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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Tissues

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology
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Lecture Comments (22)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Nov 26, 2014 9:48 AM

Post by Anmol Chowdhary on November 25, 2014

Hi, where can I find more about muscular tissues and nervous tissues?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Oct 15, 2014 12:42 AM

Post by David Gonzalez on October 14, 2014

This might be a silly question, but who knows, it might be plausible: you mentioned that the sebaceous glands release "whole" cells- does this mean that hairs contain nutritional value? Even in very small trace amounts? I'd love to hear your input! Thank you!  

3 answers

Last reply by: David Gonzalez
Sun Oct 12, 2014 8:20 PM

Post by David Gonzalez on October 11, 2014

Does the extracellular matrix exist only in connective tissue? Thanks!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Feb 24, 2014 6:50 PM

Post by Jessica Ferriday on February 23, 2014

This is great, Bryan, thanks! I've done anat before and I am currently having to restudy it and this is just what I need!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Jan 2, 2014 11:52 AM

Post by Gyung Ae Jang on January 1, 2014

Could you explain the process of how CO2 is carried out through the capillary and alveolar cells please?

0 answers

Post by aljona brahaj on December 16, 2013

I liked very nice thanks

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Dec 11, 2013 12:18 PM

Post by Susan Paterson on December 10, 2013

For me personally, I don't know about others... maybe I'm just a slow learner, but, it would be more helpful if you actually wrote out the definition of each word that you're explaining so I can reference it as you explain the word for easy note taking.  It also helps with the amount of times I have to watch a section of the video, which feels like a huge time sucker...  Note that I suggest "writing it out as you explain the term" instead of having it pre-typed because it helps to slow down your explanation for a better connection.  I also suggest writing a bit larger, your penmanship is somewhat hard to read...    

6 answers

Last reply by: ido montia
Sat Feb 15, 2014 9:11 AM

Post by Nathan Dodd on November 18, 2013

This lecture keeps crapping out at around the 21:00 mark

Related Articles:

Tissues

  • Tissues are groups of cells that have a collective purpose or set of functions together
  • Histology is the study of tissues
  • Epithelial tissues lines the outer and inner surfaces of body organs
  • The types of epithelial tissues are named after how many layers of cells they have and the shape of the cells
  • Types of epithelial tissues include: simple squamous, stratified squamous, simple columnar, stratified columnar, pseudostratified columnar, simple cuboidal, stratified cuboidal, transitional, and glandular
  • Glandular epithelial includes merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine glands
  • Connective tissue, the most abundant tissue in the body, helps connect the organ systems to each other to make the body a cooperative, cohesive unit of trillions of cells
  • Connective tissue contains fibers such as collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
  • Connective tissue cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, lymphocytes, adipocytes, and melanocytes
  • Connective tissue examples (combinations of fibers and cells) include muscle tissue, tendons/ligaments, blood, cartilage, bone and muscle
  • Did you know…
    • Q: If holocrine glands are releasing whole cells into the gland, is there a chance that the gland would run out of cells faster than a merocrine gland?
    • A: No, they wouldn’t since the rate of mitosis would be different. Holocrine glands would require a faster rate of mitosis to replace the cells that have been sloughed off (released), while merocrine glands would be replacing cells less often because they are only letting go of the products within tiny secretory vesicles from the glandular cells.

Tissues

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Tissue Overview
    • Epithelial Tissue
    • Types of Epithelium
    • Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
      • Simple Columnar Epithelium
      • Stratified Columnar Epithelium
      • Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
      • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
      • Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
      • Transitional Epithelium
      • Glandular Epithelium
      • Connective Tissues
      • Connective Tissue Fibers
      • Connective Tissue Cells
      • Connective Tissue Examples
      • Intro 0:00
      • Tissue Overview 0:05
        • Epithelial Tissue
        • Connective Tissue
        • Muscle Tissue
        • Neural Tissue
        • Histology
      • Epithelial Tissue 2:25
        • Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
        • Avascular
        • Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
      • Types of Epithelium 5:35
        • Cell Structure / Shape
        • Layers
        • Example
      • Simple Squamous Epithelium 6:39
        • Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
        • Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
      • Stratified Squamous Epithelium 9:10
        • Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
        • Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
      • Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection 10:46
      • Simple Columnar Epithelium 12:02
        • Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
        • Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
      • Stratified Columnar Epithelium 13:29
        • Meant for Protection
        • Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
      • Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium 14:46
        • Meant for Protection / Secretion
        • Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
      • Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 16:51
        • Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
        • Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
      • Stratified Cubodial Epithelium 18:18
        • Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
        • Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
      • Transitional Epithelium 19:15
        • Meant for Stretching and Recoil
        • Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
      • Glandular Epithelium 20:43
        • Merocrine
        • Apocrine
        • Holocrine
      • Connective Tissues 25:06
        • Most Abundant Tissue
        • Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
      • Connective Tissue Fibers 26:13
        • Collagen Fibers
        • Elastic Fibers
        • Reticular Fibers
      • Connective Tissue Cells 30:52
        • Fibroblasts
        • Macrophages
        • Mast Cells
        • Lymphocytes
        • Adipocytes
        • Melanocytes
      • Connective Tissue Examples 36:39
        • Adipose Tissue
        • Tendons and Ligaments
        • Blood
        • Cartilage
        • Bone
        • Muscle

      Transcription: Tissues

      Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

      This is the lesson on tissues.0002

      When we say tissues we are not talking about blowing your nose kind of tissues.0004

      We are talking about a bunch of cells together with some common purpose or functional goal in terms of what they are doing for your body.0010

      These cells organized into group for a specific set of functions or purposes.0018

      Sometimes for just one purpose but a lot of times it is many.0023

      Epithelial tissues are the first we are going to talk about.0027

      An epithelium is always cells that are on the outermost, the most superficial layer of an organ or the innermost part or deepest part of an organ.0029

      If they are on the innermost parts that organs has some kind of passageway or hallow area called the lumen.0042

      The cells on the innermost part or those epithelial cells are helping to move something through,0049

      absorbing and secreting chemicals, it could be variety of things.0055

      An epithelium is very important to our body.0060

      Connective tissues are the most abundant tissue in your body.0063

      Connective tissue is a lot of different kind of cells functioning together.0068

      It does connect your body parts to each other and help bind organs to neighboring tissues.0072

      Muscle tissue and neural tissue are technically a type of connective tissue but are major tissues in the body.0079

      You are going to find muscle tissue all through out the body even in the parts where you do not realize it is there0086

      because some of the muscles are doing involuntary actions that you do not directly control consciously.0091

      The muscles are in your dermis, in your skin, that you do not consciously move but they do contract and relax.0097

      Neural tissues are also all through out the body.0107

      It is not just the brain, not just the spinal cord, we are talking about every single nerve, all the neurons, billions of cells.0111

      Histology is a very important kind of branch or study related to anatomy and physiology, that is the study of tissues.0120

      We know that it is looking up close at a tissue to see what the cells look like and how they are oriented related to each other.0129

      That is why it is typically with the microscope that you are going to be looking at histological picture.0135

      Later on in this lesson we will show you a histology slide.0140

      The first kind of tissue that we are going to be talking about is epithelial tissue or also called epithelium.0144

      The purpose of the epithelium is to cover every external and internal surface of the body.0152

      Not just on the outside but internal organs as well.0157

      These epithelial tissues are always attached to a basal lamina also known as basement membrane.0160

      That is the synonym for this term.0170

      Here is what we mean by that.0174

      You are going to see pictures that we draw for you or have displayed on slide later on in this lesson.0180

      It is always cells bound to look like just a line.0184

      It looks like a cement line that the cells are attached to or anchored to.0189

      That basement membrane or basal lamina is made of cells.0195

      Think of it like organic protein glue that is anchoring all of those cells to those surface.0200

      That basal membrane is connected to what tissue immediately below or deep to it.0208

      You are going to find basal membrane associated with epithelium.0214

      Also epithelium is a vascular.0217

      It gets nutrients and gas from diffusion and osmosis.0220

      What is a vascular means specifically?0223

      Let us take the cardiovascular system.0226

      It always has to do with transporting fluids.0231

      First is a vascular plant like a tree, it is called that because the tree is able to suck water up and get it up through osmosis to the top of its leaves.0234

      We are vascular because we are able to move fluids against gravity all through out our0244

      body but the specific tissue is a vascular because when you look at blood vessels and the transport of fluid related to this, the blood vessels do not go right up into it.0250

      You are not seeing capillaries, those tiny bundles of super bodies feeding this directly with oxygen nutrients.0262

      The oxygen in nutrients, that gases that are going to be given to these tissues get there from whatever tissue right next to it.0268

      It is diffusion and osmosis that is getting the nutrients and gases to the epithelial tissues.0276

      Because we are talking about the parts that are on the very outside of your body, the passageways that you are swallowing stuff into or inhaling air into,0282

      they are consistently damaged by a wide variety of environmental factors regenerating with stem cells.0293

      You are getting pretty much regeneration of these epithelial tissues depending on where they are in the body.0300

      Let us take the epithelium in the surface of the tongue.0306

      It needs to be regenerated a lot because every time that tongue cells get rubbed against by something you are chewing or eating, you need to replace those.0309

      It is same with the epidermis or the outer parts of your skin.0320

      You need to regenerate them as it gets damaged.0324

      Those are the characteristic of epithelial tissues in general.0330

      They are named based on cell structure and shape and is it one layer, two layers, or many layers?0333

      Let us look at some examples.0349

      A simple squamous epithelium, why is it simple and why is it squamous?0351

      Simple has to do with how many layers.0355

      This means one layer.0359

      That is how simple as it gets.0361

      Later on you are going to see a stratified, it is the opposite of one layer.0363

      We are talking about many layers on top of another.0370

      Squamous means round or disk like.0374

      They look like that.0383

      That is a squamous cell.0389

      One layer of round or disk like cells.0390

      That is what simple squamous epithelial is.0393

      You are going to see more detail about that later on in this lesson.0395

      Here it is simple squamous epithelium.0400

      One layer of point shaped cells that look like this.0402

      It is mean for areas that need a high rate of diffusion and osmosis through the cells.0408

      Think about inhaling air or transporting nutrients to blood vessels, you want to get the oxygen to your cells as quickly as possible.0414

      You want to get nutrients like sugar, proteins, and fats as quickly as possible.0422

      You do not want to have them drift through layers of cells it would take longer and harder to get that stuff around the body.0428

      Two examples are the alveolar walls and capillary walls.0434

      Let us see.0438

      Here is a good picture of how they look.0439

      Let us say we were to take a capillary which is the tiniest blood vessel type in the human body.0442

      If you were to cut that capillary down the middle and we can look down it with a microscope, the cells would be one cell thick0448

      simple and squamous because if look from the outside of it you see all these disk like cells that make up these.0460

      I am also going to draw a little nucleus.0468

      Since it is a one cell thick, what a capillary does is it gets oxygen to the tissues around it so you get a very quick diffusion0474

      which is a passive natural movement of gases and nutrients out of the capillary into the tissue and vice versa with CO2 and waste and it will take it back to the lungs.0483

      Having one cell thick is great for quick diffusion and osmosis.0497

      In alveolar walls, if you look at the capillaries in the lungs you want to get CO2 out of the capillaries and into the passageways of your lungs and vive versa with oxygen.0500

      The microscopic bubbles that make up the alveoli of your lungs, you have hundreds of thousands of these sacs.0513

      They are also one cell thick.0521

      Here is an alveolar bundle if you take a cross section through the alveolar bundle it is also one cell thick.0525

      It is brilliant in terms of getting oxygen that you inhale to your lungs into the capillaries quickly and efficiently.0536

      That is ideal for diffusion and osmosis.0544

      Stratified squamous epithelium we still have those round, plate looking cells, but a stack of them, many layers of it.0550

      It is meant for areas that have to deal with a lot for friction and rubbing like the epidermis of the skin0560

      it is being touched and you need to regenerate those cells because you are going to lose them.0569

      The esophagus is the tube that takes food from your throat area down to your stomach every time you swallow a chunk of food.0575

      It is rubbing against the inner part of that esophagus and it is called the mucosa.0585

      You are losing those cells and you need to be able to regenerate that epithelial tissue.0590

      The vagina or anus you have friction to those areas depending on what activity you are engaged in.0594

      You got to be able to regenerate these epithelial tissues because of those environmental sources of friction.0601

      Here is a little image of what they look like.0609

      You could see that they are still roundish and as you get towards the surface, the superficial part of it, this could be the epidermis of the skin.0611

      It makes sense that these flatten cells here were worn away from the top and down here, the cell division of these0620

      in the sense of stem cells are going to be providing the new cells that gradually move away from the blood supply down here.0625

      This black line down here this is the basal lamina or basement membrane.0632

      This is stratified squamous epithelium ideal for friction or protection.0639

      Here is the histological slide of part of the esophagus and stomach connection.0645

      These are some actual micrographs which mean photographs taken with a microscope.0651

      This is something close.0657

      This passageway is the lumen of the lower part of the esophagus or the most inferior part of the esophagus.0659

      Here is the beginning of the stomach and here is the lumen of the stomach.0666

      You are going to have mucosa lining that inner part of that stomach.0671

      You are going to have some mucous glands that are going to be on the esophagus but0675

      we also need to have stat on the inner most part of the esophagus is lot these stratified squamous epithelium.0681

      You could that there are stacks and stacks of those round cells because every time food is rubbed against it, it is going to damage parts of it.0692

      The mitosis down here is bringing up new epithelium here.0699

      You are going to see all kinds of epithelial tissues in the stomach.0704

      For instance, right here you got some glandular epithelium.0707

      You are going to here about that later.0711

      These are secreting gastric juice and all those little chemicals and molecules inside the stomach to help with the digestion process.0712

      Another kind of epithelium is simple columnar.0720

      This is one layer because it is simple and column shaped cells like its name says.0725

      It is meant for absorption and secretion typically.0729

      It depends on what specific organ it is in.0732

      Sometimes they are absorbing something or they are taking something in from the passageway or they are secreting something in to that passageway or lumen.0734

      Sometimes they have what is called microvilli and I will draw some microvilli for you here.0743

      They look like little hairs on the surface.0749

      Epithelial cells are known as cells with polarity meaning that one end of the cell usually0755

      functions a little bit differently than the other end in terms of the look in the structure.0762

      You could see with the simple columnar down here this is the anchored part of the cell that is going to be adjacent to the base membrane.0767

      Up at this end if we are talking about space or lumen, this is the end that actually doing the absorbing or secreting.0775

      These little microvilli are going to be looking like this.0783

      For instance, in the lining of the stomach and intestines you have to be absorbing and secreting stuff.0786

      If we take the small intestine, you have the ability to further the process of digestion.0794

      The small intestine is a very long tube in the body that is doing absorption.0801

      These cells are perfect for that.0805

      Stratified columnar is very similar to the previous picture but you are going to see stacks of these cells.0808

      These also have cell on the top but not necessarily.0832

      Stratified columnar epithelium is many layers foam shaped cells and meant for protection.0841

      Similar function to that stratified squamous epithelium but the cells are shaped differently.0848

      The location is the epiglottis.0853

      The epiglottis is a flap that comes down on the entrance to the airway to your trachea every time you swallow.0855

      Often times, when human being is swallowing they are getting food or liquid down into the digestive track.0864

      You do not want it going down into the lungs.0869

      The epiglottis is a nice flap that protects us from aspirating on something other that air.0872

      The anus and urethra also need protection based on what is going through those areas.0878

      Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, pseudo meaning fake or false, stratified meaning many layers and columnar shaped.0886

      It is a false stratification because it appears to be layered but it is one layer of palm shaped cells.0896

      The reason why it appears to be layered is that varying heights of the nuclei giving the illusion of being many layers.0903

      Let me draw you a picture.0911

      Sometimes you will get one of them being smashed in like that.0916

      I will do another one that is smashed in.0923

      You can see that this is one layer of epithelium of column shaped cells but you will see this.0931

      Because you have varying heights of nuclei at first glance you might think that is 2 layers but it is not.0940

      It just appears that way and sometimes this have cilia.0952

      I have mentioned cilia on the other side but let me explain more here.0956

      Similar to microvilli the difference is that cilia are helping dress something along rather than absorbing or secreting.0965

      Think about the lining of the trachea and bronchi, these are tubes associated with breathing in air and exhaling.0977

      You generate mucous in your lungs and if it was not for the sweeping up or brushing up of mucous you can drown in your own fluid especially when you are sick.0983

      The brushing up of that mucous that is generated on the passageway of your lungs is very important.0997

      In the trachea and bronchi you are going to see lots of cilia brushing up mucous.1003

      Simple cuboidal epithelium is one layer of cube shaped cells meant mainly for secretion and absorption.1008

      Secretion, absorption, or protection or SAP that is the way I remember it.1017

      Those are the three major functions of epithelium.1023

      Those are the big three you are going to see a lot.1027

      Secretion, absorption, protection, one or the other or some combination of the three.1028

      When you look at the kidney tubules, the little tubes that help make you urine you are going to see this.1033

      The thyroid gland which has a lot to do with regulating your metabolic rate these secrete hormones into your blood stream.1041

      These two definitely have simple cuboidal.1048

      If you look at one of the passageways to which urine or thyroid glands secretion are found, you are going to see cube shapes.1051

      They are not quite round and squared off edges and here is the nuclei.1064

      This is your average looking kidney tubule epithelium.1071

      You could see that it is good for secreting and absorbing stuff easily makes thing go in and out.1076

      It is same as simple squamous epithelium except for the cell structure.1082

      It make sense that you can easily have secretions going in and absorbing through this as well.1088

      Stratified cuboidal is similar to just what I drew except that they are just one layer you are going to see additional layers of these cube shaped cells.1097

      I am not going to draw all of them.1110

      You are going to have stacks of them.1112

      It seems stacks next to tubular structure or luminous, this is called stratified cuboidal.1116

      It is meant for secretion, protection, and absorption like I have said earlier.1131

      The lining of sweat glands like in the dermis of your skin often times if you cut through it1141

      and you look at it under a microscope that histological view is going to show you stacks of cube shaped cells.1148

      Transitional epithelium is meant for stretching and recoil.1155

      You have certain structures in the human body, certain organs where you need to expand and then go back whatever what is inside that is left.1160

      When relaxed, it looks a lot like columnar.1167

      Here is your relaxed transitional epithelium like the lining of the urinary bladder or uterus.1171

      When relaxed they look like that then when it is stretched let us say the urinary bladder has closed to urinating that means that person need to urinate.1187

      It is stretched quite significantly.1202

      When you stretched out those cubed shaped cells they do not look cubed, the column shaped cells they do not look columnar anymore because they are stretched.1204

      That is a big difference between this and this.1223

      Think about any organ that is meant to expand.1231

      The urinary bladder has urine in it.1234

      You got to stretch the uterus when you have a baby.1239

      I will tell you about glandular epithelium.1242

      It is meant for producing and releasing secretion.1245

      Anytime that you have a gland whether it is releasing a secretion outside of the body into a body cavity1248

      it is made of glandular epithelium in terms of the production that is being secreted and the act of secreting it.1255

      The three main types of glandular epithelium are merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine.1261

      I remember this mnemonic device MAH and the reason for that is because the order will help you remember what this one.1267

      You will see why.1277

      The merocrine type an example is salivary glands.1279

      Here we have the different types of salivary glands that is three pairs total of 6 salivary glands in humans.1282

      You got the peroded, sublingual, submandibular, and all of these have the glandular epithelium that is the merocrine type.1290

      Merocrine secretes just a little bit of substances from the cells.1299

      The cells in the epithelium are not leaving just bits of the substance.1304

      For example, let us say this is the gland and here is the opening in which the secretion actually comes into your mouth.1308

      Along the edge of it, you have cells that are responsible for producing saliva and secreting it into the cavity or the lumen.1317

      Secretion into here or exits in the opening of the mouth to help you dissolve things you are eating.1328

      They are little sacs or vesicles and inside you have water and enzymes.1342

      These little sacs will fuse with the edge of the cell and you will end up getting water and this enzyme package exiting.1353

      That is saliva.1368

      If you remember that merocrine is the smallest bit of secretion.1370

      You will see that with apocrine it is a little bit more.1375

      When we look at apocrine glandular epithelium an example is mammary glands.1378

      The glands that release milk.1382

      When we look at a mammary gland you will see it is a little bit different.1385

      Here the cells that are lining that actual lumen or opening.1390

      Instead of being little pockets that are released, they are actually parts of cell but not the whole cell.1397

      Here is what it look like.1404

      You would have this organelles and parts getting rid of the section of the cell and all this little cell parts together make up the milk.1406

      All those carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, hormones, etc, they are in breast milk.1428

      Apocrine is a little bit more is released, not just little pockets but parts of cell.1434

      Then we will look at holocrine, sebaceous glands we will look at hairs there are glands adjacent to the base of the hair shaft near the follicle.1440

      They release an oily substance to help coat and protect your hairs.1458

      Holocrine helps in secretion in terms of the amount that is released.1464

      Hol means whole, like a whole cell.1471

      The MAH that I have mentioned before, the merocrine releases little bits, apocrine releases parts of cells, holocrine releases whole cells.1479

      This is the lining of the gland here, the sebaceous gland.1489

      You will see the whole cell being released as a part of that oily glandular secretion.1495

      Those are the three different name types of glandular epithelium.1502

      The connective tissues this is an important tissue in the body.1505

      It is the most abundant tissue.1511

      It is all over the place.1513

      It is connecting the body parts to each other, stabilizing the body, giving it structure and stability.1514

      It is meant to connect and bind together all the organs and organ systems to form a cohesive and cooperative body as a whole.1520

      Any of the different skeleton here and here, on the far right, we got a gorilla, chimpanzee, gibbon, orangutan.1527

      Whether you are looking at a monkey or ape, or human, the skeleton is made up of connective tissue.1537

      When we look at connective tissue, anything that is found through out the body helping to1550

      bind organs to each other, helping the body to communicate with itself, it is a connective tissue.1555

      When you think about bones, it connects the body parts to each other.1562

      If it was not for your bones, you will not be alive.1566

      Connective tissue is made up of fibers and cells.1571

      First we will talk about the fibers.1577

      The fibers are made up of protein.1579

      Protein is the most abundant substance, you are going to move all the water from the body, protein is the next most abundant substance.1580

      Collagen fibers are the most abundant protein in the body.1589

      It is a bundle of protein humans that are slightly flexible.1594

      They are typically strong and arranged in one direction.1598

      A good example of that would be tendons.1602

      Tendons help connect muscle to bone.1605

      Ligaments help connect bone to bone.1609

      A tendon like the calceneal tendon or the Achilles tendon if you think about how it connects your calf muscle to your heel, that Achilles tendon is a bundle in one direction.1611

      It is very tough and strong and slightly flexible because anytime that you contract that muscle you are going to be pulling up on your heel.1630

      When you relax it, the opposite is going to happen.1643

      All of those are aligned in one direction help keep it stable, connect that muscle effectively to that bone.1645

      It is very strong and anyone who has snapped that tendon knows it is very painful and they will realize how important that tendon is.1651

      Typically when it snaps away from the bones surgery is required to reconnect it.1661

      Collagen fibers are not just tendons and ligaments, it is found all through out of your skin.1665

      It is in your bones.1671

      It is very important.1672

      Elastic fiber is another example that connects the tissue fiber.1674

      This is not quite as strong but a lot more flexible.1677

      A bundle of protein units that are very flexible and elastic.1682

      It is strong but not quite as strong as collagen.1686

      An example is intra vertebral disk.1691

      Intra vertebral disk if you look at the vertebrae, this side is the anterior side towards the front of your spine bones and this is the posterior or dorsal side.1694

      This will be that little bony extension that makes up those bumps you see in someone’s back when they bend over.1715

      This is a little process that connects to the ribs and also muscles can connect there.1723

      This bone on the top and bottom of it you are going to see a disk.1730

      That is why it is called inter vertebral disk because they are in between the vertebrae.1738

      It has to be flexible.1743

      They have to have some give in elasticity because think about when someone jumps off of1745

      the ledge the force of the bones coming together when you hit the ground, you will have that cushioning.1750

      You do have slight elasticity there.1760

      As time goes on, the integrity of these and thickness can drop a bit and that is why some older people get a little bit shorter.1763

      My grandmother is used to be being close to 5 ft now she is more like 4’10.1776

      We can blame some of those intra vertebral disks for that little drop in height.1781

      They are made up of these elastic fibers and a good example of elastic fiber is the name elastin.1786

      You are going to find that in those inter vertebral disks.1794

      Reticular fibers same sub units is collagen but not in one direction not like in tendons we have1797

      the collagen lined up in one direction because that is how the muscle contracts.1804

      It contracts along one point back and forth.1809

      With reticular fibers, reticular means net and if you took biology you will remember that1812

      the endoplastic reticulum that organelle in the cell looks like little net next to the nucleus.1818

      Reticular fibers they are net like.1825

      A good example is inside the liver.1828

      These net like fibers are found through out the liver to help keep it together and keep it stable.1830

      You would not want collagen fibers to just line up along one direction of the liver but you want them spread out all through out the tissue to help give it stability.1836

      Those are connective tissue fibers.1849

      Connective tissue cells are another important part of connective tissue.1851

      When you get a cut in your skin, fibroblasts are helping heal back the cut and remake those proteins to help bind it together.1856

      If it is not a thick cut you would not need stitches.1871

      If it s a thin cut your body takes care of it and often times it would not scar.1878

      You can think fibroblasts for secreting this connective tissue with fibers to help rebind those parts of the skin that has been separated.1883

      Macrophages that mean big eater and these are giant cells that look like pacman.1892

      They will engulf foreign bodies.1902

      Let us say you got a bacterial cell that is potential harmful to your body.1905

      Here is a nucleus inside of your macrophage and all these little lysosomes or little organelles1913

      that have enzymes that are meant for breaking down foreign bodies.1923

      Once the macrophage swallows up, that foreign body, those enzymes inside these lysosomes will fuse with the pocket that is now engulf this bacterial cell.1929

      Those enzyme will break it down and get rid of it.1938

      Macrophages some of them are fixed, they are like permanent resident of organs or tissues in the body.1944

      Others are free, they migrate in and out.1950

      The amazing thing is that these macrophages can flatten themselves and squeeze it in between the cells or tissues.1953

      The ones that are free migraters are amazing how they will go in target of foreign bodies and get that immune response going.1960

      Mast cells secrete a couple of different things, they secrete histamine and heparine.1968

      Histamine is one of the main things they secrete and if you have ever taken anti histamine you are familiar with the opposite of what this does.1976

      An anti histamine is going to get rid of the swelling especially your nasal cavity.1992

      If you have a stuffy nose it is very uncomfortable and that is your body’s natural response to getting some kinds of infection or irritation on your upper respiratory tract.1997

      You will get inflammation in that area to get more blood flow and try to get rid off that foreign invader that is causing the problem.2007

      It is very uncomfortable so you will take an anti histamine to reduce the swelling.2013

      That tells you that histamine is the cause of inflammation.2020

      This is released to make blood vessels get dilated and that results in swelling.2024

      Heparine is an anti coagulant.2030

      That means that this will prevent or get rid off blood clots.2037

      Sometimes blood clots are good thing.2042

      A clot prevents more blood from exiting out of a wound but once the healing has happened2044

      and you prepare the wall of the blood vessel you want to get rid off that clot.2053

      You do not want it to stay there.2058

      If it gets dislodged that clamp of a clot and that will cause a problem.2059

      Heparine will actually thin the blood and get rid of those clots.2067

      Lymphocytes are important cell of the lymphatic system and lymphatic tissue is all through out the body that is connecting body parts to each other.2071

      Lymphocytes are responsible for making anti bodies and this gives rise to plasmacytes.2080

      Plasmacytes helps get anti bodies to areas where you have foreign invader and anti bodies are part of that immune response.2090

      Adipocytes look like giant yellowish cells and in the corner it is shed over to the side you will see a nucleus.2103

      Some people say that a cross section of adipocytes looks like a pus ring because the pus membrane2114

      can look a little different and yellow but inside you are going to see lots of yellow.2123

      The point is that it looks like a pus ring because you have that edge and then this little nucleus2129

      to the side becomes squeezed to one corner and that looks like the jewel of the pus ring.2136

      I have drawn this in yellow because lipids or fats in the body are stored in adipocytes.2140

      This means cells that contains fat.2149

      We have all these fat gem packed inside of the plasma ring in the cytoplasm of this cell and the nucleus is squeezed over to the side because of that fat.2152

      That is the typical look for an adipocyte.2164

      Melanocytes they make melanin.2167

      Melanin is that pigment that gives your skin hair and iris within the eye’s color.2176

      These cells are found all through out your skin.2186

      They are stimulated to make melanin and our genetic factors associated with that and environmental factors like UV radiation.2189

      Connective tissue example when you get combinations of those fibers that I have told you about in cells that make different kinds of connective tissues.2198

      Adipose tissue like I have mentioned before you are going to have adipocytes storing that fat in the body.2208

      The most abundant site for adipose tissue is going to be the deepest parts of your integumentary system.2215

      The lowest parts or deepest part of your skin called the epidermis is a site where you have lots of adipocytes.2223

      The amount of that stored varies for most person and in different parts of the body.2230

      Your buttocks area typically has a lot more adipose storage than in your hands.2236

      Tendons and ligaments are made up of a lot of connective tissue fibers but you also have cells in2242

      the neighborhood like fibroblasts that can reinforce or make little repairs.2250

      If you tear your ACL you will need surgery to get a strong ligament in there.2255

      If you have microscopic tears that causes a little bit of pain after you got that injury happen, you have cells that reinforce and remake parts of those fibers.2266

      Sometimes people do not need surgery with those tiny little tears.2279

      Your body can compensate for that.2283

      Blood is definitely a connective tissue.2285

      There are lots of blood proteins associated with this particular tissue and there all kinds of blood cells.2290

      Marcophages is just a typical in terms of cells that are assisting in terms of blood flow around your body.2299

      Cartilage are soft bone.2309

      Cartilage found in every movable joint in your body found in the nose, ears, etc. are very important.2312

      You not only have a lot of fibers associated with cartilage but cells that can produce those fibers and release them to make that cartilage.2320

      Bone is a lot harder than cartilage.2330

      Collagen fibers are very abundant in bone.2334

      Without cells in the bone you are not going to be able to produce that collagen and maintain the integrity of your bones.2339

      Muscles are made up of muscle fibers and those fibers in your muscle cells are jam packed with proteins.2349

      These are just several examples of connective tissue types in human body.2359

      Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2363

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