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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Smell, Taste & Touch

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Smell, Taste & Touch

  • Nasal anatomy includes: the nose (nasal bones/cartilage), vestibule, nasal conchae, cribiform plate, and olfactory epithelium
  • Olfaction (sense of smell) begins when odorant molecules come into contact with the hair cells of olfactory epithelium imbedded in mucus
  • Olfactory epithelium is regenerated due to them being more vulnerable than other neuronal networks
  • Smell has a dramatic impact on taste and it has a close link to memory
  • Gustation (sense of taste) is thanks to papillae on the tongue and the gustatory cells contained within them
  • The muscles of the tongue and saliva also play a role in the ability to taste chemicals
  • Taste buds contain gustatory cells, taste hairs, transitional cells, basal cells, and nerve fibers
  • Five main taste categories are sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami
  • Genetics plays a role in the sense of taste (as illustrated by PTC paper)
  • The sense of touch is due to stimulation of nociceptors (for pain) and mechanoreceptors (for physical distortion)
  • Pain receptors are sensitive to temperature change, mechanical damage, and caustic chemicals
  • The sensation from mechanical distortion is due to tactile receptors
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Why can’t you tickle yourself?
    • A: Being tickled involves the tickler being in charge of where they’re touching the other person. If a person tries to tickle their own self, they are aware of where they’re going at any given moment and there is no element of surprise. The unknown in terms of which sensory neuronal networks will be stimulated is what makes tickling possible

Smell, Taste & Touch

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Nasal Anatomy 0:05
    • The Nose
    • Nasal Cavity
  • Olfaction 3:27
    • Sense of Smell
    • Olfactory Epithelium
  • Olfactory Receptors 7:23
    • Respond to Odorant Molecules
    • Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
    • Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
  • Anatomy of Taste 12:41
    • Tongue
    • Pharynx / Larynx
    • Salivary Glands
  • Papilla Structure 16:56
    • Gustatory Cells
    • Taste Hairs
    • Transitional Cells
    • Basal Cells
    • Nerve Fibers
  • Taste Sensations 19:06
    • Sweet
    • Salty
    • Bitter
    • Sour
    • Umami
    • Water
    • PTC
  • Touch 25:00
    • Nociceptors
    • Mechanoreceptors
  • Nociceptors 26:30
    • Sensitive To…
    • Fast vs. Slow Pain
  • Mechanoreceptors 31:15
    • Tactile Receptors
    • Baroreceptors
    • Proprioceptors

Transcription: Smell, Taste & Touch

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on smell, taste, and touch.0002

When we look at nasal anatomy this main structure that is involved with smelling is the nose which is the most obvious part.0004

It is made up of skin, cartilage, a little bit of fat in there, you also have some bones but this part right here is cartilage and soft bone.0014

The only bony part of the nose is the bridge.0025

These are the 2 nasal bones that has a lot to do with the little arch, the bridge of your nose.0029

If you do break your nose, you tend to break this part up here the nasal bones.0034

A deep enough kind of trauma could definitely fracture parts of the maxillae or even deeper the ethmoid bone0039

Which is found straight through and making up most of the nasal conchae, those weaving passageways deep within the nose.0046

Mostly cartilage that is making up the majority of this structure.0052

The nasal cavity itself there are 2 nostrils that lead into the nasal conchae.0057

Within those nostrils you are going to have hair and mucus.0063

You will see the hairs in this particular drawing, you know that it is there and some people have more than others and some people trim them.0067

The hairs serve a purpose.0073

They are similar to the ear canal, the hair is trapping dirt, particles in going deeper,0074

It is minimizing the chances that you are going to get nasal infections in the upper respiratory tract.0080

The mucous is constantly being produced in the nasal conchae even if you are not sick.0085

That mucous serves numerous purposes.0092

It warms the air that you are exhaling and it is going to catch a lot of stuff that you are inhaling.0095

Those microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, that you do not notice but they are there.0102

When you are more sick you are going to produce additional mucous.0107

The mucous serves a purpose.0113

Even when we are sneezing it out you are producing it and you tend to swallow it because the nasal cavity does connect to the pharynx/throat.0116

Every time you swallow there will be a little bit of the nasal mucous that is going to drift back down your esophagus.0127

That sounds disgusting but it is part of the human body.0134

The conchae are those weaving little caverns named after the fact that they are spirally and twisty and turning like a conch shell.0138

The nasal conchae is formed mostly by that ethmoid bone that we have discussed in the skeletal lessons.0147

On top of those weaving caverns of the ethmoid bone you are going to have those mucous membranes producing the nasal mucous.0152

The curbiform plate is where we focus on for all the action that is going on with your sense of smell.0160

If you remember the ethmoid bone being like an eon inside and these parts of the E are those twisty, turny conchae parts.0167

This was the perpendicular plate that goes vertical.0176

If you go up to the top, the superior portion of the perpendicular plate, there is another part called the curbiform plate.0180

That superior almost perpendicular portion, on top of that perpendicular plate contains the olfactory epithelium.0186

The olfactory epithelium is where you have those layers of cells received those odor molecules and some signals up to your brain.0197

Olfaction is that technical, physiological term for the sense of smell.0206

Olfactory receptor cells are common terms.0214

It is not old factory like an old run down building where they make things.0217

Olfaction comes from Latin and it has to do with your sense of smell.0221

These are the only sense in the body where the olfactory receptor cells are directly adjacent to the outer environment.0227

If you think that the other senses whether it is touch, or hearing, the receptor cells involved in receiving the signaling are just must deeper.0235

Think about the ear, the cochlea that has hair cells sensitive to the vibration that is coming to your ear0245

Are deep inside your head compared with the outer structure of your ear.0254

Not so with the nose, when those odor molecules go up into your nostrils they come into contact with mucous where the hairs,0258

The little cilia of these particular cells are right there.0269

It is great.0273

It is the closest receptor cells to the outer environment.0275

The problem with that is that they can get damaged a lot easier than the neurons of your skin and the neurons involved with taste and hearing.0278

They get generated more often than those other cells can.0288

That is the price you pay for them being so close to the outer environment.0293

Olfactory epithelium is that epithelial layer that is involved with smelling.0297

Olfactory receptor cells are the main cells that are doing the action and I am going to high light them in yellow.0304

Here they are.0310

They have little hairs that extend out.0313

I am drawing them spread out like this because this increases their chances of getting an odor molecule touching them.0321

Having them all spread out just like little roots on the ground in this mucous layer,0333

Having all these little hair spread out this is going to increase the chances of reception.0339

Basal cells are those little cells in this region that are functioning like a stem cell.0343

As these olfactory receptor cells gets damaged, basal cells can go through mitosis and as a cell mature they take the place of damaged or old olfactory cells.0350

Olfactory glands which are not depicted well in this picture are these glands that produce the mucous.0360

That mucous layer that is right in here, that these cilia are actually embedded in, that is where the mucous come from.0368

A little different with the glands with in the skin that they producing mucous that is located in the nasal conchae.0376

The olfactory system can distinguish 2,000 to 4,000 different stimuli.0384

As those odor molecules come up into this passageway and hit the little cilia, it is just like action potentials from precious lessons.0392

As the cilia gets hit those open up channels where the sodium and potassium moves and activates these cells just like another neuron.0399

These are modified to react to odors.0406

If you set and wrote down a list of all the different odors that you remember smelling like orange, lavenders, etc.0409

It will be hard to come to the list of 2,000 to 4,000.0418

We do not always consciously remember that we can smell these different things but in the terms of how the brain reacts to different stimuli,0421

We found that there are thousands of different chemicals that affect your olfactory receptor cells a little bit differently.0433

When it comes to olfactory receptors, like I have mentioned before these are highly modified neurons that respond to odor and molecules.0440

Each one of them has about 20 cilia that extend into the surrounding mucous.0449

As I have mentioned there are the curbiform plate and they are spreading out.0453

You have approximately 20,000,000 olfactory receptor cells in an area of 5 cm3.0458

It is a tiny area with a lot of cells.0466

That is impressive to think about.0470

It is even more impressive to think about an animal like a German shepherd which has 70× that area.0472

Smells to them are much more obvious.0479

When you think about a German shepherd being used in an airport to smell packages, to see if there are contraband or explosives, smells are obvious to that animal.0481

It is like us looking at colors on the ground.0492

When a dog is tracking a smell, it is presumably that obvious.0495

It is fascinating to think what it would be like inside the head of that animal.0500

There is lot of turn over of olfactory receptor cells and this is a rare example of adult neuron replacement.0504

Think about the spinal cord with all the cells running down there.0511

If you damage spinal cord neurons enough you cannot get them back.0515

They are damaged for life that will result in paraplegia or quadriplegia depending on what area you damage.0519

Eventually we will get there with curing those conditions.0523

This is something that naturally happens where because of this neurons are close to the outer environment they tend to get damaged more rapidly.0527

Replacing them enables you to smell the stuff that you like smelling even as an adult.0536

Smells can be noticed in very small concentrations0545

An example is beta and this is a chemical that is added to gases that are naturally odorless like butane, propane, natural gas,0549

Without adding small bits of beta or capping if there was a gas leak in your house or apartment and all the windows are closed,0558

You would not be able to smell that this gas is entering the room and can result to more deaths if we did not have this in there.0565

Just adding a touch of this gas that has an odor saves lives every year. These cells have a dramatic effect on taste.0573

I'm sure you have heard this or experienced this, if you are sick and you have swelling in your nasal region in the upper rest for a track0582

And a lot of additional production of mucus, the food tastes more bland when you are sick.0591

We take this for granted that taste is affected by olfaction.0598

I have heard estimates that up to 50% of taste are impacted by this particular set of cells.0603

Here is a trick you could do at home.0610

If you close your eyes and plug your nose and have somebody put in your mouth a piece of apple and a piece of pear without you knowing which one is which.0611

If they are both the same ripeness, about the same density or consistency it is a really hard without looking and smelling of telling the difference it can apparently be apple.0621

That is one example how smell would assist you with that.0631

I have a relative who actually has a problem with a sense of smell.0635

I did notice until he was helping out my uncle with a construction job they are redoing a room and every one who was on the site was told not to enter the room0640

Because there was really caustic chemical that is actually harmful to inhale and it is a chemical that once you walk in a room you would smell.0649

My relative who has a smelling problem did not hear that announcement.0658

He goes in the room sometime during that day and he does on a mask on and he is working on something and my uncle is like what are you doing here?0661

Do not you smell that?0669

He said smell what?0670

Obviously it will be weird not to smell this.0671

They took him to a doctor and after some test they realize that he only has 10% of the olfaction ability as the average human being.0673

He is missing 90% of what he should be experiencing.0681

I do not know what taste is like to him and we would never know until we get inside his head because0685

he had no idea he was lacking that smelling ability until they confirmed it was some tests.0690

That is interesting to think about.0696

Last thing I want to mention with olfaction is that you already heard this before in the nervous system lessons0698

if you watch those but smell has a profound connection to memory.0703

This is the only one of the five major senses that does not go through the medulla thorough the thalamus.0709

This goes straight up into the part of the cerebrum that leads to cerebral cortex.0715

That actually connects to memory quite a bit0719

If you look at the tracks for olfactor receptors and how they go up into those olfactory bulbs and those little tracks all the way up.0724

They go straight through the areas that have to do with memories.0732

They go right through parts of the limbic system that have to do with memory.0738

The hippocampus is right there.0743

You may have heard that smell is connected a memory greatly it is.0745

If you smell freshly baked cookies and think of grandma that is what we are talking about.0750

Olfaction connected to the memory in a great way.0757

When it comes to taste we got to talk about the mouth of course.0759

The tongue is the major player in your ability to taste but it is not just the tongue.0765

If we do look at the tongue in this particular picture you can see if the person is lifting up their tongue and touching the mouth,0769

the little bumps you do not see quite as many on the other side.0777

It is it is hard to distinguish those but I like this picture because you consider labeling some the salivary glands as you call sublingual which literally means under the tongue.0781

Here is the mouth and here is how the tongue is attached to the mandible bone.0788

And of course you got your gums and the interior cheek, the teeth, etc.0793

Within the tongue itself you have got multiple muscles and these muscles are incredibly strong for their size.0797

I have heard different textbooks say that the heart is the strongest muscle and some say that the tongue is the strongest muscle.0804

The tongue is very strong and that dentists will tell you that the tongue can over time change the position of your teeth.0810

It can actually change how your teeth are laying in your mandible.0819

That is pretty incredible to think about.0825

That is a lot power of power.0827

On the surface of the tongue you have what are called papillae and each one is a papilla.0828

Those bumps you should call them taste buds the proper term is papillae.0833

When you actually see those bumps on the surface of the tongue, the papillae with in them there are taste buds that have these gustatory cells or taste cells.0840

The pharynx is the throat and the larynx is a bit deeper down there but taste is there too.0850

A lot of those taste cells they reduce as you age, as you get to adulthood but the pharynx, the larynx, have a little bit of ability to allow you to perceive some tastes.0857

I will tell you more about that later.0868

Salivary glands they have a lot to do with taste.0870

If it was not for saliva, number one you would not have that aqueous medium that allows the cells of the papillae0874

to get that signal noticed but also within the salivary secretions you have enzymes.0882

Enzymes break down those chemicals, those compounds that you were chewing.0889

Without that enzyme ability you would not be able to perceive those little tastes that you experience on a daily basis.0895

Here is an example of that.0903

One of the many enzymes that salivary glands are releasing is salivary amillae.0904

An amillae is responsible for breaking down larger carbohydrates or sugars into tiny little bits like glucose, monosaccharide.0910

Glucose we perceive as being sweet.0922

Larger carbohydrates like starch do not taste as sweet when they are that big molecular structure polysaccharide.0925

You can try this at home.0933

Normally when you eat a cracker you chew it a few times then swallow it before you get the ability to sense the glucose inside there.0934

There are large carbohydrates that make up breads or crackers.0944

If you chew it and let a little bit sit on your tongue with saliva and just do not swallow immediately, just chew it a little bit and let it sit their for a while,0949

you can actually get this more sweet taste from the little tiny glucose is in the other tiny sugars that are inside a cracker.0961

You are giving your salivary glands a chance to break that down further before swallowing it.0970

Taste cells are scattered all around the mouth and throat like I said there are some on the pharynx and larynx specifically the part of the larynx0976

that you going to see some taste cells on especially in younger people is on the epiglottis.0984

You are going to hear more about that with the digest system.0989

The epiglottis is a flap that closes on the respiratory tract so that when you swallow foods it does not go on your lungs.0991

But you will see that the ability to taste like sugar, the sweetness, sour, bitter, etc, not as profound on the throat and larynx.0999

Most of them are on the tongue and some of them are around the size of the mouth.1010

The structure of a papilla those are the bumps if you take a look at a cross section straight through one of those bumps at the surface of the tongue,1015

here is that papilla and considering this is a cross section you are only seeing part of it.1026

A papilla is round and so around the edge of it there is kind of like this ditch.1033

Here are two sides of the crevice around a papilla and these little guys right here those are the taste buds.1040

Each one of these are taste buds that is why I am calling this a taste but is not proper.1050

This is a papilla.1057

Within a taste bud here is one picture here you have gustatory or taste cells that are afferent.1059

There are sensory neurons that take stimuli up into your CNS.1066

Each one of those cells is right here.1073

We highlight that in yellow.1076

Here is one of these gustatory cells, here is another and here is a third.1078

And you can see that each one of them has this little hair and these little hairs project out into this little crevice and saliva can get into those little areas1084

and that is what is going to enable the hairs to be activated effectively so that you get those action potentials and that reception happening of those different tastes.1096

Transitional cells are the ones that are in between supporting cells for the taste bud.1106

Basal cells like the sense of smell are stem cells that enable you to regenerate these.1112

I have heard that taste cells only last for about 10 days so you do need some of regeneration of them overtime as you lose them.1117

Nerve fibers are right here and they are really axons that come together to form the nerve that goes up into your CNS.1127

When it comes to taste sensations, the major tastes that we experience there are 4 major ones, sweet, salty, bitter, and sour.1145

If you have ever seen one of those tongue maps and says here is the sweet area, here is a sour area, here is a bitter and salty, etc.1155

That is not how it is.1162

You cannot say that this is the sweet part of the tongue.1165

Certain parts of the tongue can be slightly better than others at perceiving certain taste sensations but all of your different taste buds have the ability to notice all four of them.1167

You can try it yourself.1179

Out salt here and back there, you are going to notice the salt all over your tongue.1182

Sweet how does that happen?1188

Sweet sensations come from sugars of course.1190

We breakdown sugars through chewing, saliva, etc.1195

You are going to get that sweetness and of course with breads, with a candy, all of those things that gets those sweet sensations.1199

Glucose, fructose, galactose, etc., are going to activate the gustatory cells in that way.1209

Salty is the most common in NaCl, sodium chloride, there are all kinds of salts.1215

With the chemistry, salt is like a category of ionic compounds.1221

Bitter such as horse radish, bitterness, slightly the bitter sensations like arugula.1227

Arugula taste slightly bitter.1239

I like it some people do not.1241

The way people perceive bitterness can vary.1242

Sour is actually from acids.1245

If you like sour candy you have affinity for acidic molecules.1250

Acids are on the bad wrap, if you have taken chemistry you know that strong acid, the kinds that are actually burn1257

through the surface of your tongue or can harm your skin if you get them on you.1263

We have a lot of acidic foods.1267

Milk is slightly acidic.1271

Tomatoes are slightly acidic.1272

If you go to oranges and lemons you are getting even more acidic.1274

We do consume a lot of foods that are ever so slightly acidic.1277

Fruits or a nice balance between sweet having those natural sugars and a little bit of sour like citric acid.1282

Umami, this 5th one is more recently talked about.1289

It is a Japanese word.1295

Umami, I have heard that in the back of the tongue is even a slightly greater ability to put to perceive this umami flavor.1296

It is been described to me as a savory, meaty, even perfect, as a translation for umami.1304

Sushi in my opinion is a good example of what that umami flavor is all about.1312

Beef broth of all sort of chicken broth is another one that can be slightly different than these four.1318

Water, does water have a taste?1325

You might think no, if there is taste there is something dissolved in the water like metallic ions or something that does not belong there.1328

But water, research has shown that especially in the back of the throat like the pharynx those tastes receptors there do respond to water and send signals to your brain.1336

You may not consciously realize that like this water has a flavor as it goes down.1348

If you take a very long swig of water especially if you are dehydrated, you do sense that water going down1352

and it tells your brain to actually change the amount of ADH being secreted out.1359

ADH is anti diuretic hormone.1365

It is a hormone that allows the body to hold onto water.1367

You will urinate quite as much if you are releasing ADH.1370

If you just drink a lot of water that means you do not need to hang on to quite as much water as you have been.1374

So the fact that the water signals neurons to change something that is happening in your brain we can describe that as a taste sensation.1381

PTC, number 7 I have put it down here because this is a peculiar one.1390

If you have taken biology classes you may have done this.1395

A PTC paper it stands for fennel teal carbomide.1398

PTC papers usually looks like rectangular thin papers and you will pass them to students and say on the count of 3 touch it to your tongue.1402

When they touch it into their tongue after a few seconds people who can actually taste PTC get this profound bitterness.1411

A lot of people can taste it and I have read that approximately 70% of Americans have the genotype to enable them to actually notice PTC.1424

About 30% of people do not.1433

And it is because when you look at the genetics of this it is a dominant allele that allows you to perceive the PTC as this chemical.1435

And if your homozygous recessive, a few inherited those alleles you can't notice PTC.1445

And this is one of the many examples that show you the genetics plays a role in taste.1453

There are probably lots of genes that determine your taste abilities.1457

Some people just do not like broccoli at all.1462

I love broccoli and I do not even need salt and butter.1466

I will just eat it plain but some people, no matter how many times they try broccoli even as an adult and given that many chances they cannot stand it.1469

Now may be compared to me they are able to taste some kind of chemical on the broccoli that I do not.1478

Because I do not notice it I love it.1485

There is a lot out there in terms of genetics and how taste is affected.1487

And I wrote it more because there is lot of genes that impact your taste sensations.1493

When it comes to touch, there are few types of sensory receptors in the skin corresponding to touch.1499

One of the main ones is nociceptors and that is for pain.1507

Pain comes to different forms and we will get to them in a second.1511

Nociceptors in general have to do with pain being perceived.1513

Mechanoreceptors, physical distortion.1517

What is physical distortion?1521

Any time you are touched in a way that manipulates your skin, light, heavy, deep pressure, that is going to be mechanoreceptors that are going to be stimulated.1523

And here is a course a cross section of skin.1539

Epidermis here and on the bottom you got the stratum basale.1542

All of these are the dermis and you can see that these are blood vessels.1545

Here is a curled up sweat gland here is a hair follicle leading to a hair emerging from the root.1549

They are not depicting neurons in here.1554

They are not depicting these little receptors.1558

Here is one example.1560

You can have a little corpus school and you will see what a corpus school is in a bit and their different levels.1561

Some of them are really deep.1569

Some of them are actually much more superficial.1570

This one is right at the top, more superficial part of the dermis just deep to the epidermis.1574

These are scattered all throughout the skin specifically in the dermis.1584

Let us start with pain.1589

Nociceptors, these pain receptors are sensitive to a few different kinds of pain in terms of how the pain results.1592

Temperature of course if you ever had boiling water hit your skin you know that temperature changes can cause pain to occur.1600

And is not just heat, if you had been next to dry ice, they say to not touch dry ice because it is way colder than solid water.1612

Dry ice is solid CO2 and touching it can cause a burn which seems ironic to say burn but it will actually damage your skin1624

and it is not something you want in terms of the pain as a result.1635

Mechanical damage that cuts, lacerations, that is mechanically harming the skin and going to cause pain.1638

Chemicals have a strong acid or strong base and alkaline substance landing on your skin that can cause pain.1648

Now the amazing thing is sometimes one kind of stimulus, one kind of a set of trauma will actually stimulate a lot of different types of pain.1657

That is why some people they will get a wound like a deep cut with a knife but will described it as a hot burning sensation even though it is just mechanical damage happened.1669

Smetimes a certain kind of stimulus can be perceived as various types of pain all at once.1682

When we say fast and slow pain is basically this fast pain is a different kind of neuron track, these are type A fibers, these are type C fibers.1691

Fast paint tends to be stuff like needles, a knife, so if you have gotten a shot, let us say a booster shot on your shoulder and when that needle goes in, it is a fast pain literally.1700

It goes along a certain kind of nerve fiber up to the CNS and you feel it right away.1713

Slow pain tends to be kind of that like that dull aching not as localize like a fast pain.1721

It is like a sharp pain that you know exactly where it is and slow pain sometimes will just be in a general area.1732

And this slow pain actually goes up more into the reticular formation thalamus region more so than the fast pain in terms of how it is perceived.1739

Pain is complex in terms of perception.1750

Scientists and doctors will spend their whole careers on pain and how to treat pain, on how to help with pain in a patient.1754

In terms of the complexity of how pain is perceiving the human body, we do not know all the answers.1766

On you know some people will have nothing wrong with them.1773

They will do tests on their organs, on their whole body, MRI, etc.1778

Sometimes it would not be obvious what is the root of the pain.1783

Wises person having this pain sometimes it is just pain is being perceived by the person chronically and they cannot narrow it down why it is happening.1789

There are medications that can help in terms of lessening those action potentials and lessening the neurotransmitters ability to make pain happen inside your head.1800

That is amazing to think about that.1811

There is something else called referred pain which is pretty fascinating.1813

Referred pain is when people get heart attack will get this numbness and pain all throughout their left arm.1818

Your heart is not here, it is slightly on the left side of the chest but the reason why that referred pain happens is1826

there are similar nerve tracks in terms of how they come into your spinal cord.1832

The nerves in your left arm actually kind of run right into the nerves from the heart.1838

A heart attack will actually affect these nerves in terms of the stimuli coming up into your brain.1844

There is a sensation that something is wrong with the left arm.1851

If that happens in someone you are with call 911 if it gets deep up pain all of a sudden in the left arm.1854

Another one is the gallbladder.1862

Amazingly pain in the gallbladder can be felt up here on the shoulder.1864

It is called referred pain.1869

One of the many fascinating topics associated with nociceptors.1871

When it comes to mechanoreceptors these are in terms of how your skin is literally touched.1874

We can call them tactile receptors because it has to do with literally being touched.1881

Free nerve endings are found all throughout specially the top superficial parts of the dermis.1887

Let us say this is the surface of the epidermis and here is the bottom or deeper part of the epidermis and here is the dermal layer.1895

Free nerve endings these are dendrites will extend up to those superficial parts of the dermis.1908

As you get touched here, they are going to be stimulated.1920

And those are found all throughout the root plexus.1925

Here is a hair shaft, it is thick but it'll do and here is the hair follicle.1929

And of course you are going to have blood supply.1936

You are going to this hair, wrapped around part of the hair shaft is something called root hair plexus.1940

It is being wrapped around here.1948

The amazing thing is when a hair is brushed that is going to stimulate the root hair plexus.1951

Something as simple as like this I can feel it very easily even my fingers when actually touching the surface of my epidermis,1959

this especially happens when you are moving garments around.1967

Here this fabric is not even touching the surface of my epidermis but it is touching the hairs on my arm and that's going to be notice.1971

It is amazing.1982

It is a fine kind of stimulus that is stimulating root hair plexus.1984

Tactile receptors also called Merkel disks.1988

These are also for fine touch and they are extremely sensitive.1992

They look a little bit different.1996

Merkel disks when they extend up they have these little disks.1998

That is pretty much how they look like.2003

Tactile corpus schools also called Meisner corpus schools.2009

These look more like kind of a roundish bulb in a sense.2012

Meisner corpus school looks like this.2020

On these particular corpus schools they had a lot to do with sensing pressure and they are concentrated more in the eyelids, the lips, the fingers, nipples, and the external genitalia.2024

Lamellae corpus schools similar look but the thing that is distinguishing of these corpus schools is it looks like kind of concentric circles, almost like a fingerprint.2041

The lamellae corpus schools have that appearance.2053

You do not see that concentric circle look quite as much in the Meisner ones.2056

These lamellae corpus schools they also correspond to deep pressure.2060

Something not quite as like fine as what I was talking about earlier.2065

It is a deeper pressure.2072

Refini corpus school is when you look at the collagen fibers all throughout the dermis, these are associated with that.2073

When it comes to kind of those deep manipulations of the collagen within the dermis, refini corpus schools are definitely stimulated.2080

Let us say that this is a collagen fiber, you can have these little refine corpus schools enervating just kind of coming in and being a part of all those collagen tracks.2091

Those are located throughout the body.2108

It has to do a little bit with deeper stimulation and some of these other ones but they are there in your skin.2112

Baroreceptors have a lot to do with pressure.2118

We are not as conscious of these but they are on the skin.2122

In terms of the blood vessels that are located especially the deeper parts of your integumentary system, the skin how to do with pressure.2128

For instance on if there is a change in blood volume baroreceptors are going to notice it.2136

If there is a change in blood pressure that is going to cause manipulation of those blood vessels.2142

You are going to see baroreceptors in the aorta and in the carotid arteries.2147

They communicate with the brain literally in terms of how to manipulate blood pressure when it needs to be manipulated.2157

Proprioreceptors have a lot to do with joint position.2166

Intention associated with the joints and the capsule.2170

Your skin is pretty close to a lot of these areas where joints are.2174

Proprioreceptors in terms of how the joints are moving, your brain is going to sense that in terms of the positioning of them and how they are being manipulated.2179

Some tendons and ligaments, joints, have a lot of these that are called proprioreceptors.2191

There is touch, smell, and taste.2195

Thanks for watching www.educator.com.2199

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