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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Respiratory System

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (10)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Fri Apr 24, 2015 10:17 AM

Post by Ellen Lowerson on April 24, 2015

I just wanted to say a hge THANK YOU for producing these lectures.
I am studying Human Bioscience in Australia and was really struggling with it until a friend showed me these lectures.  Well worth the money to sign up!

Thank you Bryan, you make it so easy to learn!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sat Mar 21, 2015 1:01 PM

Post by ana stevens on March 19, 2015

Can you go over the mechanisms of ventilation

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Nov 26, 2014 2:55 PM

Post by Chanda Garner on November 25, 2014

Hey! I enjoyed this lesson but had a few questions:
1) What is the correct sequence of air flow through the bronchioles towards the alveoli?
2) Is recoil of lungs the major cause of expiration?
3) What is pleural pressure's relationship to alveolar pressure?
4) What happens when PC02 is increased in the blood, hemoglobin does what?
5) What blood vessel has a PCO2 of 40 mm HG?
Thank you!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Apr 20, 2014 11:07 AM

Post by Kayla Steiner on April 19, 2014

Could you elaborate a little more on decompression sickness? I understand it's a build up of inert gas bubbles in the body, mostly nitrogen, but I guess I don't understand the steps of why it happens.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Mar 27, 2014 2:38 PM

Post by Oscar Alfonso on March 26, 2014

what are the epitheliums from the nasal cavity to the alveolus

Respiratory System

  • Functions of the respiratory system: providing tissue for gas exchange in/out of the body, physically moving air in/out of body, protecting the body from dehydration/temperature changes/pathogen entrance, and producing sounds (vocalization)
  • The upper respiratory tract includes the external nares, vestibule, nasal septum, nasal conchae, nasal mucosa, and pharynx
  • The lower respiratory tract includes the larynx (epiglottis, glottis, hyoid, cartilages, ligaments, vocal cords), trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli of the lungs
  • Sound production involves air being pushed across the vocal folds and is a combination of phonation plus articulation
  • The trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles have a mucosa lining with cilia that are meant for sweeping up mucus generated in the lower parts of the respiratory tree
  • Bronchoconstriction is when the passageways (lumen) in the bronchioles get thinner and bronchodilation is when the passageways in the bronchioles get wider
  • Alveoli (one-cell thick) are microscopic air sacs in the lungs that are responsible for getting oxygen into the blood stream and carbon dioxide out of the bloodstream, through passive transport
  • Without surfactant, alveolar sacs would not be able to stay open and functioning due to surface tension problems
  • The left lung has 2 lobes and the right lung has 3 lobes, separated by deep fissures and wrapped up in pleural membranes
  • The parietal pleura is a protective wrapping on the surface of the lungs, the visceral pleura is the wrapping on the inside of the thoracic cage, and in between the two layers there is fluid for lubrication/protection
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles are the main muscles that allow breathing to occur
  • Respiratory volumes can be chartered to study variations or abnormalities in the breathing of a human
  • Partial pressures of gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc) determine where they move
  • Respiratory conditions/disorders include asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), and pneumonia
  • Did you know…
    • Q: How long can the average person hold their breath?
    • A: Under one minute. Most people let psychological distress prevent them from holding their breath longer (whether they’re in water or not). The more a person can increase their inspiratory volume before holding their breath, the longer they can go. On the reverse end of the spectrum there is an indigenous tribe on an island in the Pacific Ocean that has been catching crustaceans, etc. under water for so many generations that they have been reported to be able to hold their breath for 8-10 minutes!

Respiratory System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Functions of the Respiratory System 0:05
    • Moves Air In and Out of Body
    • Protects the Body from Dehydration
    • Produce Sounds
  • Upper Respiratory Tract #1 2:15
    • External Nares
    • Vestibule
    • Nasal Septum
    • Nasal Conchae
  • Upper Respiratory Tract #2 4:43
    • Nasal Mucosa
    • Pharynx
  • Larynx 8:34
    • Epiglottis
    • Glottis
    • Cartilage
    • Hyoid Bone
    • Ligaments
    • Vocal Cords
  • Sound Production 13:41
    • Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
    • Males Have Longer Cords
    • Speech =Phonation + Articulation
  • Trachea 16:42
    • 'Windpipe'
    • Respiratory Epithelium
  • Bronchi and Bronchioles 20:56
    • Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
    • Smooth Muscles
    • Bronchioles
    • Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
  • Alveoli 24:30
    • Air Sacks Within the Lungs
    • Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
    • Surfactant
  • Lungs 30:40
    • Lobes
    • Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
    • Spongy Appearance
    • Surrounded by Membrane
  • Pleura 32:52
    • Parietal Pleura
    • Visceral Pleura
  • Breathing Mechanism 35:27
    • Diaphragm
    • Intercostal Muscles
    • Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
    • Forced Breathing
  • Respiratory Volumes 41:33
  • Partial Pressures of Gases 46:02
    • Major Atmospheric Gases
    • Diffusion
    • Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
  • Respiratory Conditions / Disorders 51:21
    • Asthma
    • Emphysema
    • Lung Cancer
    • Laryngitis / Bronchitis
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    • Decompression Sickness
    • Tuberculosis
    • SIDS
    • Pneumonia
    • Pneumothorax
    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Transcription: Respiratory System

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on the respiratory system.0002

The function of the respiratory system includes providing tissues for gas exchange between the air and the bloodstream.0004

Every animal needs gases to help them do aerobic respiration and we are definitely one of them.0014

We need oxygen and gas being supplied to our tissues all throughout our life.0020

Specially ones that are working really hard like our muscles and our brain.0024

Having that tissue for getting gas into the body effectively and getting rid of the gases waste that is important.0028

Along with that, the action of moving air in, the inhalation or inspiration and moving air out of the body exhalation or expiration.0037

That is very important as well.0047

It is a part of it.0049

The lungs protect the body from dehydration, temperature fluctuations, the entrance of pathogens.0050

It is not of course just the lungs it is a lot of the upper respiratory parts.0057

In addition to the lower respiratory parts are participating in this.0062

Dehydration is the losing of fluids.0065

It just does not happen through sweat, you can lose fluids out of this passageway.0068

After all there is an entrance and exit in the body.0072

The temperature fluctuations you do not want to have cold air come in.0075

Let us say you were in a very cold part of the earth.0082

You are in the arctic and you are breathing in air that is the below freezing.0084

That would be harmful to your body.0090

Every time you breathe in air, your respiratory tract is warming and moistening that air so it is not as harsh to your body.0093

And of course the entrance of pathogens.0100

You do not want bacteria and viruses that you are inhaling to constantly invade your cells.0103

Majority of the stuff that the average person inhales is not going to attack the tissues because the respiratory tract0109

and respiratory system is defending your body and producing sounds.0116

Mobilization I am doing it right now.0121

When I expel air across my vocal chords and I manipulate them in addition to my mouth, tongue, etc. You are going to hear speech.0123

When it comes to the breakdown of what is in the respiratory tract we can look at the upper respiratory tract and in the lower respiratory tract.0133

The upper respiratory tract is going to include everything from the nose down to the throat.0144

If we start with our first slide here we are going to the external nares.0150

That is a fancy term for nostrils.0156

These are my external nares.0159

The hole that actually leads into that opening into your respiratory tract we can call them vestibule.0161

Vestibule basically means like entrance or a doorway and there are other parts of body where the term vestibule is used.0168

Here would be the actual holes in my nostrils that entrance is called the vestibule.0174

The nasal septum, septum is a term used to other parts of bodies as well like there is a septum in your heart that separates the two ventricles from each other.0180

In this case the nasal septum is separating the two sides of your nasal cavity where your nostrils are and the nasal conchae.0189

The nasal septum is partially cartilaginous.0198

Right here in blue this is soft bone.0201

This is cartilage of your nasal septum and then a little bit further back a little on the posterior / slightly superior you can see that this is bony.0205

It is the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.0216

That is a good portion of your bony nasal septum straight back here.0219

Just inferior to that is the vomer bone and then the palatine bone is another part of it.0225

A few different bones make up the bony nasal septum.0231

This particular image is great form Grey’s anatomy.0234

It is a perfect sagittal cross section straight through the middle of this nasal region and the nasal conchae.0237

If we look at the other parts on the sides or lateral to this septum, the nasal conchae or those twist and turns of mostly the ethmoid bone.0246

There are a couple of bones involved but the ethmoid bone is the majority of that twisty turny passageways leading air into the body.0256

Along that you are going to have the production of lots of mucus.0265

The mucus serves many purposes.0270

One of them is catching dirt, catching bad stuff before it gets deeper and causing infections.0272

When you are sick you are going to produce a lot more mucus and that makes sense.0278

Upper respiratory tract, number 2.0283

If we keep looking at this area, the upper part of the respiratory system, the nasal mucosa is mainly in the nasal conchae region.0286

The reason I'm listing it here is as you breathe air in and ends up going down into the throat or the pharynx.0298

The nasal mucosa not only is catching bad stuff, bacteria, virus, etc. that you are breathing in but it also warms the air and moistens the air.0305

It is very important so it is not as harsh to your lungs.0315

When you think about it, the air in this room right here and possibly we are at on Celsius scale is probably low twenties, 20-22° F scale or 70 below 70.0318

That is room temperature.0331

Your body temperature is Fahrenheit 98. something.0333

Some people say 98.6 or 98.2.0338

That is a big difference.0341

When you breathe in air it warms us a little bit.0343

It gets close to your body temperature so it is not harsh to your lungs.0346

The moistening of air is very important too.0350

You can say that the nasal mucosa humidifies the air, adds moisture to it as you are breathing it in.0353

The pharynx also known as the throat, we can separate into 3 different parts.0358

Here they are from top to bottom, superior and inferior.0363

The nasal pharynx is the part of the throat that adjacent to that nasal cavity, your nasal conchae that you can see in here.0366

Here are those parts of those twist and turns in terms of the ethmoid bone.0374

That nasal pharynx region is the connection where every time you swallow you are going to get a little bit of mucus strands.0378

I know it is nasty but that mucus strand is going to go down your throat.0386

That is great in terms of protecting your body.0390

If you are catching bacteria and viruses in the mucus of your nasal cavity, a great way to kill it is when you swallow it0392

and it goes down your throat, down your esophagus and in your stomach.0401

The acidity of your stomach is usually enough to destroy those things.0404

The oropharynx, oro coming from oris or mouth, that is the area of the pharynx that is adjacent to the tongue.0408

This is the tongue and it is kind of a weird looking tongue but that is how it looks when you have a sagittal cross section and it is inside the mouth.0417

That is what the tongue looks like.0424

Right here that is called the soft palate, the most posterior or dorsal part of the palate is actually soft compared to the hard palate.0426

The part of the throat that is adjacent to there as you are eating something small or something, that is going to be passing through there.0436

You also can breathe through the mouth but really your nose is meant for that.0443

If you have done a lot of mouth breathing you have come into notice that it does the dry up the mouth overtime.0449

You are also not going to get that really good humidifying of the air that you get with breathing into the nasal regions.0455

That is the oropharynx.0463

Finally the most inferior part is the laryngeal pharynx because the larynx is right there.0464

Here we have like a fork in the road.0471

The posterior passageway here that is the esophagus.0474

When you do drink fluids, swallow like I just did, swallow food for instance, it is going to go down the esophagus.0479

This is the larynx and here is the epiglottis.0488

That is a flap that is going to close on top of this passageway so that when you do swallow you do not want fluid in and food going down into your lungs.0491

That causes you to aspirate and cause you to stop breathing and kill a person.0502

The laryngeal pharynx is that lowest part of the throat that is adjacent to the larynx.0506

When we look at the larynx there are several parts involved.0512

That is this part right here.0518

We say voice box we are talking larynx but there is more to it than that.0521

If we start at the most superior part of larynx like I have mentioned in the previous slide, the epiglottis which is right above the glottis that is what epi means.0524

Every time you swallow the epiglottis flaps down.0533

It is a flap that closes on top of the glottis.0539

The glottis is the opening into the larynx passageway.0543

Every time you swallow that epiglottis I supposed to flap down and the glottis supposed to close so that fluid0547

and solids are not going into the larynx and trachea, your windpipe leading to the lungs.0554

We will talk more about the glottis in a bit with respect to the vocal folds or vocal chords.0560

There is a lot of cartilage involved with the larynx.0565

Before we move on, the epiglottis is the structure right here.0569

This is a sagittal cross section of larynx like we are looking from the side view.0575

This is the epiglottis when it is not close.0583

Every time you swallow it does close.0586

To this person is not swallowing currently.0588

You cannot see the epiglottis in this shot but if it were raised you would see it poking out next to what is called the hyoid bone right there.0590

That would be where the epiglottis is.0601

The glottis is just inferior to it.0602

You will see a picture on the next slide of it.0608

That is right in this region here.0610

The cartilage, there is a lot of cartilage going around.0613

Soft bone that is protecting your throat, protecting your airway.0616

The thyroid cartilage is the most prominent one.0621

The Adam's apple if you have heard of that term referring to what is called the thyroid cartilage.0625

We will do that in red.0630

Here is the thyroid cartilage and from that side view if you were to take a cross section through it we are seeing a part of a thyroid cartilage right here.0632

That is the typical looking Adam's apple that everyone has not just men.0647

People say that men have Adam’s apple and a woman typically does not.0652

A woman has all the structures as well but an adult female because of differences in sex hormones it is typically not as invisible.0656

As a male goes to puberty the size of the vocal folds in the larynx in general is going to become more visible.0664

The vocal folds specially are going to get broader and larger and that is going to have effect on your voice.0673

Your voice tends to drop when you age or go to through puberty.0680

Female voice changes a little bit too but not as dramatically in terms of the octave shift.0684

That thyroid cartilage is major component protecting the larynx and that part that is most obvious right here that sticking out, that is called the laryngeal prominence.0689

It is a very prominent part of the larynx.0700

The cricoid cartilage is just inferior to that, that is number 7 here.0703

Here is the cricoid cartilage.0708

Here it is in this view and between those 2 cartilages there is a ligament.0711

Those little ligament right here this is actually the laryngeal hyoid ligament because it is connecting this part of the larynx to the hyoid bone which I will mention next.0716

The hyoid bone is an interesting bone because to my knowledge it is the only bone I can think of that does not articulate with any other bones in the body.0727

It is not directly touching any other bones.0743

If you think about how bones work, typically bone is next to bone in a joint whether to fuse immovable joint or movable joint.0745

In this case the hyoid bone is up here.0754

I am touching it right now.0757

It is held to its place by muscles, ligaments, tendons.0758

It is not touching any bones.0762

It is very close to the mandible or lower jaw bone but it is not quite touching it.0764

The purpose of the hyoid bone once again like these other things partially protective but0768

also it is for anchoring the parts of the throat muscles and the tongue that helps in swallowing.0773

That is the hyoid bone.0780

Ligaments I already have mentioned some of them.0782

There are ligaments here and here.0785

There are ligaments all over the place.0786

Ligaments connect bone to bone or cartilage to bone.0788

The vocal cords you will see a better view of the vocal cords on the next slide.0791

If you look down into the throat and look at the top of the larynx through a little camera,0797

as someone is talking you can see there are slight vibrations going on as airs expelled pass the vocal cords.0806

Depending how they vibrate, the structure of those vocal folds that is going to be different pitches and different sounds.0814

Sound production, air passing through the glottis, the open glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces sound waves.0820

This is a great view.0829

This as an actual camera shot looking down and do someone’s top of their larynx and through the pharynx.0831

The glottis is this opening.0838

The epiglottis which you cannot see in this particular image is actually right in front of it and it is currently not down because this person is expelling air.0841

This person is talking.0849

When you swallow the epiglottis does close this opening.0850

Here is the anterior part.0854

This is the front part and the posterior part is actually down this way.0856

Diameter, length, and tension of these vocal folds records change the pitch.0861

Here are the vocal folds right here.0868

If we were comparing the average adult male, average adult female, typically the diameter and length is going to be larger in an adult male compared to female.0871

What we have control over is the tension.0883

Depending on how tense you make them that is going to change pitch.0886

I am actually changing the tense.0890

I am making the vocal folds thinner.0894

If I go, I am making them wider.0896

If you a play a string instrument or play the piano you are familiar with this.0899

On a guitar the particular strings that make the lower pitch notes those are thicker strings and0902

those other strings that actually do that the higher pitch they are thinner.0910

It is the same with the piano.0916

Pianos, hitting strings, the ones at the far right end they are going to be thinner than the real low sound.0918

That is how it works in terms of making different pitches.0924

In general adult males have thicker, longer cords compared to female.0928

There are exceptions but that is a generalization.0936

Speech, what I'm doing right now is a combination of phonation just making sound and articulation0939

actually making different types of specific noises and specific manipulations of that sound.0947

Formation is just the process of expelling air as I am exhaling, as I am expelling air pass the vocal folds and the squatous region.0955

But articulation is when you take that sound and do what I am doing right now.0965

Movements of the mouth, lips, and tongue are going to manipulate that sound to make speech that is audible and understandable to somebody.0970

If I do not have my tongue I cannot make a wide variety of noises or letter sounds.0978

T when you make a T sound there is a very specific movement your tongue has to make that T sound.0987

If my tongue was not there I will still have the phonation ability but my articulation will not be there.0995

Trachea, we are now into the lower respiratory tract.1001

Remember that the upper respiratory tract is from the nose to the pharynx.1008

We just started the lower respiratory tract with the larynx and we are definitely in the lower parts here.1012

The trachea if you follow the path to your larynx right here I'm actually touching part of the trachea.1016

If I press in a little bit I can feel little rings here.1026

As I am talking I can actually feel the vibrations, air going up hear and through the vocal cords. Etc.1034

The other parts of the trachea you cannot feel because if those behind the maneubrium, these parts of the sternum.1040

You can touch this part.1047

This is where they do tracheotomy to bypass the upper respiratory tract to help someone breathe.1049

I will talk about it more in a second.1058

The trachea is known also as the windpipe.1060

This is the tubes that getting air into the lungs.1063

It is a tough flexible tube with cartilaginous rings.1066

You can see those rings as I have mentioned a second ago.1068

I can feel it if I rub right here.1070

Those cartilaginous rings are kind of C shaped pointing this way.1073

The posterior or back portion is really not covered with cartilage in the sense that the anterior portion is.1079

The reason behind that is if remember from the previous slide, the esophagus is behind it.1087

The esophagus is that food tube or liquid tube that is posterior to this.1093

Every time you swallow and a chunk or bowls of food is being moved on your esophagus you want slight flexibility for your trachea to kind of accommodate that.1097

There are slightly less cartilage in the posterior portion so that there is a little bit more flexibility when you do swallow something.1108

It is slightly flexible not as much as these more posterior parts in the respiratory tree.1115

We will get to that in a bit.1123

Respiratory epithelium, if you watch the previous lessons on the different types of tissues in the body, what epithelium is.1124

The epithelium is those cells that cover the outer surface of an organ or the innermost surface using where there is a passageway.1131

A lumen for air, liquids, fluids to go through.1140

In this case air is passing through every time you breathe.1144

Every time you exhale air is going back and forth.1148

The respiratory epithelium, if you are to zoom in to what is going on in the innermost part the lumen of the trachea1151

and the lumen of the entire respiratory tree you would see cells that are filled with cilia.1158

These cilia look like hairs and looks like a shag carpet.1165

My grandmother's house, the house she used to live in have a green shag carpet very 70’.1169

Cilia looks like that.1174

They are constantly brushing up mucus constantly.1176

If you do not have those cilia bringing mucus to generate it from down here up and out, up into the throat, you could drown in the fluids that are produced in the lungs.1180

Every time you hack that is where that spit is coming from.1192

Some of it is saliva but you know we experience that when we have a cough.1198

When we are sick and there is excess mucus production we really do notice what the cilia are doing.1205

People who smoke tend to destroy the cilia lining these passageways and we do not typically regenerate them.1210

When you lose the cilia you do not get them back and that is why somebody who is a chronic smoker, smoking for years is more likely to get pneumonia.1218

An infection associated with basically too much pooling of fluids in the respiratory passageways.1226

A healthy person is able to get those fluids up and out.1234

The mucosa here in the trachea resembles that of the more superior structures.1239

The production of mucus here is very similar to what you are going to see in the mucosa of the nasal passage ways and in the pharynx.1244

When we go a little bit more inferior we get to the bronchi and the bronchioles.1254

Bronchioles basically mean miniature or tiny bronchi.1262

This is plural the word bronchi.1265

A bronchus we replace the i with the us is one of them.1267

Here in this picture is one bronchus and here is the other bronchus.1272

These are actually called the primary bronchi.1276

Primary bronchus on the right and this is the left primary bronchus.1280

There is one for each lung.1285

This is an anterior shot we are looking through the chest of this person.1287

Even though this is on your left this is where the right lung is.1290

This is where the left lung is.1294

Right primary bronchus and left primary bronchus.1296

It goes in sequence from primary, secondary, and tertiary as I said this is the primary one.1299

These in here would be your secondary bronchi and branching off of it.1304

And then you get into your tertiary bronchi.1308

It is like a branching tree that is upside down.1312

They do get smaller in diameters as you move along and they have less and less cartilage.1316

By the time you get to where you call the bronchioles which are branching off of all of these tertiary bronchi you are not going to have any cartilage at all.1320

The purpose of that is as you move through and you get less and less cartilage you are able to expand and contract those passageways more.1330

The cartilage is inhibiting it.1339

That is good in terms of getting more or less air into your lungs when the need is there.1342

Smooth muscles are lining the bronchi and bronchioles.1348

Those smooth muscles especially at the deepest parts, especially at the ends are going to allow for dilation and contraction of these passageways.1352

The bronchioles as I said are like little tinier branches that are coming off of the tertiary bronchi.1365

The tiniest little branches leading to the leaves and the leaves if we are getting to the analogy of a tree would be the alveoli which are coming up in the next slide.1374

With the little drawings I am making here I am not doing just this.1384

There are so many bronchioles.1388

As I have said before the cartilage that you see, these little grayish rings you can see they get reduced and reduced as you get into the tertiary bronchi.1390

When you get into the bronchioles there is no cartilage.1397

And you are having a much thinner tube.1399

You got that respiratory epithelium still in there and you have a greater degree percentage wise of expansion and relaxation or dilation and contraction.1402

When I say expansion and relaxation that is the same thing.1413

It is it is dilation and contraction or constriction.1416

Here are the proper terms, bronchodilation vs. bronchoconstriction.1420

When it comes to manipulating your blood vessels it is not as a vasodilation and vasoconstriction.1425

Here we just replace that prefix was something that corresponds to the lungs.1434

Bronchodilation is the expansion of bronchioles and other passageways in the lungs.1437

Bronchoconstriction is the opposite.1442

Bronchodilation tends to be associated with the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system that came up in nervous system lessons from before.1444

That flight or fight response you want to get more volume of air into your lungs of each breath when you are relaxed.1454

When in rest or digest or parasympathetic mode that is going to be more associated with bronchoconstriction.1460

The alveoli like I have mentioned a moment ago, those are the leaves in a sense on this respiratory tree.1468

The air sacs within the lungs.1478

It is like the final destination for the air flowing through your respiratory tree.1480

These air sacs are a nice animation of what they look like.1485

Here is little alveolar bundle and each of these is an alveolas.1489

This little sphere is alveolas.1494

They are one cell thick so if you take a cross section for one of these microscopic air sacs you would see that that they are all just surrounded by a one cell thick.1497

Here is one cell and here is one cell with a nucleus.1513

That is a single alveolas and inside there that is the lumen.1516

That is the space where air can travel into.1520

This is made of simple squamous epithelium which came up in that tissues lesson from before.1522

Just like capillaries, the smallest blood vessels of your body being one cell think these are also one cell thick.1528

This is very interesting.1535

Here we look at the red and blue that is a capillary network surrounding the alveoli bundles.1535

It is great that air only has to pass through to cells that pass through that cell of the simple squamous epithelium around this alveolas.1542

That goes into the capillary and in the wall of that capillary is also simple squamous epithelium.1552

You have very adequate diffusion.1558

If it was like 10 cells thick it would be harder for air to travel through.1562

It would not happen as quickly as efficiently.1566

Each lung has approximately 115,000,000 alveoli which is about 300,000,000 alveoli in your lungs as a whole.1568

That is amazing to think about.1578

These are very tiny air sacs.1580

People who tend to smoke tend to damage these little borders between the alveoli.1583

They tend to pop in and make the holes bigger, the spaces bigger in their spongy lungs.1591

You might think if they make these spaces bigger they can get more air.1596

It does not work that way.1601

You want to have a large surface area meaning having lots of different tiny bubbles or tiny alveoli is going1603

to make it more efficient since it is getting a lot of air into your bloodstream rather than having bigger holes.1614

That surface area is very important.1620

I have read that if this is an approximation, if you take all the alveolar parts, all the alveolar membranes and the simple squamous epithelium.1623

If you are take them out of the body and lay them out like little tiles it would cover a tennis court.1633

That is amazing to think about that issue is in your lungs.1639

Every alveolar bundle is surrounded by a capillary network which you see in this picture.1643

That capillary network is getting oxygen into the bloodstream and getting CO2 or carbon dioxide into the alveoli for expiration or exhalation.1649

You also these little green lines, the green parts are the lymphatic vessels, lymphatic tissue with have to do with protecting your body, your immune system.1662

You do have this great kind of security checkpoint so that if viruses and bacteria get through the upper respiratory tract1675

all the way through down to the bottom of your respiratory tree.1686

You have this last line of defense before something enters your bloodstream to deal and take care of it.1690

Also with this little cross section, if you are looking really closely what is going on there you would see macrophages or giants white blood cells that eat up bacteria and viruses.1695

You would see them patrolling along and sitting there waiting for something to come by and eating it up.1706

People with a strong immune system will be doing a great job with their lymphatic tissues here screening the air and get rid of that bad stuff that is coming in.1713

Surfactant is the last thing I want to mention with respect to this alveolar bundle.1726

Surfactant is a chemical that is a combination of the phospholipids and protein that has to do with reducing the surface tension.1730

If it was not for surfactant, your alveolar sacs would tend to collapse.1744

We do not want that to happen.1750

Surface tension is a good thing because it has to do with getting stuff out of the air into water.1752

We want to get stuff out of the air specifically oxygen into the fluids of the body, into through the alveolar walls or capillaries.1759

If the surface tension is too high these little bubbles you can think of them as being like little bubbles in the air, they would collapse.1768

They would cease to be how they should be.1776

Surfactants is the secretion right next to that liquid part of it that helps keep the alveoli expanded properly so that we can breath air.1777

If you do not have enough surfactant the little air sacs could collapse.1790

One of the many problems with some premature babies is if they are born very early on in the third trimester.1794

Let us say they are 2 ½ or 3 months premature not only are their organs in general underdeveloped and in they are very small weight and tend to lose heat fast.1803

There are a lot of factors that are problem but the amount of surfactants that baby has produced is not merely when it should be when they are born.1813

They actually will supplement their premature body with surfactant so that their lungs can maintain on the alveolar integrity1822

in terms of them being expanded enough to continue to get air into the body.1834

The lungs as a whole, the spongy organs that have that respiratory tree inside of them.1839

The right lung has 3 lobes that is a bit bigger than the left lung which has two lobes.1848

Once again this is an anterior or ventral shot.1853

Here is this person's right lung vs. left lung and you can see there is a little indent here where the heart should be.1856

That little nuke there is where the heart is nestled.1864

That is why the left lung is a little bit smaller to accommodate the heart.1871

If you count the lobes there are 1, 2, 3 here.1877

There are deep fissures, little bit borders between the lobes right here is a horizontal fissure.1880

Here is an oblique fissure.1889

Here is another oblique fissure.1890

The right lung is a bit broader.1893

The left lung longer ever so slightly.1896

Your right lung is a bit wider.1899

The left lung a bit longer the reason why is if you look where the liver is situated, the liver is more on the right side of your upper abdominal cavity.1903

The left lung does not go down quite as far to accommodate the liver which is right here.1914

Of course the border between the thoracic cavity where the lungs are and abdominal cavity is called diaphragm.1921

I am going to mention more about that in a bit.1928

The spongy appearance and the spongy consistency of the lungs is because of the alveoli.1931

All those microscopic air sacs scattered around adjacent to the ends of the bronchioles is going to make it have that spongy look and feel.1936

The lungs are surrounded by membranes.1947

There are two membranes, each of them are plural membranes.1950

Not plural like more than one but pleura.1953

You have two of them.1956

One of them is directly on the lungs then there is a liquid layer between them and then there is pleura on the inside of your thoracic wall or the thoracic cage where the ribs are.1959

Speaking of pleura, the membranes that surround it protect the lungs.1970

It is two layers.1977

To parietal pleura on this particular image they call it the costal pleura because if you saw the lesson that has ribs and the actual skeleton, the costal term means ribs.1978

The muscles between the ribs it is called the inter costal muscles.1996

There is costal cartilage which is right here.2001

You can use that term too.2005

Whether you call it costal or parietal pleura it is adjacent to the inner thoracic wall in the diaphragm which is the muscle right below the lungs or inferior to lungs.2007

The visceral pleura are the one that is right on the surface of the lung.2017

That is adjacent to be the more superficial part of the lungs we can call that the pulmonary pleura.2022

The word pulmonary this will happen when move over to the heart lessons or blood vessel lessons.2028

Pulmonary always has to do with the lungs.2035

Instead of using the term visceral pleura you might see it called pulmonary pleura in certain textbooks.2037

What is the deal here?2042

Not only is it protecting the lungs but that liquid that is in between.2044

You can see this black region is the cavity that the two pleural membranes forms and overhear it is adjacent to the pericardial, that sac surrounding the heart.2050

What is the purpose?2060

It helps keep the lungs elastic.2062

If the amount of pressure that is inside of this pleural region we are more to be changed.2064

It would change the ability of the lungs to expand and contract adequately.2072

For instance let us say there was a hole, it is called a pneumothorax.2077

If a hole was in one of these membranes and air could leak in or out, you can get a collapsed lung.2081

Even if it is a tiny hole or puncture.2089

I am just going to show you that there is importance to have that elasticity remain adequate.2093

It is also the lubrication.2101

Just like with the fluid that is inside the pericardial sac for the heart, the fluid around the lungs it is like keeping a well oiled machine.2104

You are expanding and relaxing your lungs all throughout the day every day of your life.2113

Not only is it helping to maintain elasticity of the lungs but it is also for lubrication because they are moving constantly.2117

The breathing mechanism, how do we actually physically breathe?2125

The diaphragm has a lot to do with it.2131

It is right under the lungs.2133

Underneath there you are going to have this dome shaped muscle that goes right under the lungs2135

and curves around and is attached to the most inferior part to the rib cage.2152

It is the border between the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity.2156

It is a thin, tough, dome shaped muscle that separates those two cavities.2161

Contraction expands the thoracic cavities.2165

Think about this way, every time you take a deep breath the diaphragm moves down.2168

Imagine that my hands are the diaphragm, when I go breathe the diaphragm was down like that and when I exhale it moves back up.2173

It takes the pressure inside of here and when you take that gas pressure and you increase the chamber size it will reduce pressure and that draws air in.2181

Its part of the gas laws.2192

If you get a reduction in pressure it is going to move air outside and then conversely when you take that diaphragm2193

and relax it so that you take the amount of air in the thoracic cavity reduce it that makes the pressure increase.2202

That expels air out of that cavity.2209

There is a cool thing you can do with a water bottle.2212

If you take a sports drink water bottle not one of the thin water bottles but one of the tougher ones, if you cut it halfway2214

and take a balloon and stick the balloon on the inside of the opening to the water bottle and attach it, it will look like this.2223

Here is the opening, take a balloon and put it on the inside here.2232

You take the lip and blow through and put it on the outside here.2241

And then you take another balloon and cut it so that it is just enough surface area to attach to the bottom here.2246

You have to tape it to the bottom of this cut off water bottle.2253

If you are to grab the bottom balloon part and pull on it that is like a diaphragm.2258

When you pull on the bottom it is going to take the amount of air in here and it is going to reduce the pressure2264

because you still have the same amount of air in there but now you have given it more space.2271

And that pressure reduction is going to draw air in here.2275

You will see the balloon expand.2278

That is how your lungs work and that is why I mentioned in the previous slide about the importance of the pleura and having that liquid layer.2280

If there was a leak in there your lungs ability to expand and contract is going to be significantly reduced and affected.2288

Do this at home it is a nice demo of how the lungs work.2296

The inter costal muscles are another part of the breathing mechanism.2300

When I'm doing more shallow breathing I am not making as much of a dramatic contraction or relaxation in my diaphragm.2304

There is also all the muscles in between the ribs of my thoracic cage.2311

The contraction of those particular inter costal muscles is going to elevate the ribs and this term so that my breastbone moves up and out and the ribs move up and out.2316

That is going to further increase the space that is inside a thoracic cage and that reduces the pressure within hear and draws air in.2323

The opposite happens when you exhale.2338

Those inter costal muscle is going to relax, bring the rib cage back down and cause air to leave the lungs.2341

Diaphragmatic breathing and costal breathing, if I do take a really deep breath you notice that there is much more of a diaphragm effort there.2349

More shallow breathing like when you sit there and not even thinking about breathing, you do not need to take deep breaths if you are just sitting there in a relaxed mode.2361

You do not need to have that deep kind of breathing and they call that costal breathing.2370

Because just moving your chest a little bit up and down is going to be enough to get air in and out.2375

Forced breathing is another story.2383

Forced breathing is even more significant in this deep diaphragmatic breathing.2385

That could be due to stress over desertion, hyperventilation could accompany this.2390

Forced breathing is where your abdominal muscles and other accessory muscles are going to assist with getting air in and out.2397

Abdominal muscles can if their acting in addition to the upper ones they can force your diaphragm to do more dramatic contractions and relaxations.2404

They are right next door to it.2416

Forced breathing is going to be something that is accompanied by stress, some kind of a problem in terms of the need to have that forced breathing that dramatic breathing.2418

If you ever wondered what causes a hiccup.2431

It has to do with the diaphragm.2433

A hiccup is basically a very short inhalation.2435

If this is the diaphragm it is a spasm in the diaphragm.2442

Normally when you breathe in that is what the diaphragm does.2447

What causes that spasm in the diaphragm?2451

There are a lot of different things.2457

Eating too fast and sucking too much air as you are eating quickly could irritate the diaphragm.2459

I have experienced this you may have to laughing a lot could bring on hiccups.2465

The theory behind that is intense laughing is going to involve a quick contractions and relaxations of your abdominal muscles.2473

Since your abdominal muscles are right next door to where the diaphragm is that could irritate the diaphragm and cause those spasms to hiccups.2482

When it comes to respiratory volumes this describes the different levels of breathing in terms of how big of inhalation you are taking.2491

How big exhalation are you making.2502

If we start over here this line here that is just called total volume.2504

It is like your regular breathing when you are just at rest and on the y axis here it says ml/kg but it is easy to think about just the total volume involved.2508

For the average person this is about half liter 500 ml.2520

I’m going to move my pen all along here and show you what is involved.2525

Here we go, I am taking inhalations and exhalations and just very shallow here.2532

Here comes a big one.2540

There you saw what happened that I went way beyond that typical title volume inhalation2544

and took in as much air as I could at that moment and that is called aspiratory reserve volume.2563

Your lungs can take a lot more air in and then you normally do with this title volume just 500 ml and 500ml out.2569

Here I went another close to a couple liters and that is when you need it.2577

If you are taking of big breath because you are going to hold your breath or you are getting ready to do something, you are going to need to take a bigger breath there.2585

That is the inspiratory reserve volume which is the amount of volume your lung can go past that title volume.2593

I exhaled so much, I even exhaled past that title volume level and try to exhale as much as I possibly could out of my lungs.2600

Below the title volume they call this expiratory reserve volume.2610

It stops here instead of going all the way down to 0 because you do not want to let every last bit of air out of your lungs or your lungs would collapse.2615

If you take all the air out of your lungs there will be no air pressure or gas pressure it would cause the lungs to deflate.2624

A collapsed lung is not good for breathing.2631

There is typically what is called residual volume.2635

It is a little less than a liter in the average person.2637

A residual volume is the amount of air that tends to stay in your lungs.2642

If you get hit really hard in the abdominal area that could cause someone what is called the wind knocked out of them is another way for that to be expressed.2645

That could cause some of that residual volume to be expelled and this person is going to have trouble breathing.2658

It is good that residual volume is kept in your lungs so that it would do not collapse.2665

Right here this inspiratory reserve volume + title volume this should actually phrase as inspiratory capacity.2671

This is you are total volume for the amount of inhalation that you can take in terms of the amount of air.2679

Inspiratory is like saying the quality of inhaling.2688

Inhalation and inspiration is the same thing.2694

There are synonyms.2697

All of these areas are below title volume.2698

The amount of air that you can exhale below that including the residual volume that is called the functional residual capacity that is ERV + RV.2703

The total amount of air from the total max you can inhale to the total max you can typically exhale is called vital capacity.2715

That is the range you have control over.2727

On so it is a lot.2730

You do not want to get rid of this but if you add together the vital capacity and residual volume that is the total volume of air that you could possibly contain in your lungs.2732

That is known as the total lung capacity.2743

This is variable in terms of the precise measurements.2746

I mention 500 ml earlier for the title volume.2750

Someone that is really petite they will be less.2755

In someone who is large and has large lungs can be a bit more.2758

Partial pressures and gases is what actually get some gas in and out of the alveolar sacs in your lungs and getting it into your lungs for that matter.2761

The major atmosphere gases if you look at the big 4 are nitrogen gas, oxygen gas, water vapor, and carbon dioxide.2774

Nitrogen gas is about 78% of the atmosphere.2783

Oxygen gas is close to 21% and the rest is these 2 and other ones that make up a tiny percentage of the atmosphere like argon.2788

Partial pressure determine how much of each gas will flow into and out of liquid from the air.2799

And it all comes down to diffusion.2807

Yes you are actively expanding the lungs and contracting them in terms of the muscles affect on expanding and contracting the lungs2809

but the movement of air in and out comes down to diffusion.2819

You are not using active transporter or ATP to drive oxygen in and to drive CO2 out.2823

It is diffusion which is that passive national process.2831

That is why it comes down to pressures.2835

If the pressure is higher here than here, the gases will go that way.2837

That comes down to gas laws that is going to drive gas to where there is less pressure.2842

And of course altitude can have a dramatic effect on pressure.2847

The reason why some people get short of breath when they go high up in the altitude is because if you look at the atmospheric pressure2851

and impartial pressures of gases, at sea level there is a lot more oxygen in terms of the pressure and the amount of oxygen that is in the atmosphere at sea level.2859

You go up and say 2000m or 4000m.2869

You are going really high in mountains.2875

There is a lot less gas specifically oxygen gas.2877

The partial pressure of oxygen at that altitude is much less.2880

The amount of oxygen that is then going into the liquid layers of the alveoli is going to be less.2884

People having take more inhalations to accommodate to get that oxygen in there.2891

That can lead to shortness of breath, lightheadedness.2899

People are more likely to pass out from having less oxygen entering their lungs.2906

Altitude is a player that makes sense in terms of partial pressures.2910

The reason why oxygen moves out of the alveoli meaning once oxygen comes into the bottom part of the respiratory tree it moves out of the alveoli into your bloodstream.2915

It is because if you look at the amount of oxygen and the capillaries that are going up into the alveolar bundles.2929

The partial pressure oxygen is greater in the alveolar sac than it is in the capillary.2937

And that is why oxygen goes to the capillary.2944

Conversely it is opposite when we look and CO2.2947

If this is an alveolar bundle and here is the capillary going right next to it and here is another capillary one right next to it.2951

CO2 pressure is going to be lower in the alveolus than it is in the capillary.2960

In the capillary CO2 pressures is greater because CO2 is that waste product you get from the cells doing aerobic respiration.2972

You want to go back to the lungs so your capillaries are taking it back in here and because the fact that the partial pressure CO2 is greater in your capillary than it is in here.2984

The CO2 is going to make its way from the capillaries into the alveoli allowing you to exhale it.2990

It is the opposite flow with oxygen because the partial pressure is flip without gas.3000

If you look at this particular graph here it shows you the different parts of the atmosphere in the body.3005

How the partial pressures work.3013

Notice with nitrogen it is almost the same through out in the atmosphere the partial pressure nitrogen is a little greater than within the body.3016

It does not change much in the body.3025

Nitrogen is such a major part of the gas that we inhale and a major part of the gas that is found in the bloodstream.3026

That is not going to change that much.3034

When you look at oxygen, look at the percentage in terms of the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere and how it gradually get some lower.3036

The partial pressure of oxygen can only drive it so far deep within the body.3043

It does get to our cells but the relative amount of oxygen that is in the cells of our body compared with the amount that is in the atmosphere is significantly less.3050

The alveolar gas that is the gas that is in the alveoli here is the partial pressures in arterial blood taking that blood to the body and heart.3060

Venus blood this is the blood going back to the heart this is a partial pressure within cells.3072

And finally some respiratory disorders and conditions.3080

Asthma is chronic bronco constriction.3085

The bronchioles in the lungs if you have problems expanding them that can lead to asthma.3088

The thing is asthma attacks happen when somebody who has that slightly more constricted bronchiole set they do physical exertion.3097

Let us say they play in a soccer game, playing a softball game and the need to get more air into their body3107

because their hearts beating faster and do more with their muscles that is when the asthma attack can happen.3114

It is not just because of physical exertion, stress can bring on an asthma attack.3119

The treatment for asthma there currently is no cure, is bronchodilators.3123

The inhalers that people use of when they have asthma or the asthma attack those inhalers they chemically causing3131

dilation of the bronchioles to get more air into the respiratory tree and they get relief from that.3142

One treatment for asthma that I have heard from some people is somebody who lives in a very urban area where the air quality is poor or next to factories,3148

They live next to where there are a lot of cars are with the exhaust coming out of the pipes.3159

If they move to more rural area, to the countryside, the air quality is a little bit better.3163

That could have positive effect on some people with asthma.3169

Their symptoms are reduced oftentimes when they do that.3173

Emphysema is the gradual deterioration of the alveolar bundles in the lungs.3176

If those little sacs get damaged and there are more spaces in the lungs, the ability to adequately get air into your bloodstream with each breath is reduced.3181

Emphysema happens because of smoking, because of inhaling smoke.3192

Usually it is trauma that is going to cause that or smoke.3196

Overtime as a person gets older you are more likely to experience symptoms of emphysema.3201

In elderly people, emphysema tends to gradually happen at least minor symptoms even if they never smoked.3208

That inevitable damage that happens over the years to lung tissue is more common the older you get.3216

Lung cancer is when you get the development of tumors in the lungs.3225

Emphysema can lead to lung cancer if the emphysema is bad enough.3231

Lung cancer is more likely to happen if you are a smoker but even people who have never smoked a day in their life can get lung cancer.3235

Lung cancer, like many cancers has the ability to spread to the parts of the body especially3245

because there are so much blood flow in the lungs and lymphatic tissue that you find all throughout the body.3251

The spreading of lung cancer to other organs is going to tend to kill a person.3258

Laryngitis and bronchitis those are irritations or infections of the larynx and the bronchioles.3265

Laryngitis and infection of the larynx is going to make your voice down like this because your voice box or your vocal folds are in the larynx.3272

Infection on that definitely has an effect on your voice or making loose your voice entirely.3284

Bronchitis is an infection a little bit further down the lower respiratory tract that is accompanied with coughing.3289

The thing with sneezing and coughing is sneezing tends to the irritation of the upper respiratory tracts.3298

Getting dust or particles into the nasal region and throat region is going to be causing you to have that sneeze.3304

In case you do not know, sneezes happen in over 100 miles per hour.3313

That is pretty fast.3317

Getting deeper irritations, production of mucus, excessive production of mucus or irritation in the lower respiratory tract is going to cause coughing.3319

That is your body's natural ability to try and get that stuff out.3331

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder.3337

If you took genetics and biology it is autosomal recessive.3340

Cystic fibrosis is when you have a problem with a certain kind of protein channel in your cells that was supposed to shuttle along an ion.3345

If you are not able to do that the accumulation of those ions or those charged atoms tends to attract water because of osmosis.3353

Cystic fibrosis leads to production of excess mucus or collection of excess mucus in organs like the pancreas and the lungs.3364

Cystic fibrosis does affect the lungs.3374

It is one of the main places that you get the negative consequences.3379

Cystic fibrosis there is no cure but there are treatments for this disease.3383

Decompression sickness also called the benz tends to happen because of dramatic altitude changes.3387

Or more commonly if a scuba diver has overly deep and they come up way too quickly to the surface.3394

Because they were down low and they had a highly compressed oxygen tank, getting oxygen in the lungs.3402

If they do not go up gradually and adjust the pressure that their body reacclimate, going up way too fast to the surface3410

is going to cause a dramatic accumulation of nitrogen gas in parts their bloodstream.3418

It can kill a person.3424

It can be very painful in terms of the accumulation of nitrogen gas in the joints.3426

If you do have somebody who gets decompression sickness or the benz, you want to take them to the hospital nearby3431

or they are going to have hyperbaric chamber that can cure the benz.3438

Some people happen too quickly too dramatically so it can result in death.3445

Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection in the lungs caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.3450

You do not see as much in first world countries and industrialized nations anymore but it does happen occasionally.3456

If this bacteria gets into the lungs and goes through a binary and the bacteria divides and moves around the lungs you can get the development of these things called tubercuoles.3463

These little sacs of bacteria and as they grow and as these bacterial colonies continue to grow, the tubercuoles can break3476

and cause bleeding or cause massive lung bleeding and that is when the coughing up of blood is associated with tuberculosis.3488

It is used to be called the red death.3495

If you do not get treatment with antibiotics early on, it can lead to death.3497

There is a test they do where they make little injection in your forearm and there is all puffy bump.3504

You go back a couple days later and if the bumps gone away that means that you have do not antibodies of tuberculosis.3510

You have never been exposed to it meaning you are not sick with it.3517

If that bump does not go away and it means you have been exposed to TB.3519

You have been exposed to tuberculosis that bacterium.3525

Just because you have been exposed to it and it is gone into your body it does not mean you have the infection.3527

To see if they actually have the tuberculosis colonies in there lungs they do a chest xray.3532

The chest xray will reveal whether or not have those little tubercules or those little sacs.3539

They appear in xray and if you have that it means you are sick with tuberculosis.3545

SIDS or sudden infant death syndrome this kills thousands of babies per year in United States alone.3550

All the answers with SIDS are not known but what they do think is that the way you place your baby in the crib3558

can have an affect on whether or not SIDS can happen but is not foolproof.3568

SIDS it typically happens when a baby has gone to sleep, they stop breathing, they turn blue and passed away.3573

They think that one of the parts of the brain and babies has to do with it is early on in an infant's life.3584

The respiratory centers associated with the medulla oblongata and the lower parts of the brain are still establishing themselves3592

With how they connect to other parts of the cerebrum and other parts of the brain.3600

And that might have something to do with it.3604

If you do have an infant child talk to the pediatrician about how to maximize the chances that the baby will not die from SIDS.3606

Pneumonia could be viral but typically bacterial infection that causes production of lots of mucus at the base of the lungs or you have those bronchioles and alveolar bundles.3616

Pneumonia can be fatal.3632

It can be cured but it does lead to death of some people.3635

It is going to tend to kill somebody who is much older, who has been a chronic smoker because as I have mentioned earlier lesson,3639

People who smoke a lot tend to damage the cilia that are meant to sweep up the excess mucus so that you do not drown in your own fluids produced down there.3647

Pneumonia has to do with basically drowning in fluids within the lungs.3657

It can be cured.3663

Pneumothorax is a leakage of air into the space between the pleura and air leaking in there can collapse a lung and that can be fatal as well.3666

Carbon monoxide poisoning or CO poisoning unlike CO2, carbon monoxide is just CO.3680

Carbon monoxide if you look at how it attaches to that hemo group, the hemoglobin molecule on red blood cells is meant to attach oxygen.3688

They want oxygen to be carried by hemo on hemoglobin because red blood cells are like little oxygen raft3699

But when you look at the affinity for CO or carbon monoxide with respect to hemo, it is like more of the magnet.3705

Carbon monoxide will attach to hemo much more efficiently than oxygen gas.3714

If there is a CO leak in someone’s house this is because there is a gas leak in one of their gas appliances or oven, whatever.3720

If all the windows are closed and there is no way for the air to leave the room, the build up of CO can gradually kill a person.3732

CO is odorless, tasteless, colorless.3741

Sometimes a CO leak will be associated with a leak of the chemical that does have a smell it is called-.3745

Fire departments they recommend that everyone gets a CO detector in their house.3752

It is not very expensive, you just plug it in one of your outlets and if there is enough CO in the air the alarm will go off and it means get out of your house and call 911.3761

It is recommended to get a CO detector because it can save lives.3772

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.3776

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