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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (4)

1 answer

Last reply by: Anmol Chowdhary
Thu Jan 22, 2015 11:18 PM

Post by alex joly on April 26, 2014

Hey Bryan,

Although it won't be able to help me out right now, for future students a small lesson on the autonomic and somatic systems would be very beneficial!

Ps. Your lessons raised my marks by 10%

Thanks!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Feb 4, 2014 10:18 AM

Post by ireen paradis on February 4, 2014

is there a lecture where I can see all the cranial nerves?

Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

  • The PNS (peripheral nervous system) includes sensory (afferent) nerves and motor (efferent) nerves
  • The motor division of the PNS includes the autonomic nervous system (involuntary) and the somatic nervous system (voluntary)
  • The spinal cord contains densely compacted neurons, and it has white matter, grey matter, and CSF, protected by the vertebral column
  • The spinal cord contains motor/sensory tracts, dorsal/ventral roots, and spinal meninges
  • The sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system initiate the “fight or flight” or “rest and digest” responses
  • Reflexes involve automatic reactions to stimuli via motor responses
  • Nerve anatomy terms: epineurium, fascicles, perineurium, neurons, and endoneurium
  • Nerves examples: vagus, sciatic, radial, facial, optic nerves
  • Lumbar punctures involve the withdrawal of CSF and epidural blocks involves the injection of anesthesia
  • Some spinal cord conditions/disorders are meningitis, shingles, nerve palsies, and multiple sclerosis
  • ***NOTE: Slide 2’s graphic has a typo on the bottom; it should read “Autonomic nervous system” and “Somatic nervous system”, instead of “sytem”
  • Did you know…
    • Q: How does someone break his or her neck without becoming a paraplegic?
    • A: If you fracture cervical vertebrae without them puncturing or shredding neural tissue within, then the injury will not lead to permanent motor/sensory damage. When a person has likely fractured their spine in an incident, emergency personnel (EMTs/paramedics) stabilize the neck with a brace and put the person on a backboard so that they don’t do worse damage to the spine region and cause paralysis.

Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Nervous System Flowchart 0:08
  • Spinal Cord 3:59
    • Connect the Body to the Brain
    • Central Canal Contains CSF
    • Becomes the Cauda Equina
    • Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
    • Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
    • Motor-Inter-Sensory
    • Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
    • Spinal Meninges
  • Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic 10:28
    • Fight or Flight
    • Rest and Digest
  • Reflexes 15:07
    • 'Reflex Arc'
    • Types of Reflexes
  • Nerve Anatomy 19:49
    • Epineurium
    • Fascicles
    • Perineurium
    • Neuron
    • Endoneurium
  • Nerve Examples 21:43
    • Vagus Nerve
    • Sciatic Nerve
    • Radial Nerve
    • Facial Nerves
    • Optic Nerves
  • Spinal Cord Medical Terms 24:42
    • Lumbar Puncture
    • Epidural Block
  • Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions 26:50
    • Meningitis
    • Shingles
    • Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
    • Hypesthesia
    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia

Transcription: Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the next nervous system lesson specifically on the spinal cord and nerves.0002

If you will look at the nervous system as a giant flow chart, that have to do with the brain, spinal cord, and all the nerves, this is a good representation.0007

For the top here in the orange box is the central nervous system which is the brain and the spinal cord.0017

That communicates with the peripheral nervous system with all the nerves extending from the spine and from the cerebral area, from the cranium.0025

These working conjunctions have to do with sending and getting signals up to them.0035

There are 2 main divisions in terms of tracks that the neurons run along.0042

There is the motor or the efferent division and the sensory or the afferent0047

Sensory has to do with your senses.0052

Those are the signals that are going from the peripheral nervous system up into the spinal cord and brain.0055

It is the opposite with motor.0060

Motor having to with movement and initiating with those responses from out of the nervous system.0062

The way that I keep afferent and efferent straight is I think of it alphabetically in terms of the brain being on top.0068

A has to do with going up to with the brain, afferent is all this sensory signals.0080

Efferent is going down, going out.0087

The other way you can remember it is that the end goal of an afferent signal is the effector which starts0090

with the same beginning, whatever is affected, a muscle, gland, or an organ by that motor signal.0096

Motor nerves fibers and sensory nerves fibers, sometimes they are contained in other nerves and0106

sometimes they are nerves that are called mixed because they have both afferent and efferent tracks.0112

When you look at the spinal cord as a whole, the spinal cord has a motor or efferent section and sensory or afferent section.0119

Make sure you keep those straight.0131

When you look at how the motor part of it is working in terms of initiating action in your body, the somatic portion is all the things you have conscious control over.0136

When I move my fingers, arm, legs, those have to do with somatic or voluntary motor neurons because I have elected to consciously do that.0150

The other side of that is autonomic.0162

Autonomic think of it as automatic.0165

It is a slightly different word but it basically means the same thing but automatic without you having to think about it.0169

The autonomic part of the motor division is all of those activities that happen without you thinking about it.0175

For instance your heart rate, you do not have to think about beating your heart.0183

Your breath rate, you can consciously choose your breathing but you do not have to.0187

The blood vessels, another one is sweating, you do not have to think to make yourself sweat.0195

It happens when you need it to, same with digestion.0203

All of those things are regulated by the autonomic branch of the peripheral nervous system specifically it is the motor branch of the PNS.0207

When you look at the autonomic part, there are 2 main divisions.0217

I will go over in more detail later in this lesson.0221

The sympathetic with have to do with fight or flight response when there is danger.0224

The opposite of it which is parasympathetic which is more like rest and digest.0228

All of these fit together to make your nervous system do what it does.0233

The spinal cord, this particular part of the CNS is how the brain is connected to body and the body is connected to the brain.0238

When we look at the white versus gray matter, it is flipped compared to the brain.0248

Remember in the brain, gray matter is superficial and white matter is deep.0255

It is the opposite here.0260

This is one of those horizontal or transverse portions and you can see that along the superficial portions of it is very white and the deepest part is gray.0261

is white and the deepest parts is gray.0268

Once you go through the medulla oblongata, it flips.0272

It actually make sense that a large proportion of the spinal cord is white matter because if you remember from previous lessons,0276

white matter is because of having a lot of those myelinated axons.0282

Those Schwann cells or oligodenrocytes in certain parts give it that white appearance.0288

It is the signaling part.0294

The spinal cord is very much a signaler.0295

The central canal is the deepest part, the most central part, it is a perfect name central canal.0298

It is a tiny hollow tube down the spinal cord where you are going to have cerebral spinal fluid.0305

There are also cerebral spinal fluid along the outside of the spinal cord.0312

The spinal cord itself travels through the foramen magnum of each vertebra.0316

Together with foramina of the vertebra contained the spinal cord.0322

When you get down to the lumbar region, those little holes are proportionally smaller.0328

The spinal cord eventually branches outside of that and almost looks like a horse’s tail down0336

at the bottom of your back if you are look at all the extensions of the spinal cord coming out.0343

Because of that they call it the cauda equina which in Latin means horse tail.0347

The spinal cord branches out significantly to the point where it does not look like a compacted cord anymore when you get passed the mid pack.0353

When we look at more detail at what is going in the spinal cord, you have a motor side and sensory side.0366

You can call it motor tracks and sensory tracks.0376

The motor or going out of the nervous system, the commanding of muscles and other tissues, that is more on the anterior side.0378

Motor we are going to use red and that is why there is this little ventral root here that has to do with the sending out of those motor signals.0387

That is on the anterior or ventral side of the spinal cord and the sensory also known as the afferent part,0401

the coming in of signals into the spinal cord is on the posterior or dorsal side.0412

Remember efferent and afferent.0419

Afferent is the sensory part going up to the brain and efferent is going out.0422

I am also going to color coordinate this, efferent is the motor side of it.0429

Afferent is the sensory side.0435

When we look at the sequence of how a signal goes through, motor is going out and sensory is coming in.0438

There are also nerves that have both.0448

When we look at what is this afferent sequence is doing, this is coming form some sensory nerve that is taking information to the CNS.0451

This one is the efferent side that is commanding the tissue to do something and together in this case it looks like they come together in one nerve.0463

In other cases you are not going to see that.0476

The reason why I have this here is you sometimes do have nerves that have both tracks in them.0478

There are other nerves that are one or the other.0484

When we look at what is going on inside of these tracks, motor inter sensory basically means if you have a signal coming into the body,0486

let us say something touches your skin and then you want to have the sensation of that come to the spinal cord and brain0499

so you can react to it, the sensory part is the coming in.0509

then you have something called intra neurons which will connect the sensory and motor parts together.0515

It is like the goal between the middleman.0521

The intra neuron you are going to find a lot of that in the spinal cord.0523

It is what connects the sensory to the motor.0527

Your ability to react to stimulus or sensation has to do with the sensory communicating0529

with an intra neuron that commands certain motor neurons transmitters to send out signal so I can react to it.0537

The dorsal root and ventral root comes back into this red and blue portion.0545

The dorsal root is the back side which should be blue.0550

The ventral root is red.0554

The spinal meninges you are also going to have that layer of connective tissue sheeting and enveloping the spinal cord as you do with the brain in previous lessons.0557

Along the outside of this, you are going to have the meningal layers.0570

The average adult spinal cord is about 45cm long, that is the length.0576

In terms of width, it is 14mm.0582

It is pretty thin.0587

I think it is thinner with most people would think.0591

It is going to be slightly wider on average up towards the top.0593

As you go down the spinal cord, as you go posterior, you have a lot of nerve branches coming off.0599

It is like a freeway where there is a lot of off branch coming off, taking cars off their destinations.0605

By the time you get from the cervical part of the spinal cord down at the thoracic, on average in that region it is going to be less wide.0612

But the area that it has the widest portion only 14mm.0621

When we look at the different parts of the autonomic branch of the peripheral nervous system there are the sympathetic and the parasympathetic.0626

They are opposites.0636

Right not I am in the more sympathetic mode.0637

The camera is not threatening and neither are you.0640

There is no reason why my heart rate need to be fast and my breath to be fast, and my skeletal muscle prepare to react.0643

In the case that something threatening does happen you want your body to initiate a response and enable you to live longer and get rid of that threat.0651

It is either you are fleeing, that is the flight part or you are fighting back.0661

In the sympathetic branch gets initiated, your heart rate, blood pressure, and breath rate, are going to go up.0666

Think about walking through a forest and seeing a bear or seeing some kind of a wild tiger,0674

you want to be able to get away from that particular animal if you can, to make yourself live longer.0680

The pupil dilating the reason of that is if something threatening happens, what is going to tend to happen is your pupils will expand.0688

Your pupil is just the opening that lets the light in to they eye.0696

Why is that happen?0703

The more light you let into your eyes, the more you can judge your surroundings to properly figure out what is going on and how to react to what you are seeing.0705

Digestion is going to decrease and here is why.0715

It takes a lot of blood flow into the abdominal region to move digestive fluid through and to absorb it.0718

If I see a threatening thing in my environment that I need to react to, I am going to put digestion on hold.0726

I am going to get that blood flow into my arms and legs primarily so I can fight it.0732

Digestion is going to tend to decrease.0739

However, on a cellular level specially in muscle fibers the metabolism, the break down and building up of ATP, by breaking down glucose and building up ATP.0741

As a result of that breakdown is going to allow you to use your muscles a lot more in that instance.0756

Though digestion decreases in terms of moving stuff into your digestive tract, on a cellular level metabolism is going to go up.0762

Sweating is going to increase because the more muscular activity you are doing, the more heat you are going to generate in and you are going that heat via sweat.0772

Parasympathetic is the exact opposite.0780

There is no rhyme for it.0782

Instead of fight or flight, it is rest and digest, which is no rhyme.0784

Your heart rate, blood pressure, and heart rate, are going to drop.0789

You are getting relaxed.0794

There is nothing threatening so why will your heart rate and blood pressure go through the roof?0796

It is a waste of energy in that case.0800

The opposite is going to happen in your pupils.0802

They are going to constrict.0804

If I am resting in a room just chilling and the light go down, my pupils are going to open up a bit.0806

In general, your pupils tend to be more constricted when you do not need them to be dilated to assess what is threatening.0815

Digestion is going to increase.0822

You will be able to digest better when you are relaxed and chilling.0824

A way that can be a problem is if I eat something quickly and I get it into my stomach and it is gradually going into my small intestine,0829

and then 10 minutes later I realized that I am late for class or late for an appointment and then I start running, I am going to get cramps.0840

That is the way that my body is telling me you just inhaled all of those food and you got it into the stomach and intestine,0846

you have all the blood flow there to help digest it and now you are asking the body to get a bunch of blood flow into your skeletal muscles.0853

What is it going to be?0861

When they say that you should wait 30min after eating before you go swimming, that is the reason why.0862

You are giving your body an opportunity to do some of the digestion and then after you have done a lot of that then you can go for your run or do your activity.0867

It depends on the person and how much you eat.0878

Increased salivating that is paired with the digestion part of it.0880

It makes sense that you would salivate more in this particular instance, the parasympathetic part then sweat.0885

When I say increased sweating with sympathetic, sweating is going to decrease and salivating is going to go up.0892

Conversely, when you activate the sympathetic branch you are going to get decreased salivation as well.0898

Reflexes, we know them very well.0905

Reflexes are the slings that happen automatically without you having to think about it consciously.0909

These are rapid automatic responses to particular stimuli.0915

A single reflex can be studied via the reflex arc, the back and forth of sensing that stimulus and the reaction to it.0918

Number 1 stimulus arrives.0928

It could be something touching your body or your skin.0929

Sensory neuron activation those are the afferent neurons going to the CNS.0934

Processing of info is oftentimes it goes all the way up to the brain, this part of the CNS.0941

There are some reflexes that bypass the CNS altogether which is pretty amazing.0948

That is located primarily in parts of the digestive tract.0955

If you ever asked a trivia question name a part of the body where a reflex in terms of the sensing and reaction to it bypasses the CNS altogether?0959

It is in the digestive part, in the gut.0971

That is why some people say that the gut is almost like a second brain because it can regulate all that stuff reacting to what is going on in itself.0974

Typically the processing is part is the inter neurons, the neurons in the CNS helping connect the sensory to the motor.0984

Number 4 is motor neuron activation.0993

It is the sending out of the signal quickly to whatever effector it is going to, whether to muscle, gland, parts of your digestive system.0996

The response is contraction of muscle or sweating.1006

A little bit different types of reflexes.1011

These are all opposites of each other.1015

Innate and acquired are opposites.1017

Innate is you are born with it.1020

A reflex that you are born with is something as simple as tracking an object with your eyes.1023

Even babies at a younger age do this.1028

You hold something in front of their face and their eyes just follow it.1031

It is something very natural and that reflex is around from birth.1034

Acquired reflexes would be something like when you are driving a car and you have a reflex to something that happens.1038

Your reflex is to mutely turn the wheel left or you see the red lights in front of you and you step on the break.1045

That is something that does not take very long to react to because it is a reflex.1053

That is acquired.1057

You are not born knowing to slam on the breaks when those red lights happen.1059

Somatic versus visceral.1063

Somatic means bodily.1066

These are those reflexes that happen naturally and you do not have to think about it.1069

Somatic reflex is something like that knee test also called the patellar reflex test.1076

The doctor, if they are testing your reflexes and that little hammer hitting your patellar tendon it is that tendon that connects the knee to the other part of the leg.1084

When they hit that part, what is happening is they are elongating the tendon with respect to the muscle attached to.1095

When that elongation happens, your body’s reaction is for the muscle in your thigh tends up.1102

That is supposed to happen very quickly.1111

They do that test to test your reflexes.1113

A visceral reflex would be something like if a light is shined into one eye, what is going to tend to happen is your pupil1115

is going to get constricted because that amount of light you do not need that much into your eye.1125

We are going to lessen the window into which the light comes into the eye.1130

The amazing thing is that if you are shining a light into the right eye your left pupil should constrict as well at the same time and amount.1135

That is a visceral reflex.1144

Monosynaptic versus polysynaptic.1145

It is polysynaptic it has to do with how many synapses are involved in the reflex.1148

Mono means one and poly means many.1155

If there is a lot of process that needs to happen, it is going to happen quickly but if there is a lot of steps1157

in terms of numerous synaptic events it is going to be polysynaptic rather than monosynaptic.1163

Cranial versus spinal means is it just with the cranial nerves or is it also with the spinal nerves?1170

Which one is it?1177

Something like that knee jerk is definitely going to be spinal because the nerve associated with that connects to the spinal cord rather than to the cranium.1178

When we look at a nerve whether it is a sensory, motor, or mixed nerve, there are some parts to keep in mind.1188

If you remember the structure of a muscle from previous lessons there are a lot of same terminology here, same prefixes and same terms.1198

Remember epi, peri, and endo, these prefixes were found in muscle anatomy.1208

Instead of epimysium it is epineurium.1215

The epineurium is the outermost, superficial connective tissue that is keeping a nerve in tact.1219

The fascicle is the same term as in muscles.1226

In muscles the fascicle contain the muscle fibers and this sometimes each one is called a fascicules.1229

I just like saying fascicle.1239

A fascicules contains a bunch of neurons.1241

It depends on the nerve sometimes thousands and thousands.1245

The perineurium is the connective tissue that is separating each fascicle from each other similar to how it is in the muscle.1249

The neuron is the actual cell that is contained in the fascicles.1257

We can pull one of those out.1263

Endoneurium is the tissue separating individual neurons from each other within one fascicle.1265

That is the basics of nerve anatomy.1273

You can also see that blood vessels are going to be found there too.1276

That is not color coded very well in here but you would see in most diagrams red dots and blue dots1281

because you have little arterials and venial taking oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to the parts of the nerve.1287

They are made up of cells too so they need nourishment and need that waste taken away too.1295

That is a nerve.1300

Some examples of nerve, I am not going to all of them because they are so many but one of the classic nerves that you will hear about is the vagus nerve.1302

Vagus means wonderer.1311

The reason why they call it the wonderer nerve is because the vagus nerve when it branches off from the CNS it splits up and goes to a lot of areas within the torso.1314

It has a lot to do with blood vessels and organs within this part of the body.1327

One of the many functions is sections of the vagus nerve go to the aorta and the carotid artery.1333

It has to do with the communication with the chemo receptors with the CNS.1341

As your blood gets more sealed with it, if I inhaled oxygen and exhale CO2, if it has been several seconds since I have taken a new breath,1346

right now I as I am talking I am inhaling I am getting a build up of CO2 in my blood stream making it more acidic.1359

I just breathe in so I can exhale again.1366

The reason why the vagus nerve is important in that sense is the chemoreceptors in the walls of the carotid artery that sense that increase in acidity.1370

If that did not happen your body will not know it is time to take another breath because we got to get more O2 and get some CO2 out of the body to reduce that acidity.1381

That is part of the mechanism of this breathing.1391

That is one of the many things the vagus nerve has to do what is in the body.1393

The sciatic nerve is another classic nerve a lot of people have heard about.1397

That goes back to the posterior part of the pelvic curvature and down the leg.1402

You can see it goes to the buttocks and down each leg.1412

You may have heard the term sciatica that has to deal with irritation and swelling with respect to this nerve.1415

Various health conditions can make it so that not only it is hard to move the legs but you get a numbness,1423

tingling pain associated with this nerve getting pressure on it.1432

Surgeries are one of the things that can relieve sciatica.1437

Medications can help too.1441

The radial nerve has to do with the radius.1443

Remember that the radius is on the thumb side of the forearm.1446

It is one of the major nerves that is going to your arm.1449

Facial nerves has to do with moving all the facial muscles and that branches off numerous little extensions1451

from the nerve to coordinate the different muscle movements to the face.1461

Finally the 2 major optic nerves that come to the eye.1466

There is a little bit of criss cross that happens so that the majority of information from the right eye goes to the left occipital lobe and vice versa.1470

Those are some classic nerves.1479

Spinal cord medical terms.1482

Two things you might have heard of and I will explain in a little bit about is a lumbar puncture1485

or spinal tap is a way of withdrawing some cerebral spinal fluid to do some certain test.1489

That is one of the way that meningitis is diagnosed.1494

If you go the hospital with symptoms of meningitis they want to test for certain if you have that infection going on.1498

If you stick a needle into one of those cartilaginous pads between the vertebrae, you can go just deep enough to withdraw1506

the CSF without going into deeper meningal layers because you do not want get to the spinal cord.1519

If you puncture the spinal cord, it can cause paralysis.1526

That is one way that you can withdraw fluid tap.1529

The reason why they do it down here is because the epidural space that is on the more superficial side of this cavity is greater here.1534

If you go up into the thoracic cervical parts, it is much more narrow.1546

There is not as much as CSF, it is more dangerous to take fluid from those parts.1551

Epidural block this is done for numerous reasons but one of the common ones is if a woman1556

is getting into labor and does not want to feel the pain of child birth as much.1564

An epidural block is the opposite of the spinal tap because they are injecting some anesthesia, some medications that is going to reduce the pain.1568

Wherever they inject that pain medication you are going to be numbing the nerves that branch off from just that portion.1579

If you inject it in the lumbar area, you are covering the area where the labor pains are going to be felt normally.1587

Epidural block is done prior to birth to minimize the pain of child birth.1598

Once again they do not want to go deep with that particular injection because you got some spinal cord damage.1604

For some spinal cords and nerve disorders and conditions.1609

The first one is meningitis and it is cause by bacteria, fungi, or viruses.1613

It has to do with infection and inflammation of that wrapping around the spinal cord and brain.1619

Oftentimes it is fatal if you do not get rid of the bacteria, fungi, or virus that is causing it.1625

Shingles is like chicken pox back with the vengeance.1631

The reason why I say that is chicken pox is caused by virus and it is happening less and less in kids these days because of the chicken pox vaccines.1636

When people my age and older who have had chicken pox as a kid, sometimes when chicken pox is done the virus is not entirely destroyed in your body.1644

Some of the virus go to a dormant state also known as the lisogen exyco which you can remember from earlier biology.1654

It will stay at dormant state for years and then all of a sudden one day when you are a little bit older it comes back with vengeance.1661

Something stimulates it to come back and re attack parts of the skin and instead of it being the pox, it is a rash and it tends to be concentrated somewhere in the torso.1668

It is very painful and it is way worse than chicken pox that is why it is said as the virus back with vengeance.1683

The shingles eventually goes away and the severity can be almost unbearable.1689

Cerebral and nerve palsy usually has factors when the person is born with that are affecting1697

the nerves in the cerebral area or in the nerves that are coming off of the spinal area.1707

The palsy has to do with a reduction in proper motor control of certain areas and there are a lot of different palsies.1714

It varies from person to person.1720

Hypesthesia is a fancy way to say that it is a reduction in the sensation that someone experiences.1724

If someone does not have the average sensitivity that your eye would have when your skin is touched, you can call that hypesthesia.1733

A severe form of that would be someone who does not experience pain.1744

They do not get that sensation at all.1748

When I have described this to people in the past they would say that would be awesome.1751

I love it not to experience pain.1755

No it would not because pain is a way that your body is told that is something is wrong.1757

Something is harming it and something bad is happening into your body.1764

It is a signal that can save your life.1770

Hypesthesia can vary.1773

Sometimes it is just swelling next to a nerve that is reducing sensitivity the person experiences.1775

Sometimes it is something the person is born with.1782

Multiple sclerosis affects millions of people.1785

There are probably genetic and environmental factors that had to do with it.1789

It impacts slightly more women than men.1793

In general what multiple sclerosis is it is describing the reduction in the myelination that is happening on nerves of the body.1795

Not just in the nerves within the CNS as well.1807

There are areas where you are supposed to have the Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes1810

and they are supposed to be insulating the axon and helping increase the electrical signaling speed.1815

In a lot of MS cases you will get that reduction overtime.1822

There are a lot of signs that happen.1827

It tends to be around the persons 30 and 40’s that tends to obvious.1830

In some of those people it gets worse and worse as time goes on.1837

There are treatments and medications that can delay the effects of MS and currently there is no cure.1840

Paraplegia and quadriplegia have to do with being paralyzed from somewhere mid back down.1847

It is impacting the legs and quadriplegia is some kind of damage to the spinal cord that impacts all of the limbs.1856

Someone who is in a wheelchair who is able to use their arms, they probably have some accidents1864

and it varies that has impacted some part of their lumbar, spinal, or thoracic spine.1870

That injury cut off the ability of the brain and spinal cord to signal past to that point of injury and to get signal coming up past the point of injury.1878

Generally it is going to impact the motor and sensory tracks of that spinal cord section and everything past it.1891

Quadriplegia means if you have a neck break in the cranial part of the spinal cord that is bad enough.1898

It can permanently damage part of the cervical spinal cord and that is taking those signals not only to the arms but all the way down the spinal cord.1905

Those also have no cure but there is hope that there will be a cure for this type of paralysis.1917

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.1923

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