

    and those are called renal pyramids because they do look pure, middle, triangular.0299

    Here is a renal pyramid.0306

    Those makeup most of that medullary layering the kidneys.0310

    And this is of course in a cross section.0317

    A frontal or coronal section through kidney from the outside you would not see the pyramids.0319

    Seeing the medulla you have to cut it.0326

    Then you have these two areas the major and minor calyx.0330

    Once you have development of urine it comes out of the medullary area into where called minor calyx.0337

    All of the minor calyx lead to major calyx.0344

    These are the major calyx here and then it goes into was called the renal pelvis.0349

    The renal pelvis we used yellow for the calyx.0355

    Here is the calyx and then the renal pelvis is this collecting area in here.0361

    The hilum is that exit region of the kidney through which the renal pelvis empties into the ureters.0374

    Renal pelvis is actually at the medial side of the kidneys because the kidneys point towards each other0385

    and renal pelvis feed into the ureters which of course then go into the bladder.0393

    Blood flow to kidneys in a healthy individual over 1 liter of blood flows through kidneys each minute of your life.0399

    That is incredible to think about because the average person has about 5 liters of blood in their body or 10 pints.0411

    It is amazing to think that 20% of that is constantly just there every minute.0417

    It is going through your kidneys.0426

    They are doing an amazing job of filtering blood.0428

    They receive blood through renal arteries.0431

    The term renal always applies to the kidneys.0433

    Here are these different parts here.0436

    The segmental arteries are right here.0439

    The segmental arteries actually branch off the major renal artery into the kidney.0444

    The interlobar arteries they actually end up going into each little lobe.0451

    All of these are interlobar arteries which branch off of the little segmental arteries here.0472

    The arcuit arteries finally take blood branching off the interlobar all the way up to the more superficial cortex regions.0479

    Here and here and so on.0494

    You are going to see those arcuit arteries.0498

    Finally those branch off into these tiny little capillary bundles you can call them afferent arterials that lead to the capillary bundles0500

    because arterioles branch of arteries slightly smaller and they lead to capillaries.0513

    Afferent arterials because they are going to these little filtering regions in the kidney.0519

    Those all these up here is afferent arterials get super tiny to the microscopic and the form little capillary bundles called glomerulus.0524

    You are going to hear more about those on the next two slides.0534

    The afferent arterials those are all in here in the cortex of the kidney.0537

    They branch off into millions of little bundles of capillaries.0543

    Blood leaves through the renal veins so you have this blue little tube here.0548

    The renal veins take blood out of the kidney.0553

    The blood that has not been filtered out to make urine and of course blood flows is going to be regulated by nerves that are called renal nerves.0556

    Nephrons these are the little filtering units of the kidney.0565

    This is where all the action happens.0572

    They are microscopic tubular structures in the cortex of the kidneys.0573

    This is where they begin that do the filtering of blood and production of urine.0577

    Here is a model of what it looks like.0582

    Because it is a three dimensional space some of the precise arrangement of where these tubes are kind of crisscrossing can vary0584

    and you are going to see that represented in future slides in this lesson0592

    where sometimes this little tubule is actually slightly off to the side over here.0593

    The name is still the same based on the order in which fluid is moving through there.0600

    1.25 million nephrons per kidney.0607

    It is amazing to think about that you are going to have 2 ½ million total microscopic little amazing filters getting the job done.0611

    First off is the glomerulus.0620

    The glomerulus is this little bundle here.0622

    It is a bundle of capillaries and they go into this little capsule and then you have certain items, water, ions, etc.0627

    Moving across into the capsular space which then leads to these little tubes or tubules.0636

    The bowman's capsule, I am going to label glomerulus that is I am going to checkmark there because that is in red.0642

    The bowman's capsule named after Dr. Bowman I presume is this right here.0649

    Together you can call them together the glomerulus and the capsule around it a renal corpus school.0659

    I did not actually write that that but this thing here that little box that is describing the interaction between those two renal corpus school.0666

    The bowman’s capsule that leads into this here.0675

    That is known as the proximal convoluted tubule.0679

    It is twisty and turny proximal to where this began and then later will be more distant.0682

    Proximal convoluted tubule or PCT is right here.0690

    It leads to the loop of henle.0700

    Henle is another scientist I presume.0705

    That is what is going on here.0710

    This is the loop of henle.0711

    There are 2 parts, there is the descending limb of the loop and the ascending limb going back up.0713

    The distal convoluted tubule or the DCT is a little more distant and here it is.0720

    And eventually we will get to some other parts.0732

    This is the collecting tube which has some ducts that is leading to what is called a papillary duct.0735

    And of course that is going to lead deeper and deeper in the kidney and by the time you get down here it is urine.0743

    That urine collects from all these millions of different nephrons together going out the ureters to the bladder.0749

    You are going to hear more about that in a few slides.0756

    How do stuff get filtered out of the glomerulus?0760

    Glomerulus is a bunch of capillaries.0767

    I did not label it the last time so I will tell you here.0770

    This is the afferent capillary going in here and to what we call the glomerulus and this would be the afferent one.0773

    Just like with nerves going to the brain, out of the brain, afferent neurons and efferent neurons is the same idea here afferent to efferent.0781

    They are fenestrated.0790

    If you watch the blood vessel lessons previously a fenestra that means window.0793

    So instead of solute microscopic particles having to go through the barriers of these capillary wall cells,0798

    they do not just go through a little the borders of the cells.0809

    They are actually in each cell or little holes essentially.0814

    The fenestrated capillaries make it very easy for stuff to quickly pass through that small enough to fit through.0818

    Blood pressure forces water because that is smaller and small solutes across the membrane through the fenestrated capillaries0825

    and into the capsular space the bowman's capsule here.0832

    Some important nutrients like glucose, fatty acids, amino acids and vitamins can also pass through.0837

    You do not want to let go of all those things because specially if you are low on them at that moment0844

    you need these things in your bloodstream to supply these nutrients to your cells.0848

    There is a way to get that stuff back in your bloodstream which we will cover a little bit later.0853

    It has to do with them being reabsorbed into the proximal convoluted tubule.0859

    The proximal convoluted tubule.0865

    Right after we leave the glomerulus and a mixture of water solutes0868

    and maybe some of those slightly larger organic compounds are coming through here.0874

    Here we are now in the proximal convoluted tubule or PCT it is the first segment of these renal tubular system.0878

    And it is lined with simple cuboidal epithelium.0885

    If you remember back to the tissues lessons we went over what simple cuboidal epithelium looks like0890

    if you were to take a cross section of the PCT you would see kind of cube looking, one cell layer thick cells.0896

    They have their own little nucleus.0910

    Here is that rounded cuboidal epithelium and this would be called the lumen or the space within this tube.0914

    Reabsorption of nutrients happens here.0923

    What was meant by that is you have water and solutes coming through here and that is eventually going to be urine.0927

    At this point as you go through this tube you can actually suck out because of osmosis and diffusion.0934

    Some of the nutrients ions, water, and plasma, proteins that happen to come in there that you want hang onto.0942

    As you go through the PCT you are going to have the release of these items into the paratubular fluid.0948

    Fluid that is around here.0956

    Speaking of which if you look at a highly detailed version of this diagram you would see your venus blood or0959

    just capillaries in general that are not part of the glomerular complex just coming around these tubes.0967

    You can get that stuff back into your bloodstream once it is exited this tubule.0975

    That is good.0981

    You do not want to let go of the ions that your low on or plasma proteins that are important to have.0982

    Once you have some of the reabsorption occurring through this PCT.0987

    You are going to end up in the loop of Henle.0994

    And this is actually under exaggerated.0995

    It should be much longer.0999

    Some of these loops go very deep into the medulla of the kidney.1000

    It is found in the medulla area of the kidneys.1006

    And like I have mentioned before here is the descending limb and ascending limb of the loop of henle.1008

    What is going on here?1014

    You actually have active transport occurring in this section.1015

    Earlier I have mention how diffusion or osmosis would drive reabsorption here, that is a passive process but active transport can occur here.1020

    You are going to pump out some sodium and chloride ions which is going to move water out of the tubule1028

    and start to make urine more concentrated.1033

    You do not want to let go of too much water in your urine.1036

    Water moving out of that loop helps concentrate the tubular fluid as the fluid moves through here.1039

    The distal convoluted tubule or DCT which is here and here in kind of this salmon pinkish color.1046

    It differs from the PCT that was kind of this purplish because of a small diameter, smaller than the PCT, and lack of micro villi.1058

    You actually would find some micro villi associated with that cuboidal epithelial layer.1067

    What does the DCT do?1075

    It is important for three basic processes.1077

    It will actively secrete ions, acids, drugs, and toxins.1079

    So your kidneys are actually helping out with getting rid of drugs and toxins.1083

    The liver of course plays a big part in that too.1089

    Your kidneys are going to help with this and that is great.1091

    Selective reabsorption of sodium and calcium ions based on your needs.1095

    Depending on your calcium sodium levels in your blood that is going to determine how selected that absorption is.1099

    It selectively absorbs water.1105

    It is just finalizing what is going to become urine and how much stuff you are going to let go of and how much stuff you are going to hang onto.1107

    Finally it is the collecting system.1114

    We have talked about this renal corpus school the glomerulus and the bowman’s capsule.1117

    Here is that PCT in the loop of Henle, the DCT and then you finally get to what is called the collecting system.1124

    There is some final filtration that happens here.1133

    Secretion, reabsorption I am going to talk more about what these terms specifically mean on the next slide.1135

    Concentrated urine passes through the collecting duct, this purple region which merges into papillary ducts.1141

    The papillary ducts get all the different collections, urine collected from the different nephrons in this region.1151

    And finally empty it into what is called the minor calyx which I mentioned before.1158

    The minor calyx lead to these major calyx is these kind of hallways that lead urine into the renal pelvis.1163

    And finely out into the ureters.1171

    Summary of urine formations.1175

    There are three terms that you need to keep in mind.1178

    Three basic processes and the first one is filtration.1180

    Filtration that is mainly what is going on with the glomerulus, that collection of capillaries and the bowman's capsule.1183

    Blood pressure forces water and some other solutes into the bowman's capsule to start it off.1193

    That is the initial filtration from out of your blood then reabsorption.1199

    Reabsorption is getting the stuff that you want to hang onto out of that tube so it does escape through your urine.1204

    Water and solute are moved from the tubule or the PC T, etc. And going to the paratubular fluid outside of those tubes.1213

    Important fluids are reabsorbed into the blood through active transport and osmosis.1224

    As blood leaves the kidney that stuff is not going to escape through urine and secretion.1228

    Solutes are transported from the paratubular fluid back into the tubule.1236

    It is the final chance to get stuff that you do want to get rid of out of that paratubular fluid where stuff is reabsorbed1242

    and can go back into the distal part of the tubule then into the collecting system.1251

    This is necessary to do because filtration alone is not enough to get unwanted wastes out of the plasma.1259

    If we did not have the secretory ability the amount of waste you will get rid of every time1266

    you urinate would not be sufficient to maintain homeostasis.1271

    Urine is about 95% water sometimes it is 93%, sometimes it is 97%.1274

    This is an average for most of the time.1281

    What is the other 5% what else is in it?1283

    Here are some main players that are going to be found in urine.1287

    Urea it is very abundant in terms of how concentrated is urine versus the other things.1290

    It comes from the breakdown of amino acids.1296

    That is happening constantly in the body.1299

    It is a way to get that waste out and amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.1300

    A lot of protein stuff going on in terms of decomposition of proteins in your body.1306

    You need to remake proteins they do not last forever.1311

    Creatinine comes from the breakdown of creatine phosphate which is from the muscles.1314

    And if you watch the muscular lessons, you learn about how creatine phosphate can aid with remaking ATP quickly in muscles which is important.1320

    Uric acid formed from a cycling of nitrogenous bases of RNA.1328

    You are making RNA in your cells constantly throughout life.1332

    On so uric acid is going to be from this RNA waste.1336

    And what makes urine yellow?1341

    Urobilin is a term also some people refer to as urochrome.1344

    Urochrome literally means color of urine.1348

    Urobilin is a byproduct of the breakdown of bilirubin.1351

    That also influences the color of fecal matter but the reason why urine is yellow is when bilirubin is broken down1356

    and this comes from the breakdown of red blood cells from heme groups in RBC's.1366

    That by itself is yellowish and so it makes up enough of urine to give that yellow color.1371

    Sometimes urine is a bit more clear and that typically means the specific concentration of water is as much higher.1377

    If water is clear that means you are super hydrated.1383

    You have so much water relative to other times that you are getting rid of that water.1387

    You have taken so much water when you do not need that much or if your urine is clear that could mean you are drunk1395

    because you will learn this in future lesson if you look at the alcohol lesson.1401

    The ADH or anti diuretic hormone, that ability to hang on to water in the kidneys is definitely damaged by alcohol intoxication.1405

    And the amazing thing about urine is even though some people find it disgusting there is nothing1417

    that is actually harmful about in terms of bacteria.1424

    It is sterile unless you have a urinary tract infection.1427

    Urine itself is sterile when it comes out of the body.1431

    There is no bacteria in it.1435

    You may have seen survival shows or a list of things to do if you are stranded on a raft1436

    in the middle of ocean or in a desert where there is no water or no moisture.1444

    If you want to prolong life, one of the things you can do is drink your urine because it is a way to get those fluids back into body just let go of.1448

    Eventually if you just keep doing that you are going to stop making urine because you are not introducing a new water in your body1458

    but even that is disgusting to think about it can keep you alive for a little longer.1464

    But if you urinate in to a bottle and you wait a while, you do not drink it right away but wait for hours.1469

    In that bottle that you have just urinated in there was bacteria.1477

    And your urine is warm and has nutrients bacteria are going to start eating stuff in there and dividing.1480

    If you do leave the urine in the container that can introduce into a bacterial infection your body than your itself is sterile.1486

    The ureters that is what is actually taking urine down into the urinary bladder.1494

    On it is a pair of muscular tubes here in yellow that connect the kidneys to urine but firmly attached to the posterior wall.1500

    Remember the kidneys are found in the back portion of your abdominal region.1508

    The tubes are coming out of it are going to be right there.1513

    3 tissue layers.1515

    Similar to what we saw with digestive system stuff.1517

    Inner mucosa that is actually adjacent to the lumen that is where urine is going to be.1521

    Muscular layer because you do have to help move along the urine and the outer connective tissue1526

    that is going to help keep these tubes anchored to the neighboring tissues and organs.1532

    Peristalsis we seen that term before with moving your digestive stuff through.1537

    Also through moving to the fallopian tubes ova eggs waiting for sperm.1544

    Peristalsis is this wave like muscular contraction actually happens here.1550

    It sweeps urine down through these tubes.1553

    It is not just gravity taking them down.1556

    The sweeping muscular action of peristalsis actually gets urine constantly into the bladder.1558

    Your urinary bladder is hollow muscular organ that is a temporary reservoir for urine.1566

    It can hold as much as 1 liter of urine.1575

    Think one of those soda bottles that is 2 liters, it is a lot of urine.1580

    That is when you are really have to go because just as much as 200 ml of urine 20% of that is going to initiate1584

    some urinary reflex that is going to start preparing your body for urinary time.1597

    The rugae, when we look inside of the urinary bladder you are going to see fold similar to what see inside of the stomach.1602

    The rugae are folds as the urinary bladder expands as it holds more urine.1610

    Those rugae is obvious because of the stretching mechanism of the bladder.1615

    The trigone is this triangular feeding area that urine is going to be collected into and then eventually emptied into the urethra.1619

    The borders though between the trigone and urethra is the internal urethral sphincter.1629

    Sphincters are always a muscular kind of doorway from one part of the tubular passageway to another and in this case this is involuntary.1634

    You do not have voluntary muscular control over this.1646

    This is going to open up as stretching happens in the inferior parts of urinary bladder.1649

    That need to urinate as the internal urinary sphincter relaxes and lets more urine out.1656

    That is when you need to go.1664

    The urethra is that final tube leading out of your urinary bladder and out of the body.1667

    It extends from the neck of the urinary bladder and finely exits out.1674

    Longer in males than in females.1679

    You can see from this image here when we take into account the external genitalia of men the urethra can sometimes be1681

    8 inches long because you are also including the internal parts prior to entering the penis that empties out of the bladder.1689

    If you have taken a cow’s penis their urinary tract is going to be longer.1700

    In females it is only about that big because once you come out of the bladder you are going hit the external genitalia of females.1707

    The UTI likelihood or urinary tract infection likelihood is actually much more common in females which I will be talking about more later.1715

    The external urethral sphincter is what is the final muscular doorway that is not letting urine out.1725

    You have voluntary control over that.1732

    It is similar to the external anal sphincter.1735

    Voluntary control you can hold that to a point but once your bladder is filled up to that 1 liter max1737

    and urine is creeping into the urethra that need to let it go.1747

    Micturition is the technical term for urinating.1753

    Micturition reflex that is going to happen as you get stretching in the bladder.1757

    As your neurons stack to the bladder get sense of that stretching it is going to send signal to the brain1763

    and then send signal back down onto the voluntary muscles.1770

    On when you actually actively urinate.1774

    Remember there is involuntary parts too.1777

    As the involuntary muscles relax the need to let it go is going to happen.1779

    Urinary conditions and disorders.1786

    Like I mentioned ago, UTI or urinary tract infection much more common in women because it is typically a bacterial infection.1790

    If you think about the urinary tract of females being as this big, the ease for bacteria or ability to take over this region happens much easier.1798

    The dividing of the bacteria can quickly invade on that tube.1808

    If the tube does is this long it is less likely that the bacteria are going to be able to conquer the tube and cause significant urinary tract infection.1813

    It does happen in men and do not get me wrong but this is more common in women.1822

    Kidney stones happen in men and women.1826

    I have read that they happen slightly more in men.1830

    I do not know if that is dietary differences on average but kidney stones can happen for variety of reasons.1833

    It is basically a collection of hard deposits in the parts of the kidney overtime.1838

    They are so hard and so large relative to the size of the tubules in the kidney that they cannot get completely through the urethra.1847

    And they do get backed up.1858

    You can see an image here these are actually fragments of kidney stones.1860

    It is very tiny and you can see that utmost they are half mm in diameter.1863

    They are very tiny but if you think about how tiny the tubules are leading urine out of the body you can see that they get stuck.1872

    You need a backup they are very painful.1879

    One amazing way that you can get rid of it and that does not require surgery is they have learned that if you projects sound waves1883

    at the kidney you can sometimes shatter these kidney stones into tinier bits that can1890

    actually be eliminated from the body which is amazing to think about.1896

    The technical term is renal calculi.1900

    Kidney dialysis is accompanied with renal failure.1905

    Somebody's kidneys are not doing the job done of filtering the blood.1909

    You will hook them up to machine that basically filters their blood for them.1913

    It is as the kidneys also have a lot to do with stimulating the making of red blood cells and other cells in the bone marrow.1918

    Drugs that help make red blood cells will also be introduced into the body in addition to the filtering of the blood.1927

    This is a temporary solution.1936

    Kidney dialysis is not cure for kidney failure.1939

    And it will prolong life but the need is for a kidney transplant.1942

    You can get a transplant from a donor who is deceased.1947

    I have heard that is a 5% effective on average if you get a kidney from a relative who was alive you are likelihood of success1951

    and prolong your life is more like 90% in terms of adding years on your life.1960

    And being a successful transplant.1965

    People who do get kidney transplants they need to take immune suppressing drugs because even if it is your brother1968

    that is going to donate one of his kidneys or a cousin, that is not your kidney.1977

    And the precise protein makeup on those kidney cells is not close enough to fool your body thinking it is your cells.1983

    You actually would have to take immune suppressing drugs to calm down your immune system's response to that tissue introduction1992

    and that makes a person who's received a kidney transplant slightly more susceptible to other on illnesses.1998

    But it is worth in prolonging your life.2005

    Glomerulonephritis, nephritis basically means like infection affecting the nephrons and has to do with the glomerulus coming into that region.2008

    The amazing thing about this is the infection is not in the kidney itself but some infection in the body is now affecting the kidney negatively.2018

    And the reason why that negative impact happens is with certain infections in the body2028

    you are going to get a buildup of a lot of different antibodies in response to antigens.2033

    Of that is part of your lymphatic systems ability to beat the illness.2037

    That buildup when it gets into the glomerulus that can really affect blood flow out of the glomeruli2042

    into those corpus schools and into the bowman’s capsule specifically.2051

    This is an infection that is negatively impacted the filtration ability of kidney.2056

    Incontinence this is the inability to fully control when you want to urinate.2063

    This tends to happen more in older people as they age.2069

    The muscular tone in terms of keeping your insight is not as good.2072

    Also strokes and Alzheimer’s can have an impact on the ability to control urination.2079

    It also can happen in pregnant women too.2086

    The babies going to take up a lot of space and in that region of the abdomen.2089

    It can only press on the bladder but also stretch out some of those your urethral muscles2095

    makes it hard to hang on urine during pregnancy for some.2102

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