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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

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Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Nov 17, 2013 1:03 PM

Post by Melika Shayegh on November 17, 2013

Hi
I was wondering if otoconia is the same thing as otoliths
thank you

Hearing

  • The external ear includes the auricle (pinna), external acoustic (auditory) meatus, hair, ceruminous glands, and the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
  • The middle ear contains the middle ear bones: malleus, incus, and stapes (hammer, anvil, and stirrup), and muscles associated with them
  • The inner ear contains the boney labyrinth (cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals)
  • The cochlea is filled with various ducts (vestibular/cochlear/tympanic) and membranes (basilar/tectorial) that help transfer vibrations into electric signals in hair cells
  • Sound waves hit the tympanum, vibrating the auditory ossicles to amplify the sound, which hits the oval window and moves the fluid/membranes within the cochlea to stimulate hair cells, which send their signals to the brain through the cochlear nerve
  • Sound is measured in Hz for frequency (pitch) and decibels for loudness (amplitude)
  • The vestibule contains the utricle and saccule (each one has a macula), which are needed for telling the brain how your head is oriented in space
  • The semicircular canals have ampullae that are analogous to the three dimensions in space and their relative movements tell the brain how your head is rotating in space
  • Hearing conditions/disorders include tinitis, motion sickness, and ear infections
  • Did you know…
    • Q: What does the round window of the cochlea do?
    • A: The round window, which is inferior to the oval window, allows sound waves to dissipate out of the cochlea
    • Q: Is it true that you’re not supposed to use cotton swabs (Q-Tips) to clean out your earwax?
    • A: It is recommended that you do not use Q-Tips. It’s possible to do worse damage, such as pushing wax (cerumen) further against the tympanum, or even damaging/puncturing the tympanum! There are other ways to clean out your ears without putting a long hard object into your ear canal.

Hearing

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • External Ear 0:04
    • Auricle
    • External Acoustic Meatus
    • Hair
    • Ceruminous Glands
    • Tympanic Membrane
  • Middle Ear 5:31
    • Tympanic Cavity
    • Auditory Tube
    • Auditory Ossicles
    • Tympanic Muscles
  • Auditory Ossicles 12:02
  • Inner Ear 13:06
    • Cochlea
    • Vestibule
    • Semicircular Canals
  • Cochlea 13:57
    • Organ of Corti
    • Vestibular Duct
    • Cochlear Duct
    • Tympanic Duct
    • Basilar Membrane
    • Tectorial Membrane
    • Hair Cells
    • Nerve Fibers
  • How Sounds Are Heard 21:30
    • Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
    • Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
    • Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
    • Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
    • Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
    • Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
  • Frequency and Decibels 23:30
    • Frequency Deals with Pitch
    • Decibels Deal with Loudness
  • Vestibule 27:54
    • Contains the Utricle and Saccule
    • Maculae
  • Semicircular Canals 31:05
    • 3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
    • Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
    • Each Contains an Ampulla
  • Hearing Conditions / Disorders 33:20
    • Conductive Deafness
    • Tinnitus
    • Otitis Media
    • Motion Sickness
    • Ear Infections

Transcription: Hearing

Welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on hearing.0001

When we look at the ear, we are going to start at the outermost portions, the most superficial, lateral part of the ear.0003

In the anatomy and physiology course, when you say the ear you are not just talking about this.0013

You are talking about all the stuff in the inside too.0018

The outer part of the ear that has the lobe, that typical look that we see on human beings, that is called the auricle.0021

The way that I remember that is the term aura.0029

Have you heard someone say your aura is green.0033

Aura is something that is emanating from you, projecting from you, and the auricle is emanating or projecting from your skull.0038

The lobes of your ear or the auricles you can call them pinna or pinnae.0049

You may have heard the term pinna peds which relates to sea lions but pinna - that is another name for the auricle.0056

It is made up of mostly cartilage and fat.0065

A lot of it is soft bone which skin on top of it.0070

They are shaped like little satellite dishes and they are angled in a way where you can hear mostly what is on the sides and in front of you.0073

Think of it our ears are not facing backwards, they are facing side and forward.0084

If you do this little tapping action on the sides of your head, you are exaggerating the action of your ears.0090

Something you cannot hear very well and you go like that it is like you are extending that little satellite shaped.0098

If you hear something behind you, you are going to turn so you can perceive it better through your auricles.0102

If you go to that hole which is primarily formed by that passageway meatus in the temporal bones, that you may have heard in the skeletal lessons.0108

The external acoustic meatus or external auditory meatus in certain books, is the whole that goes through the temporal bones0120

and this part of the picture here that is spongy bone of the temporal bone.0129

This would be the periosteum on the sides and the compact bone.0134

This hole that leads into the middle and inner ear, there is going to be skin lining and on the top you are going to have hair and ceruminous glands.0139

What is an ear hole without hair?0151

Everybody got hair in the inside of the ear even if we cannot see it there are hairs in there and that is normal.0154

Like with hairs in the nose, they are catching that dust, those particles that are going in and preventing them from causing ear infection.0160

You do no want to lose your hearing when there is something going on inside of there.0168

A hair is going to protect that.0171

Excess hairs some people will trim them.0173

It is funny when you age those hairs get more obvious in certain individuals.0176

The ceruminous glands are a kind of gland similar to sebaceous glands but modified in the sense0183

so that these ceruminous glands are producing something that is called cerumin.0192

Cerumin is a very waxy substance that is causing the build up of ear wax inside of your ear canal.0197

The purpose of that to make that sticky waxy stuff is to catch bacteria and particles and things coming into that ear canal0207

into that external auditory meatus and preventing it from getting to the eardrum and beyond that wax accumulates in they are ways to clean it out.0217

Some people produce more than others and there are probably genetic and dietary factors that have to do with that.0226

The tympanic membrane is what separates the external and outer ear from the rest of the stuff inside.0232

The tympanic membrane is better known as the ear drum.0239

It is also called the tympanum.0242

It has 3 different names.0244

Ear drum is a great term because it is like a snare drum in terms of how sound waves vibrate it.0246

It is a very rigid set of membranes with a very thin layer of skin on the external portion of it, on the lateral side of it.0254

On the one that is facing the external part of your body.0266

When you go inside of a pool and you got water in your ear, the water is not actually inside of your ear but it is still in the external ear.0269

If you can see this with the blue, when water goes inside of your ear, sometimes it is just resting right here against that ear drum.0281

A simple shaking can get that water out.0293

You cannot get water in here and if you do your chances of infection are going to go up.0296

The tympanic membrane or ear drum actually vibrates when sound waves come in.0303

That is the first structure that is being impacted by sound waves entering your ear and that is going to transmit those vibrations further in.0311

It is going to amplify them based on what is connected to them, to the tympanum and further on in the inner ear.0321

That is the external ear.0327

The middle ear is from the inside of the tympanum or ear drum all the way to the bony labyrinth which is made up of cochlea and these other parts.0330

All in here is the middle ear.0343

You can call it the tympanic cavity if you want.0346

The auditory tube is a hollow passageway that is going to connect the middle to the nasal pharynx.0349

That is a technical term for the top of the throat.0357

The pharynx is the throat and the top of the throat is right next to the nasal conchae.0360

It is important that we have this tube there that is also called the auditory tube or station tube.0365

Anytime you get that change in pressure inside of your head like you are going up in an airplane or up0371

or down in elevation in a car where you bit there is little bit of pressure.0377

Getting rid of that pressure and equalizing it you can thank your station tube.0386

For instance, you are getting high up in a mountain in a car, the atmosphere pressure will gradually drop.0390

At sea level the atmosphere pressure is 1 ATM but if you get up higher and higher it will get to .8 or .7.0398

As that air pressure drops, the air pressure outside of your ear drum is what is dropping but0406

the air pressure inside in the middle is staying how it was from where you are coming from.0415

That is creating a pressure difference.0422

The pressure outside of your head is dropping but the pressure inside your ear is greater than what is outside of your head.0424

That is going to push on the ear drum and push it.0430

Depending on whether you are dropping in elevation or going up it is going to push the ear drum one way or another.0436

That can be very uncomfortable, that build up of pressure.0442

When you open and close the opening of the station tube inside of your upper throat,0444

that is going to allow the pressure to move in and out to equalize it with respect to what is outside of your head.0450

You probably heard that chewing gum or gnawing like that or swallowing is going to open and close the opening of the station tube and equalize the pressure.0456

You can get rid off that uncomfortable feeling.0468

When we look at what is next, what is connected to the ear drum that is going to amplify the reception of those sound waves is 3 auditory ossicles.0470

Ossicles is a fancy term for bone ossification is the formation of bone.0483

Auditory ossicles are your middle ear bones.0488

There are 3 ear bones.0491

Maleus, inquis, and stapes comes from Latin terms but in English we can say hammer, anvil, and stirrup.0492

The hammer is first one directly attached to the inside of the tympanum.0499

Next is the anvil named after, you see them on cartoons dropping on people’s heads.0503

There is an anvil.0509

A stapes or stirrup looks a lot like where you put your foot in when you are riding a horse.0511

That looks very similar to that, we will see on the next slide.0519

These 3 middle ear bones are amplifiers.0524

It is like when you plug a guitar to an amp you are making the sound from the electric guitar a lot louder because of the amp.0528

If you look at reptiles oftentimes they will have one middle ear bone connecting their ear drum to the inner ear, we have 3 as a mammal.0534

If you look at the animal kingdom, mammals in general have very good hearing.0543

We are taking little vibrations against this ear drum and making them a lot louder.0549

They tympanic muscles are the stapes that are attached to this middle ear bones.0557

They help keep them in place and also one of them prevents the stapes from running into the cochlea too hard.0563

This will make more sense in a couple of slides.0571

The cochlea is this snail shell shaped body, it is a hard body that contains the sensitive cells inside of it that are allowing you to hear.0574

The stapes is that middle ear bone that is vibrating in the cochlea.0584

The moment that the stapes hit it that gives us the different pitches we hear, high versus low, the loudness we hear, loud versus faint sounds.0589

If we hear a loud decibel noise, the stapes will run hard into the cochlea.0597

Those very loud noises are likely to damage the cochlea.0605

One of those muscles will tend up and prevent the stapes from hitting it too hard.0610

That is a nice notation to have.0616

A quick side note.0618

I saw this amazing documentary about the Eskimos up north, they live in an area0620

that typically you do not hear as much of the noise you would in the city or even suburbia.0630

It is very quiet.0636

There are very few noises in the environment.0637

You are going to hear glaciers moving and falling into the ocean but on a daily basis they are not hearing traffic, construction, etc.0641

A lot of those people still go out and hunt for seals.0653

They will go and use rifles.0657

The rifle will be right next to their head.0660

They start hunting from a very young age, from adolescents.0661

The amazing thing is that just hearing the rifle noise daily, that loud bang they are not used0665

to having that tensor muscle pull on the stapes and prevent it from running into the cochlea with loud noises.0675

Those loud bang noises were causing this group of people to have deafness by the time they were0682

in their 30’s or 40’s and by the time they hit 50 they cannot hardly hear anything.0690

Someone who lives in the city who goes and shoots rifles occasionally they muscles are more adapted to being use to pulling on that stapes from running in the cochlea.0695

There are adaptors that adapt to this Inuit tribes and they were giving them ear plugs.0707

When they will hunt, they will wear ear plugs.0714

It is going to prevent that onset of deafness at a very young age.0716

When we look very close at these auditory ossicles these 3 middle ear bones.0720

This one is the hammer and if you use your imagination you can picture that.0726

If you grab this part of it here is the head of the hammer like you can bang on something.0730

This look somewhat look like an anvil if you use your imagination.0735

There it is.0738

What a blacksmith would use or what a cartoon character would use to injure another character.0741

Inquis or anvil is that middle bone of the middle ear drums.0747

Here is the stapes of stirrup.0752

It does look like something you put your foot in.0762

This is what is hitting the oval window of the cochlea which we are going to see in a little bit.0765

These 3 bones amazingly if you take them out of a person’s body you could fit them all on your thumb nail.0772

It is the smallest bone in the human body.0781

The inner ear, that deepest part of how the ear works, is made up of a bony labyrinth.0784

Labyrinth is like a maze within here.0793

It is bony because it is hard all through out.0797

It is made up of 3 basic parts.0800

The cochlea is that classic looking snail shell type part, that have to do with your ability to hear.0802

The vestibule which is made up of section called utricle and saccade.0809

The semicircular canals these 3 loops.0814

These all have to do with your equilibrium.0817

Your brain gets information from these areas so that you know how your head is moving in space and that is important to know.0821

We are going to start on the cochlea then we are going to move on to the other sections.0831

Imagine that we took that snail shell shaped cochlea and unravel it.0836

It is crawled up and unravel it.0843

This is an image of what it would look like if this was unraveled.0845

This part right here is known as the oval window.0848

This will be important in a little bit.0853

Number 4 here this is called the round window.0858

The way that I keep them straight is it is alphabetical if you go down the R.0865

I think of oval window being on top or superior to the round window because O comes before R.0873

The organ of corti is where all the action is going on inside the cochlea.0881

This is a zoom in of this organ of corti.0887

When we look at the cochlea in terms of the fluid layers inside this bony snail shell shaped part there are 3 ducts.0890

There are couple of ways to name them.0899

The vestibular duct is also called the scala vestibule.0901

This and this are the same.0907

The cochlear duct is also known as the scala media.0909

In purple we are going to label the tympanic duct also called the scala tympany.0916

It is a kind of fluid inside of the cochlea and depending on how the fluid shakes it vibrates membranes0924

inside of the scala media or cochlear duct which contains the organ of corti.0934

We will get to those membranes in a second.0940

Think of it this way.0942

Stapes is just responding to what those other bones are doing and if we look back at the hammer that is responding to how sound waves are vibrating against it.0943

As sound waves come in depending on how the stapes hits against the oval window of the cochlea that is going to vibrate the fluid0953

in such a way that is going to vibrate the membranes and change how this little neurons are either being depolarized or repolarized.0964

That gives you ability to hear amazingly.0974

When you look at the inside of the scala media you got the organ of corti.0978

Here is the parts that are inside of the organ of corti.0984

The basilar membrane is at the base of the organ of corti, below these little accessory cells and below these little hair cells.0987

Another term for this is stereo cilia.1004

The hair cells it is not these but it is a little modified neurons with cilia on top of them.1008

The reason why I have my hand here is there is a membrane resting on top of them.1016

If you look carefully here are little cilia, those little black lines.1022

This orange section which I am highlighting in red is the tectorial membranes sitting on top of them.1026

In orange here are those hair cells.1035

These are the outer hair cells and this one right here is an inner hair cell.1039

These are found all through the cochlea from this region all the way to the edge here.1045

The hair cells at this region close the stapes are more sensitive to high frequency noises.1052

Those kinds of noises.1059

At this end of the cochlea, that sensitive to low bass noises which as we can perceive but the way that1062

I remember what part responds to which frequency is a garden hose.1073

If I take a garden hose and go like this with the garden hose, picture this in my hand and I am going like this,1080

there are little waves in the beginning of the garden hose that you are not going to notice at the very end of it like 40ft further.1086

It is a high frequency noise.1094

A high frequency noise is the sound waves are vibrating air molecules very quickly with respect to each other.1096

It is a matter of second.1104

The cycle is very high.1105

We will talk about that more in a second.1108

With low frequency noises the frequency there is not as much in terms of the number of vibrations that are happening in a seconds time.1109

Back to the garden hose example.1119

A low frequency is if I did with the hose, you would see this arc go down the entire hose all the way to the edge.1121

That is how a low frequency noise is going to stimulate this further edge or the inside of the snail shell shaped.1132

That is how I remember it.1141

The high frequency will send all the way to low frequency.1143

Another application of this is as you age you do not hear high frequency quite as well.1146

Young folks who have cell phones maybe familiar with this.1154

There is a cell phone ring tone that is so high pitched that the average adult cannot here it anymore.1158

When you are born, you can hear up to 20,000hz and I am going to show you more about that on a slide in a future.1167

As you age, as your stirrup is hitting the cochlea the hair cells that tends to get damaged first are1173

the ones at this end of the scala media that are sensitive to the high frequency ones.1184

The ones at the low end you tend to keep those longer.1188

By the time you are like 50, 60, 70, you have lost virtually all of these hair cells and you cannot regenerate them.1192

Once you lose the hair cells, they do not come back.1200

Maybe in the future some treatment will be able to regenerate them but my students did a test to me once1203

where I found out that a student in my class had this ring tone.1210

I have said sometimes next week I want that ring tone go off class and let us see if I can hear it because1214

I was convinced at the time that I was in my late 20’s that I can hear it.1220

One day I am teaching and all of a sudden they are all looking at me and I said what is going on?1225

You do not hear that, no I did not hear it.1229

By the time that I was in my late 20’s I have already lost a bunch of the hair cells in terms of their functionality at this end.1233

I could not hear 20,000 hz anymore.1240

Maybe I can only hear 15,000 or 14,000.1243

That is the little tale that relates the hair cells in the cochlea to the different frequencies.1246

There are nerve fibers connected and you can see that here is a cochlear nerve connected to all of these hair cells.1254

These fibers down here run together and come into contact with the cochlear nerve.1261

It all comes into one nerve that connects all of these hair cells to each other.1270

That cochlear nerve goes to the temporal lobes so that you can actually perceive hearing.1276

There is a separate nerve called the vestibular nerve that has to do with the vestibule and the semicircular canals.1281

This is related to what I was talking about in the previous slide.1289

How sounds are heard?1294

This is step by step relating sound waves coming into your ear canal all the way to the cochlea and how it communicates with the temporal lobe.1295

Low frequency noises if you imagine that image that allows computers have with raising the volume and bringing the volume down.1304

Low frequency is like this and high frequency is like this.1313

It is a lot more of this vibration in that span of time of high to low frequency noise.1321

Sound waves depending on their frequency and how loud they are, the amplification of them,1329

whatever sound waves they are, they are going to hit the ear drum in certain patterns.1337

They hit the tympanum then the auditory ossicles are vibrated because they are attached to the tympanum.1341

It amplifies the sound.1348

The stapes connected to the oval window right here is going to vibrate against the fluid here that in turn1350

are going to vibrate the basilar membrane which is right below the hair cells just posterior to them.1357

Those hair cells are moved because they are just next to the basilar membrane and depending on how cilia moves1366

that opens up channels for sodium and potassium and going to depolarize and repolarize action potentials just like neurons.1375

Depending on which combinations of hair cells are stimulated, that is going to give you the sensation of hearing.1385

All the different kinds of noises you hear and all the different pitches.1393

A tectorial membrane moving with respect to those cilia is going to stimulate certain neurons, and those cochlear nerve fibers take those signals into the temporal lobes.1396

When it comes to frequency and decibels, this like what I have mentioned before.1408

Every different sound waves has a wave length.1415

Some physicist do not like that term because wave length is better when you talk about light.1420

Waves looking like that in terms of electromagnetic radiation, those radio waves, microwaves, the visual spectrum.1425

It is better to think of it in terms of this, which is like air molecules are vibrating against each other.1434

That is how sounds gets inside of your ear.1442

You may have heard that in space you would not be able to perceive sound because if you are out in space there are no air molecules for sound to vibrate against.1445

But if you are on Earth, you do need to worry about that.1454

The number of how often the molecules are bumping against each other per second is going to give you the different frequencies.1456

On top of that you got decibel level or how loud the sound is or how faint the sound is.1466

You can have a high pitch sound that is very loud.1473

There are also high pitch sound that is not very loud.1477

You can those different decibel levels.1481

When it comes to frequency, we use hertz.1487

Hertz is the cycle per second named after a scientist.1491

20hz is the lowest end of the frequency.1494

20,000 is the max that humans can hear.1500

Dogs can hear beyond that, that is why there are dog whistles that no human can perceive but the dogs can hear it.1504

20,000hz a child or newborn can typically perceive that but by the you are an adolescence and teenage years you have already lost some of that.1511

When you get to 20’s or 30’s you are losing more and more when you age.1522

As I told you before, the stapes hitting that part of the cochlea.1525

When it comes to decibel levels in terms of loudness, it is a logarithmic scale.1529

When you look at 20 decibels versus 10, 20 decibels is 10× louder than 10.1535

30 decibels is 100× louder than 10 and that means 40 decibels is 1,000× louder than a 10.1544

Here are some examples.1552

0 will be the lowest audible level, the tiniest noise.1553

40 is just a quiet office and that is a lot louder than a 0 but a quiet office where people are not talking1561

you just hear those general noises maybe an air conditioner or water cooler, computer sounds.1573

It is a very peaceful atmosphere.1579

A 100× louder than that is how I am talking to right now, a typical conversation.1582

I am at 60 decibel right now.1587

A lot louder than that is a chain saw.1589

If you are using a chain saw without protection, that can damage your hearing over time.1593

120 is a loud rock concert and a band like the WHO has set records in terms of loudness.1601

That is going to be damaging your hearing over time.1608

Pete Thompson has said that he should wear ear protection because he has partial deafness from years of rocking on1612

and having those amplifiers blare noises into his skull.1621

160 is going to make you deaf.1625

If you are there for a rocket launch right next to the rocket or under a plane.1629

A plane landing is probably going to be more like 140 but still without ear protection from 120 to 160 you are risking permanent damage and deafness.1635

I do want you to think that 100 is not a problem or 90 is not a problem.1644

If you listen to 100 decibel sound over a long period of time that can be as bad as 1 or 2 seconds of 160.1650

It is all relative in terms of what the exposure is.1659

When you get up on this range not only you are going to be having a lot of pain and ruptured ear drums but you are risking permanent damage to your hearing.1662

When you look at the vestibule, the inner part of the ear, that has to do with equilibrium, there are 2 main sections.1672

There is the utricle and the saccuole.1681

If you remember the image where you have the semicircular canals, we are not talking about the canals right now,1685

we are talking about the middle region between the canals and cochlea.1690

It is bony.1694

It is well protected and housed but inside of the vestibule this utricle and saccuole each has something called a macula.1696

The plural is maculae.1705

This is what a macula looks like.1707

This is the whole macula of either the utricle or saccuole.1710

What the vestibule does is if your head is till and you get up in an elevator, even your eyes are closed you know that you are going up or down.1714

You just have a sense of it and it is because of the vestibule.1726

Based on how the gravity pushes on the macula or if you have an opposite feeling of gravity that you are rising up,1728

that is another action that is going to affect the macula and allow you to perceive that.1735

It is the same thing where I am sitting in a car and I am not moving my head around, I can have my eyes closed1742

and just know when the person is speeding up or slowing down.1747

I just have that sense of it because that linear acceleration is pushing on part of the macula.1751

That gravitational force or linear acceleration or deceleration is going to affect the audilyst.1758

Audilyst basically means ear stones.1767

They are these tiny, hard, crystals that sit on top of this gelatinous layer which is going to be having these hair cells embedded in it.1770

If I am going up in an elevator I am going to sense that it is the opposite of gravity.1783

It is going to feel like I am pushed on and even though I am rising up I am going to feel that I am pushed on, that is going to affect the audilyst.1792

That is going to action of those tiny stones moving and their movement is going to affect this gelatinous layer which is going to manipulate these little cilia1801

and just like with cochlea that is going to cause depolarization and repolarization that is going to activate these nerve fibers.1812

This is the same when I am accelerating forward in a car, if the front of your face is that way, if I am accelerating forward1822

the audilyst are going to move this way and is going to drag the gelatin layer and that is going to affect the hair processes.1836

If you are body is on a rollercoaster and your body is still but you are being moved around,1848

you will get a sense of that because of the actions that are happening within the vestibule.1858

The semicircular canals there are no coincidence here that there are 3 of them.1864

It is perfect.1870

There are 3 canals that correspond to the x, y, and z axis.1871

If you think about geometric graphs and 3 dimensional space, x, y, and z each of those canal correspond to the 3 planes.1878

That is great because depending on how your head moves in space that is going to change what is going on in certain canals 1 or sometimes all 3.1888

Here are the planes.1896

There is this one, this one, and this one.1898

Depending on how you move your head you are going to manipulate 1 or more of them.1903

Each one of the semicircular canals, if you look at the canal being shaped like this,1908

there is a lymph fluid inside the canal and at the base of each of these 3 canals is something called and ampoule.1915

Within one ampoule there is a lot going on.1926

The crysta is pretty much this region.1932

That is made up of epithelium and then modified neurons with stereo cilia, those cilia poking up in a gelatinous layer.1936

It is very similar to the macula in the previous slide.1947

The crystal is there.1950

The hair cells that is the stereo cilia and the copula is this.1952

It is surrounding the purple region that is where the cilia are.1960

The gelatinous layer it is going to be manipulated based on how the fluid is moving in the semicircular canals.1969

The fluid slashes based on how your head is moving, that moves the copula and then that is1976

going to manipulate certain hair cells or modified neurons within this ampoule.1982

The endolymph is that fluid that is surrounding the copula.1987

The paralymph is the rest of the fluid on the outside.1992

That is how your semicircular canals are going to function.1995

When it comes to hearing conditions and disorders, one of the forms of deafness is conductive deafness which can be cured.1998

It is not necessarily permanent.2010

That is usually something in the outer in the external or middle ear that is preventing the transmission of sound waves to the cochlea.2013

Many with conductive deafness could have a cochlea that is working perfectly fine but it might be a problem with milliard bones.2021

It might be swelling or blockage in their external auditory canal or ear canal.2029

Conductive deafness covers a range of reasons why you are not getting those sound waves coming all the way to the cochlea.2035

Tinnitus is a ringing in the ear.2045

We have all experienced it.2048

It could be a result of over stimulation of those hair cells and sometimes you will find yourself sitting in a quiet room2050

and there is like that ringing that does not go away and after several minutes it does.2059

There are cases where people with tinnitus that lasts for a month or year.2065

Sometimes it could be a pressure problem.2070

It could be swelling or blood pressure problems that are affecting the cochlea.2074

Even there is no sounds hitting the cochlea and stapes is what is responsible for transmitting those sound waves to the cochlea.2078

It will give you the illusion that there is this sound.2085

Otitis media is when there is something coming to the middle ear and cause the problem.2088

It could be bacteria, some kind of infection, and even could be some kind of micro organism like a tiny insect or a protist2095

or something that is come up to your middle ear and cause swelling and inflammation.2108

That is something you do not want.2116

Motion sickness is because what your eyes are telling your brain and what the semicircular canals and vestibule are telling your brain are not in sync.2118

An example is if you are reading in a car and I can do that in no problem, other people cannot.2128

They will be in a car reading and after a little bit they get nausea.2134

That is because your eyes are telling you that you are not moving, you are just reading a book as if you are in a chair at home.2139

Your vestibule and your semicircular canals are telling your brain there is a movement going on.2146

It is some kind of mixed set of information that has something to do mesoncephalon that is what I have heard is the theory behind that.2153

We still do not know all the reasons why it results in nausea and vomiting.2162

As time goes on we are going to figure more and more about that.2167

Another source of motion sickness would be for people who are on a cruise ship.2170

They will be doing something inside the boat and their eyes are telling them that their body is still but the boat is moving.2177

It is impacting those little hair cells inside your vestibule or semicircular canals.2185

Finally, ear infections.2191

Ear infections they happen if bacteria, viruses, etc, get to the tympanic membrane and can cause a lot of swelling and inflammation.2193

It is going to be very painful.2206

An ear infection can cause deafness if they are not treated.2207

If you have ear pain go and see a doctor.2212

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2214

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